Unit One Personal Relationships All of us are involved with personal relationships. Some of these are related to family, some with fellow students or workers, and others of a variety of types. Most of these are happy, positive relationships, but not all of them, though we might wish it were not so. Oral Practice I Work in pairs to list different kinds of personal relationships. Those who get the most will be winners. Neighbors Neighbors are dearer than distant relatives Fellow team members Classmates Pop stars and fans Rivals Comrades Enemies Strangers Lovers Friends Oral Practice II • Brainstorming : Tell the class any words you know to describe the qualities of a true friend. reliable helpful honest faithful considerate thoughtful understanding generous sincere Oral Practice III Friend and friendship Who is your best friend in this new class? Describe him or her briefly. Your opinion about friend and friendship When you and your friend are both in danger, will you lay down your life for him? Having friends reflects having a good personality. The more friends you have, the better personality you have and more sociable you are. Your life will be better if you have more friends, and will be worse without friends. One needs a friend to help him or her out when difficulties occur, and one needs a friend to give emotional support in times of trouble. And what’s more, one needs a friend to offer financial support when there’s a lack of money. So in other words, one cannot be without friends in his or her life. There are different stages in friendships, starting with very casual (an acquaintance) and running the gamut to a very deep and close friendship, such as the life-long friends. When a person meets someone else for the first time, each person will not know how this new friendship will evolve. Some friendships, which are very deep while the people are living in the same community, or experiencing a similar lifestyle, such as going to the university or working for the same company, will change. When the circumstance changes, many times this friendship usually will also change because the daily contact is no longer occurring. Proverbs and Sayings Friendship in China In China most people expect their friends to help them when they are in need. There is an obligation to a friendship. We have a lot of Chinese sayings concerning friendship. Now try to translate or explain the meaning of the following Chinese proverbs and sayings. 1. 有难同当，有福共享。 People can not only share bitterness, hardship but also happiness with their friends. 2. 一个篱笆三个桩，一个好汉三个帮。 As one fence needs three stakes, a good guy needs three fellows. 3. 在家靠父母，出门靠朋友。 It is your parents that you can rely on at home, but it is your friends that you can count on when out in the society. 4. 为朋友两肋插刀 People can take any risks, even risk of their lives to help their friends in trouble. 5. 君子之交淡如水，小人之交甘如醴。 The friendship between men of virtue is like water, yet affectionate; the friendship between men without virtue is sweet like wine, yet easily broken. Friendship in the States In general, Americans have casual, friendly relationships with many people, but deeper, closer friendships with only a few. Friendship requires time and commitment. In English, we can find lots of proverbs and saying concerning friendship. Now try to translate the following ones. 1. A life without a friend is a life without a sun. 人生没有朋友，犹如生活没有了太阳。 2. In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. ---John Churton Collins 在顺境中，朋友结识了我们；在逆境中，我们了解 了朋友。 3. Youth gives love and roses; age still leaves us friends and wine. ---Thomas Moore 青春赋予了我们爱情和玫瑰，岁月带给我们朋友和 酒。 The Gift of Life Listening Activities Listening Passage: Friendship Video Clip: Lion King Forrest Gump Leisure Time: A Song Your Raise Me up Listen to a passage and answer questions: Words you need to know: acquaintance 熟人 intimate 亲密的 harmonious 和谐的 tolerate 容忍 Questions : 1. According the passage, what is the word “friend”? It covers a wide range of meanings as a classmate, a nodding acquaintance, a coworker, etc. 2. Why does everyone need friendship? We need help from, and also give help to, others. 3. Why do modern people attach more importance to friendship? As life is full of difficulties and conflict, we need friends to support and help us and give us warnings against danger. We Need Friends The word, “friends”, covers a wide range of meanings. It can be a nodding acquaintance, a classmate, a partner, a playmate, or an intimate colleague. Everyone needs friendship. No one can sail the ocean of life single-handed. We need help from, and also give help to, others. In modern times, people attach more importance to relationships and connections. As life is full of difficulties and conflict, we need friends to support and help us. Our friends give us warnings against danger. Our friends offer us advice with regard to how to deal with various situations. True friends share not only our joys but also our sorrows. With friendship, life is happy and harmonious. Without friendship, life is sad and unfortunate. With friends, we know what to treasure, what to tolerate and what to share. I will never forget my old friends and keep making new friends. I will show my concern for them, even if it is only a comforting word. • Watch the video twice and decide whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons or examples to support your judgment. Now watch the video Lion king 3.rm 1. Simba doesn’t want to leave because he wants to live in a beautiful place. (F) Reasons or examples: He wants to live his own life. 2. Great changes have taken place in Pride Rock since Mufasa’s death. (T) Reasons or examples: Everything’s destroyed. 