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Laws, policies and trends
in a multicultural perspective
Group presentation in SNE4110
Group VUGESK
Group members
• Ethiopia
• Spain
• Georgia
• Uganda
• Kenya
• Vietnam
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Presentation Outline
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Presentation
Comments and questions by other groups
Comments and question by lecturers
Intermision
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Agenda
Time
Topic
10.20 –
11.05
- Introduction
-Each country to present brief information (in alphabetical
order by country for presentation: Ethiopia; Georgia: Kenya;
Spain; Uganda; Vietnam)
-Followed by questions and answers (if any)
11.05 –
11.15
BREAK
11.15 –
12.00
-Laws, policies and trends in a multicultural perspective
-Followed by questions and answers (if any)
12.00 –
12.15
BREAK
12.15 –
13.15
- National and international commitments and trends
- Current status of services and programs for CwDs
- Early interventions
- International framework for action
- Needs
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- Discussions, questions and
comments
Facilitator
All group
members
All group
members
All group
members
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Our countries - Overview
• Ethiopia
• Spain
• Georgia
• Uganda
• Kenya
• Vietnam
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Ethiopia
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Ethiopia is Africa’s oldest
Independent country. Apart from a
five year occupation by Mussolini
(Italy), it has never been colonized.
But the country is better known for its
periodic droughts and famine, its long
civil conflict and a boarder war with
Eritrea.
Population: 74.2 million (UN, 2005)
Capital: Addis Ababa
Area: 1.13 million sq km (437,794 sq
miles)
Major languages: Amharic, Oromo,
Tigrinya, Somali
Major religions: Christianity, Islam
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Background data
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Life expectancy: 46 years (men), 49 years (women) (UN)
GNI per capita: US $160 (World Bank, 2006)
Population growth (annual %) 1.9
Life expectancy at birth, total (years) 42.5
Fertility rate, total (births per woman) 5.4
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) 110.4
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000) 166.4
Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months) 71.0
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group) 50.6
School enrollment, primary (% gross) 77.0
School enrollment, secondary (% gross) 27.8
School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) 2.5
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) 72.8
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Georgia - საქართველო
• Population: 4, 474,404 million
• Official languages: Georgian
(own alphabet)
• Capital: Tbilisi
• Annual population growth rate:
1%
• Major religion: Orthodox
Christianity
• GNI per capita (Atlas method)
(current US$) 1,060. (in 2004)
• Life expectancy: women:77
years and men: 69 years.
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Background data
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Types of schools: Primary, secondary and tertiary .
Special schools.
Literacy rate: (adults) 98.9% in 1998
Gross enrolment ratio (GRT) 89% in 1989 (These do not include children
with disabilities)
Life expectancy in Georgia: 69 years for men and 77 for women.
No accurate statistical data on the disabled children in Georgia, but several
trends can be indicated. The number of disabled children is on the increase.
Congenital diseases account for most of the disabilities( approx. 80%)
UNICEF registered 10,772 disabled children in Georgia
There is no necessary and reliable information on the conditions of these
children.
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Kenya
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Country : The Republic of Kenya
The government : Coalition
Capital : Nairobi
Population: 34,707,817
;approximately 10% lives with some
type of disability or impairment
(WHO)
Population below poverty line: 50%
GDP rate :5.2%
Unemployed : 40 %
Religion : Christianity, Islam
Hinduism , African traditional religion
Official languages: English and
Kiswahili
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Background data
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Total fertility rate :4.91 children born per woman
Birth rate: 39.72 births /1,000 population
Growth rate: 2.57 %
Death rates: 14.02 / 1000 population
Infant mortality rate total :59.26 deaths per 1,000 live births ;male
_6.92, female_56.54
• Literacy definition :age 15 and over can read and write; total
population:85.1 %
• Education system: 8-4-4
• General Data on SNE
– 10% of the population has a disability.
– 25% are the school going age.
– Out of 750,000, an estimated 90,000 identified and assessed.
