The Inclusive
Classroom: Strategies
for Effective
Differentiated
Instruction
By
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Margo A. Mastropieri
Thomas E. Scruggs
Blanche Jackson Glimps,
Contributor
0
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessment
Chapter 13
1
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives
2
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Describe the use of norm-referenced tests, competency-based
assessments, teacher-made tests, and criterion-referenced tests in
inclusive settings.
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Identify and implement strategies to modify test formats to meet the
needs of students with disabilities.
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Compare and contrast curriculum-based measurement, performance
assessment, and portfolio assessment and their applications for
students with special needs.
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Describe specific test-taking strategies for taking standardized tests,
and how these strategies can be taught.

Design and implement strategies for taking teacher-made tests.

Identify procedures and rationales for modifying grading and scoring
of tests for students with special needs.
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tests
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Provide information relevant to placement,
instruction, and future career decisions
Used increasingly to evaluate performance of
schools
Curriculum-based measurement has increasingly
been recommended tor use in RTI programming
In order to be used effectively, teachers must:
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Be aware of different types of tests
Purposes they serve
How they can be used
How to interpret
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Testing Terms
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Standardized
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Summative
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Test consistently measures what it says it measures
Validity
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Test at frequent intervals so student progress can be evaluated
Reliability
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Refers to tests given at the end of a particular educational period
Formative
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All students take the test under the same conditions with the
same administration
Extent to which test measures what it is intended to measure
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Tests
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Norm-referenced
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Criterion-referenced
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Requires students to construct responses on real world tasks
Portfolio
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5
Formative in nature characterized by frequent, direct measurements of
critical school behaviors
Performance
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Procedures to evaluate student performance in relation to school
curriculum
Curriculum-based measurement
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Performance is compared to specific, specified criteria
Curriculum-based assessment
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Student performance is compared with performance of other students
Consists of student products collected over time
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Administering
Norm-Referenced Tests
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Students with special needs may exhibit difficulties that
limit reliability and validity of scores
Problems for students may include language or
communication style, length of testing, attention
difficulties, reading difficulties
Students with disabilities may not be in the test’s
standardization sample
Some tests may not be fair to students from some
cultural backgrounds
Substantive deviations from standard administration
procedures limits usefulness of test
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Test Modifications
Teaching test taking skills
Preparing with practice
tests
Altering timing/schedule of
test
Extending time limits
Spreading test over several
shorter time sessions
Changing the setting
Testing individually
Altering test presentation
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7
Simplifying
language/directions
Providing prompts and
feedback
Allowing teacher to read
tests and turn pages
Proving assistive
technology. audiotaped,
large-print, or Braille
Changing response format
Allowing circling vs. filling in
bubbles
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The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Administration Strategies
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Use individually administered tests
Teach test-taking skills
Increase motivation
Improve examiner familiarity
Request modifications for college entrance exams
such as
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Small group or private room
Extended time
Large type
Alternative test form with accommodations noted on IEP
Reader or recorder
Magnifying glass or 4 function calculator
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Competency-Based and
Statewide Assessment
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9
Statewide competency testing helped develop
common standards for educational attainment
and established educational accountability
Allowing adaptations for special needs while
maintaining standardization is important
Done through consultation with test developers or
educational agencies
IDEA requires individual student IEPs to provide
testing accommodations for state, district, and
teacher-made tests
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Test Accommodations
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Accommodations better allow some students to
demonstrate what they know
Should not change the nature of the test
Focus is now on the test validity of the accommodation
State policy determines accommodations
Recent policies support the use of
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Less state consensus on the use of
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10
Technology
Extended time limit in appropriate cases
Calculators
Reading questions aloud
Spell checkers
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Linguistically Based
Accommodations
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11
Familiar language
Repeating directions
Teaching the language of testing
Translating tests
Allowing responses in different languages
or dialects
Providing translators
Bilingual materials
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Alternate Assessments
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12
When standard statewide assessments are not
appropriate for students with disabilities, it may
be possible to arrange for alternate assessment
based on alternate standards
All states have developed alternate assessments
States can also develop alternate assessments
based upon modified achievement standards for
students unlikely to meet grade-level proficiency
within the IEP year
To date, few states have developed these assessments
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modifications on GED Tests
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Tests of General Educational Development (GED)
are intended to evaluate the knowledge and skills
acquired from a 4 year high school program, but
acquired in a different manner
Modifications include
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Audiocassette edition
Large print version
Calculators
Extended time
Frequent breaks
Use of a private testing room
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classroom Tests
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14
Classroom test scores represent a significant
component of student grades
Helping students be successful in dealing with
the challenges of testing is critical to promoting
student success
Be careful to ensure that modifications are
having the desired effect of accommodating the
student’s disability
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modify Test Formats
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Prepare typewritten rather than handwritten
tests
Space items to reduce interference
Provide space for students to respond on test
Provide items in predicable hierarchy
Administer more tests with fewer items, rather
than fewer, longer tests
Adjust reading level of items or provide reading
assistance when not testing reading
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modify Test Formats (cont.)
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Define unfamiliar or abstract words if meaning is
not being tested
Provide models of correctly answered items
Change the test setting for students with special
needs
Allow more time for test completion for specific
students
Allow students to dictate responses or to use
communicate boards in responding
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modify Specific Formats