3. Simba has forgotten his sad past. (F) Reasons or examples: Simba doesn’t want to recall his past. 4. Simba will be welcomed by everyone if he returns home. (F) Reasons or examples: They really need Simba at home. 5. Only Simba can save Pride Rock. (T) Reasons or examples: Simba is the only hope there. 6. Nala leaves Pride Rock in order to find a better place to live. (F) Reasons or examples: Nana leaves to find help. Task One Watch the video twice and take notes of the main information about each character. New words: Bulldoze: （用推土机）推平；lieutenant: 中尉 Forrest Gump a. Jenny died on ____________, and was placed __________________. Her father’s house was ____________________________. b. Little Forrest _______________________everyday, and asked his father to ______________________. c. Forrest doesn’t know if ___________ or if ________________; doesn’t know either if ________________ or if _____________, but thinks_________________________________ Forrest Gump a. Jenny died on the Saturday morning, and was placed under the tree. Her father’s house was bulldozed to the ground. b. Little Forrest combs his hair, brushes his teeth and reads a book everyday, and has asked his father to bring a letter to his mum. c. Forrest doesn’t know if Momma was right or if it’s Lieutenant Dan; doesn’t know either if we each have a destiny, or if we’re all just floating around accidental-like on a breeze, but thinks both is happening at the same time. Transcript Forrest: You died on a Saturday morning and I had you placed here under our tree. And I had that house of your father bulldozed to the ground. Mama always said that dying was a part of life. I sure wish it wasn’t . Little Forrest is doing just fine. About to start school again soon. And I make his breakfast, lunch and dinner everyday. I make sure he combs his hair and brushes his teeth everyday. Teaching him how to play ping-pong. He’s really good. (Forrest, you go.) We fish a lot. And every night, we read a book, and he’s so smart, jenny. You’d be so proud of him. I am. He, Uh, wrote you a letter, and he says I can’t read it. I’m not supposed to, I ‘ll just leave it here for you. Jenny, I don’t know if Momma was right or if, if it’s Lieutenant Dan. I don’t know if we each have a destiny, or if we’re all just floating around accidental –like on a breeze, but I , I think maybe it’s both. Maybe both is happening at the same time. I miss you, Jenny. If there’s anything you need, I wont’ be far away. Task Two Dub the voice of Forrest. Pay attention to your pronunciation and intonation. Leisure Time: A Song Your Raise Me Up Listen to the following song and fill in the blanks with the missing words. You Raise Me up ----By Westlife When I am down and, oh my soul, so ________; When troubles come and my heart _________ be; Then, I am still and wait here in the ________, Until you come and sit a while with me. You raise me up, _________________________; You raise me up, _________________________; I am strong, _____________________________; You raise me up… ________________________. (repeat) You Raise Me up ----By Westlife When I am down and, oh my soul, so weary; When troubles come and my heart burdened be; Then, I am still and wait here in the silence, Until you come and sit a while with me. You raise me up, so I can stand on mountains; You raise me up, to walk on stormy seas; I am strong, when I am on your shoulders; You raise me up… To more than I can be. Unit One Reading Activities Background Information • the Vietnam War In 1954, Vietnam became independent as two countries, the pro-Western South Vietnam and the communist North Vietnam. Attempts to unite the two countries led to the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War (1954-1975) is a long civil war between South Vietnam and the Vietcong and North Vietnam, ending in Communist victory. • The United States was fully involved in the Vietnam War, which had a deep and lasting effect on US society and on the way that Americans thought about their own country. This is shown, for example, in many films made about the war, such as Forrest Gump. At first most people supported the war, but opposition gradually increased, especially among college students and other young people, as more US soldiers were killed, and as the television news showed terrible pictures of ordinary Vietnamese people being killed and injured. There were large protest marches, many popular protest songs and sayings became popular. Military failures and loss of public support eventually forced the government to bring US forces back from Vietnam in 1973. Text Structure In-Class Reading: The Gift of Life After-Class Reading: Love Thy Neighbor The Gift of Life Part I: (para.1~2) When: in Vietnam War Where: in a small village Who: several children, including one young