– 14,614 are enrolled in SNE programs
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Spain
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Population: 44 395 286
inhabitants (2006)
Annual population growth rate:
0,65% (2005)
Area: 506 000 Km²
Capital: Madrid
Political: Parliamentary monarchy
GNI per capita: US $ 27 542
(2005)
Life expectancy: 75,9 years (men)
/ 82,8 years (women)
Mortality rate infant: 4 (per 1000
live births)
Official languages: Spanish. (Also
Catalan, Galician and Euskera)
Religion: 80 % Catholics / 12 %
atheist and agnostics
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Background data
• Illiteracy rate: 2% (older than 15 years)
• Rate of persons with dissabilities: 9% (3 528 222 inhabitants)
• Disability by type:
– Mobility
809 383
– Visual
697 778
– Hearing
665 479
– Autonomy 561 830
– Learning 335 426
– Behavioral 338 519
– Speech
190 264
– Others
2 921 641
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Uganda
Population: Estimated over 28 million persons
(2006)
2005 27.8million, growing at 3.5
• Life expectancy is 45 – 50 years
• Tentative Infant Mortality rate was 80.2 per
1000 live births
• Total fertility rate 7.1 (2006)
Source: www.ubos.org
Language
Official language: English
Other local language as many as the districts
Sign language
Political: Establish as the Republic of Uganda
Source: www.nyulawglobal.org
Economic
GNI/capital 250.0 (2005)
9.2 million (38%) below the poverty line
Religion: Catholic, Anglicans, Muslims,
Pentecostal and Others
International Participation: Uganda has
committed herself on the following United
Nations Convention on Human Rights
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Background data
• Children less than 15 years of age 49% of the population
• Children below 18 years of age 56% of the population
• Literacy rate was 65% (10 years and above)
Data on special needs
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Both Inclusive and Special Education
Recognition of sign language as a media of instruction in school.
Persons with disability take more than 10% of the total population
Primary school enrollment of children with disabilities estimates
170,893
Mentally challenged (45,425) Visually impaired (40,316)
Hearing Impaired (48,354) Physically Impaired (39,049) and
Orphaned children (42,802)
• Recognition of sign language as a media of instruction in school.
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Vietnam
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Capital: Hanoi
Government: Communism
Population: 84,238 (Mid-2005)
Population growth (annual %): 1.0
GNI (current US$): 44.6 billion
GNI per capita (current US$): 540.0
Life expectancy: 70.3
Infant mortality rate:17.4 per 1,000
live births
Mortality rate, under-5 per 1,000: 23.2
54 ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet): nearly
90%, 53 other: over 10%.
Official language: Vietnamese
Main religions: Buddhism (which
fuses forms of Taoism and
Confucianism), Christianity
(Catholicism and Protestantism.
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Background data
General education in Vietnam
• Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group): 100.8 (2003)
• School enrollment, primary (% gross): 98.0
• School enrollment, secondary (% gross): 73.5
• School enrollment, tertiary (% gross):10.2
• Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%): 94.3
• Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above): 90.3
SNE related data (No fixed number)
(Survey data of MOLISA)
• Number of PwDs (in 2003): ~ 5.3 million(~6.63% of total population)
(WHO) Number of PwDs is approximately 10% of the population (~8.3 million)
• Nearly 8 percent of Vietnamese households with PwDs, most of which are poor.
(MOET) School-aged CwDs: nearly 1 million
(WHO): 1.2 million CwDs
• ~ 230,000 CD go to school, account for 24.22%[1].
• SNE teacher training institutions: 4 universities, 3 pre-education teacher training colleges
and 7 provincial colleges.
• ~105 SNE schools/centres, 10 of which changed to SNE resource centres.
• ~ 2,500 schools with inclusive settings.
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[1] Monitoring Report on the Implementation of the Ordinance on the PwDs by National
Assembly Committee of Social Issues, June 20
2006
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One more issue
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The effects of the Agent Orange (AO)/dioxin
used by the US during the war in Vietnam.
Over 72 million liters of toxic chemicals in
Southern Vietnam, 44 million liters containing
the agent orange composed of 170 kg of
dioxin (from 1961 to 1971)– a deadly
chemical that causes genetic changes like
cancer and birth deformities in the affected
people.