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True-false items
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Multiple-choice tests
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Provide choice of answers for student to circle rather than fill in
the blank
Essay
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Reduce number of overall items and place list on one page
Short-answer
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Reduce number of options
Limit number of confusing options like (a) and (b) but not (c)
Matching
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Write out words true and false
Avoid double negatives
Describe what you want to see in the essay
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modify Scoring Procedures
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For students who have spelling and grammar
difficulty, it is probably unnecessary to penalize
them if they are doing all they can to improve
Consider grading on spelling, grammar, and
neatness separately from actual mastery of the
content, and ascribing less weight to these areas
Reconsider giving partial credit for answers that
are incorrect, but demonstrate some knowledge
of the content covered
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Curriculum-Based
Measurement
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Developed to document student progress
through the curriculum
Standardized set of procedures for administration
Includes sampling test items from classroom curricula,
administering under same conditions, summarizing test
information, and using information in instructional
decision
Focus on a long-term curricular goal, often by
the end of the year
Test domain remains constant from beginning of
year to end
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Apply CBM to Monitor Learning
Progress
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Visual representation of data for individuals
or groups
Use of data for instructional decisions
Repeated measure of student progress
Recommended for use in RTI programs
Response to instruction measured formatively as
a guide to evaluation or summatively as an aid
to placement decisions
Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
The
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Performance Assessment
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Addresses students’ ability to interact
appropriately with instructional materials and
the content of instruction
Relies on students’ demonstration of
understanding
Elements of portfolio assessment include:
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Defined purpose
A task to elicit the performance
A prompt for a response that focuses the examinee’s
performance
A systematic way of evaluating the performance
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Key Elements of
Performance Assessments
1.
2.
3.
22
Students construct their own responses
Teachers can observe student
performance on tasks reflecting real-world
or authentic requirements
Student responses can reveal patterns in
students’ thinking and learning
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Implement and Adapt
Performance Assessment
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Determine what you want students to be
able to do after instruction and state as a
behavioral objective
Set up materials and provide opportunity
for student to perform on the test
Score by using a rubric that lists test items
and scoring criteria
Can be holistic or analytic
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Portfolio Assessment
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24
A systematic and organized collection of evidence
used by the teacher and student to monitor
growth of the student’s knowledge, skills, and
attitudes
Collect and organize relevant products to
document performance and progress in areas of
behavior and academic functioning
Can be collected and stored electronically
Can be tailored to specific needs of the
classroom, student, or curriculum
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Adapt Portfolio Assessment
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Used to document the performance of students
referred to special education
Used in developing alternate assessments
Useful in situations where more traditional tests
may not be appropriate
Enhanced portfolio and performance assessments
used to document adapted grade level content
standards for statewide testing for students with
significant cognitive disabilities
Consult individual states for specific procedures
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessment Portfolios and ELL
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26
Defined as the systematic collection of student work
measured against predetermined scoring criteria
determined by the school district
Allows for breath of evaluation and inclusion of English
Language Learners (ELLs) within the high-stakes testing
of districts
Challenges include:
Limited reliability and comparability across classes/grade
levels
Standardized administration procedures for all work is
difficult
Can provide an important complement to more traditional
measures
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teaching Test-Taking Skills
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Tests can measure student skills at testtaking
Teach general test-preparation strategies
Teach students to prepare academically
and physically
Teach anxiety reduction strategies
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27
Encourage positive attributions
Recognize signs of tension and respond consciously by
relaxing muscles and controlling breathing
Teach test-taking and study skills
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
General Strategies for
Standardized Tests
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Separate answer sheets
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Use elimination strategies
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28
Guessing is better than leaving an answer blank
Use time wisely
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an
Eliminate response options they know are incorrect
Guess when appropriate
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Practice filling in the bubble
Use time efficiently on familiar items, don’t waste time
on answers they are unlikely to answer correctly
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Specific Strategies for
Standardized Tests
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29
Reading Comprehension
Decoding
Mathematics computation
Mathematics concepts
Mathematics problem-solving
Science and social studies
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Strategies for Teacher-made
Tests
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30
Objective
Written
sentence-completion and short answer: encourage
students to provide some answers even if partially
correct
Essay: Use strategies, such as SNOW, to facilitate test
performance
SNOW (study the question, note important points,
organize the information, write directly to the point
of the question)
Performance
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
SCORER Test-Taking Strategies
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SCORER represents clue words to help
students perform better during testing
situations
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31
Schedule time
Clue words
Omit hard items
Read carefully
Estimate answers
Review work
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
PIRATES Test-Taking
Strategies
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32
PIRATES a seven-step strategy designed to help
students perform better on teacher-made tests
 Prepare to succeed
 Inspect the instructions
 Read, remember, reduce
 Answer or abandon
 Turn back
 Estimate
 Survey
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
ANSWER Test-Taking
Strategies
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ANSWER is designed to assist students
with essay type exams
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33
Analyze the situation
Notice requirements
Set up an outline
Work in details
Engineer your answer
Review your work
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Strategies
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34
Require students to:
Identify when the strategy is required
Retrieve the steps in the strategy
Correctly apply the strategy
Have repeated exposure to, and practice with,
each strategy in order to learn to use it
effectively
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Modify Grading Procedures

There is no one “right” way to issue report cards
to students with disabilities. Suggestions for
alternatives include:
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35
Consulting school and district policy
Following recommendations on IEP
Making no grade modifications at all
Using a pass-fail system
Using a double-standard approach
Contracting
Personal grading plans
The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E.
Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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