girl What: Bombs landed in the orphanage and some children were wounded. Part II: (para. 3-18) What happened next? • Medical help arrived and they found the young girl needed blood. (para.3) 2) Only several children had the correct blood type. (para.4) 3) Because of language barrier, they had difficulties in asking the children for blood. (para.5) 4) Heng was willing to give blood but he was always sobbing and then crying silently during the operation. (para.6 ~ Para.13) 5) Under the help of Vietnamese nurse, the Americans knew the reason. Heng thought that he would die, but he still did it because she was his friend. (para.14 ~ para.18) Part III: (para.19) meaning of the story There is no love greater than this, that person lay down his/her life for a friend. Structure: Love Thy Neighbor P1 What is out of date now in U.S.A.? ︱ P2 What are changing ? ︱ P3 What’s people’s attitude toward their neighbors now? ︱ P4 What’s the best relationship with neighbors? ︱ P5 Why neighborhoods haven’t changed if their neighbors changed? ︱ P6 Why is a community probably a better unit? (What’s the difference between a community and a neighborhood?) Unit One Translating & Writing Activities Translating Activities Criteria for Translation Translation Practice Criteria for translation Speaking of translation, we tend to think of Yan Fu who advocated for the first time the three words as translation criteria, namely, “faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance.” Mr. Lu Xun, the greatest modern Chinese writer proposed “faithfulness” and “smoothness” as translation standards and attached importance to the preservation of the original flavor. Translation Practice Task One: Read the words of a song “ Lean on Me”, which was sung at Clinton’s inauguration(总统就职仪式). Then translate the song from English into Chinese. Lean on Me Sometimes in our lives we all have pain, we all have sorrow But if we are wise, we know that there’s always tomorrow. Lean on me when you’re not strong And I’ll be your friend, I’ll help you carry on For it won’t be long, till I’m going to need Somebody to lean on. Please swallow your pride if I have faith you need to borrow For no on can fill those of your needs that you won’t let show. You just call on me, brother, when you need a hand We all need somebody to lean on. I just might have a problem that you’ll understand We all need somebody to lean on. Lean on Me 依靠我吧 Sometimes in our lives we all have pain, we all have sorrow 生活中我们会有痛苦，会有悲伤 But if we are wise, we know that there’s always tomorrow 然而，聪明的我们明白总有明天（可指望） Lean on me when you’re not strong 当你脆弱时，来依靠我吧 And I’ll be your friend, I’ll help you carry on 我会成为你的朋友，会助你继续向前 For it won’t be long, till I’m going to need 因为不会很久，我也会需要 Somebody to lean on. 有个人依靠 Please swallow your pride if I have faith you need to borrow 假如我的诚信你需要，请收起你的骄傲 For no on can fill those of your needs that you won’t let show. 因为没人能满足你那不表露的需要。 You just call on me, brother, when you need a hand 要帮忙时，找我就是了，兄弟 We all need somebody to lean on. 我们都需要有个人靠一靠。 I just might have a problem that you’ll understand 也许我有个问题正好你明白 We all need somebody to lean on. 我们都需要有个人靠依靠。 Translation Practice Task Two Translate the following sentences into appropriate Chinese 1. Sino-Japanese relations are in the balance. 中日关系处于不稳定状态。 2. This book could not have been written or published without the help of dozens of people, and I am deeply grateful to all of them. 这本书的写作和出版曾得到许多位友人的各种帮助,谨此一深表谢意。 3. Their request was met with wide-eyed silence. 对医生和护士的请求，孩子瞪大眼睛，一声不吭。 4. It is universally acknowledged that a single man of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. 凡是有钱的单身汉，总要娶位太太，这已经成了举世公认真理。 5. She was a woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper. 她是个智力贫乏，不学无术，喜怒无常的女人。 Task Three Translate the following sentences into appropriate English. 1. 国民生产总值稳步增长。 There is a steady increase in Gross National Product. 2.他回过头去看到了那个美女，他睁大了眼,嘴里留着口水 （用独立主格结构翻译） He turned around and saw that beauty, his eyes opened widely and his mouth watering. 3.他们采取快速行动阻止了恐怖袭击。 They took immediate action to stop the terrorist attack. 4.除了偶尔有阵雨，天气不错。 The weather is good except for the occasional shower. 5. 计划是否成功还拿不准。 The success of the plan hangs in the balance. Writing Activities Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic “Friends”. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese: 朋友对我们非常重要。 交友之道。 交友不能失去自我。 Friends We all know how important friends are in our lives. Friends support us when we need encouragement, take our side, and advise us on important decisions. Our worries are lessened and joys are intensified with friends. To make friends we need to be honest and sincere. Lies may win us temporary friends, but the relationship will not last long. We should be able to be ourselves with our friends - that's actually where the true value of friendship lies. Moreover, we should be willing to help when needed. Friendship is just like a flower that needs watering and careful nurturing. It's easy for a person who's weak-minded to lose himself in an intimate relationship. Don't let that happen to you. Maintain your independence, and help your friend maintain his, for great friendship helps you find and build up yourself instead of submerging in it.