All these can be passed down to the victims’
next generations, again causing numerous
severe diseases such as paralysis, mental
retardation, blindness, deafness and
deformities.
About 2 million people directly affected by the
agent orange and about 200,000 affected
children.
On 24 July 1998, the Red Cross Society of
Vietnam established the Agent Orange
Victims Protection Fund to help alleviate the
consequences of the agent orange. ((White
book of Human rights in Vietnam – MOF)
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EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE,
SOCIAL WELFARE, AND HUMAN
RIGHTS
Law and Policies
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Education
Ethiopia
Georgia
Kenya
- Ethiopian Education and
Training Policy(TGE,1994)
- Education Sector
Development Program – I & II
(MOE,1997&2002)
- and several other documents
reflect the commitment of the
Ethiopian government towards
the provision of to primary
Education(1-8 grade), and high
quality and relevant Education.
•Constitution of Georgia
•The State program of
Education Reforms confirmed
by the Georgian Government
in 1995.
•The Law on General
Education which introduced
inclusive education.
• Law on Universal Primary
Education (UPE)
• Free and compulsory
primary education
• Children Act: Articles 28 and
29, _every child has a right to
education....It is the
responsibility of the
government and family to
provide education to the
child.
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Education
Spain
Uganda
Spanish Constitution Section.
27
1.Everyone has the right to
education. Freedom of teaching
is recognized.
2.Education shall aim at the
full development of human
personality with due respect for
democratic principles of
coexistence and for basics
rights and freedom.
Law on the rights to education
Organic Education Law. (LOE
2/2006 3 May) Section 1.
1.Spanish Educative System
is inspired in the next principles:
a)Quality Education for all the
students, indepently of their
conditions and circumstances.
b)Equality, that guarantees the
equalization of opportunities,
the educative inclusion and the
non-discrimination (…).
•Child Statute: Section 6:11 “
The child has a right to
education and guidance.
•Constitution: Article 3:1”
Persons with Disabilities have a
right to respect and dignity and
the State and the Society shall
take appropriate measures to
ensure that they realize their full
mental and physical potentials
•University and other tertiary
institution Act (2001): Section
28 ”… Admission Committee
shall take into consideration
affirmative action in favor of
marginalized groups…”
•UNISE Act which establishes
the institute for teachers,
personnel for SNE.
• UPE Policy
• Inclusive Education Policy
• USE Policy
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Vietnam
•SRV’s Consititution 1992. Art 35, Art.59
•Law on the Universalization of Primary
Education 1991: Article 1 and Article 11
•Law on Education 1998 and Revised Law
on Education 2005: Chapter III. Section 3.
Article 58. School for disabled people.
•The Law on Protection, Care and
Education of Children (1991) - Article 6
•Ordinance on PwDs -1998:Chapter III.
Education for CwDs.
• Prime Minister’s decision: Mobilise
CwDs to go to school: 50% in 2005 and
70% in 2010
• Regulations on Inclusive Education for
CwDs being finalised.
•Directive 01-2006/CT-TTg by the Prime
Minister dated 06/01/06 on Rights to
Educational Opportunities for CwDs, a
NAP on Education for CwDs developed
and to be submitted by the MOET 25
Health Care
Ethiopia
Georgia
Kenya
• Health policy (September
1993).This policy explicitly
states that special attention
will be given to the health
needs of the family,
particularly to women and
children
•The Ethiopian government
had established Disaster
Prevention and Preparedness
Commission (DPPC) to
monitor trends of disasters
related to
food shortage and other
unusual events that needs
massive intervention.
• The primary principles and
intention of the health sector
according to the health policy
is to prevent likely happenings
before it comes to reality
- The Law on Health (Ministry
of Labor, Health and Social
affairs of Georgia)
•Children Act: every child has
a right to health (Article 24 of
UNCRC), the responsibility of
the government and the
parent ---a child with disability
should have access to
medical care.....
In reality, medical care is as
good as long as you can pay.
(Horizon magazine –2006)
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Health Care
Spain
Uganda
Vietnam
Spanish Constitution. Section
41.
The public authorities shall
maintain a public Social
Security system for all citizens
guaranteeing adequate social
assistance (…)
The 1996 Child Statute: Article
35 section 6:1
“The State shall have the duty
to have the child examined to
find out the type and the
extent of the disability as early
as possible. The child can
then be given facilities to help
him/ her live a as normal a
life as possible.”
National Health Policy:
Disability Desk in the
Ministry of Health
•Decree 55/199/ND-CP (July
10, 1999) -PwDs have the
rights to health care, social
insurance, the use of
orthopedic rehabilitation
equipments, financial support
and free health care and
medical treatment.
•In June 2005, the
Government decided that all
children under 6 years old
could be given free health
insurance cards.
Health’s General Law (LGS
14/1986 25 April)
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SOCIAL WELFARE
Ethiopia
Georgia
Kenya
.The constitution, child right
convention, the
developmental social
welfare policy and the
Education and training
Policy refer to the welfare of
children with disabilities.
•The Law of Georgia on
Social Welfare for disabled
people( The Law N 756-11c)
covers all aspects of
everyday life and in the
case of successfully
implementation the disabled
people of Georgia will be
well protected. But there are
discrepancies between the
law and reality.
•Children Act: every child
has a right to health (Article
24 of UNCRC)_the
responsibility of the
government and the parent
---a child with disability
should have access to
medical care.....
•In reality, medical care is
as good as long as you can
pay.
•(Horizon magazine –2006).
•Public Health Act ; Children
Act 2001 cap 586 , To
promote and provide quality,
curative, primitive and
rehabilitative health care
services to all Kenyan
children.
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• On October 16, 1996 the
Parliament of Georgia
ratified the Geneva
Convention on Social Policy
Goals and Norms. One of
the priorities of the
document VUGESK
is social
protection of the persons
SOCIAL WELFARE
Spain
Legal policies related to social
welfare for persons with
dissabilities are based on the
Dissabilities person’s social
integration’s Law (LISMI 13/1982
7 April) and on Law of
Equalization of Opportunities
(51/2003 2 December).
Also exists a White book for the
Attention to persons in a
dependence’s situation (23
December 2004)
Uganda
•Ministry of Gender, Labor and
Social Development – Minister of
State for Disability and Elderly.
•Local Government Act (2001)
provides for Welfare OfficeDistrict Rehabilitation Officer.
• The Disability Act by Parliament
2006.
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Vietnam
-On 30/071998, the Standing
Committee of the National
Assembly of SRV passed the
Ordinance on PwDs, coming
into force from 1 November
1998.
- Followed by the establishment
of the National Coordinating
Council on Disability of Vietnam
(NCCD), on disability issues.
-Decree 55/199/ND-CP (July
10, 1999) and Circular
13/2000/TT – BLDTBXH (May
12,2000) of MOLISA
-Decree 28/CP (April 29, 1995)
• Decree 25/2001/ND-Cp (May
31 2001) on the establishment
and operation of social
protection centres.
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HUMAN RIGHTS
Ethiopia
•.The civil and political rights of
the child and right of the child to
basic freedoms has been
recognized in Ethiopia as a
constitutional principle since
1955
•.The charter of the transitional
government endorsed the
universal declaration of human
rights
•.The transitional government of
Ethiopia adopted and ratified the
convention on the right of the
child following its ratification by
the council of representatives
and became part of the legal
system of the country
•.The charter of the transitional
government has brought about
fundamental changes in the
area of basic freedom and
human rights.
Georgia
•Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, ratified by
Georgia
•Constitution of Georgia.
• In 1994 Georgia signed the
Convention of the Rights of the
child
•Creation of International Center
of Children’s Right Protection
(Financed by World Bank)
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Kenya
•- African Charter adopted in
1981
•Disability Act.
•Laws intended as instruments
of social engineering avenues
have not been explicit in
addressing their human rights.
This has reduced participation in
social, cultural, political
opportunities that are available
in the country.
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HUMAN RIGHTS
Spain
Uganda
•Spanish Constitution. Section
10.2. Provisions relating to the
fundamental rights and liberties.
shall be construed in conformity
with the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and international
treaties and agreements thereon
ratified by Spain.
•Exists a Human Rights Office in
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
•United Nations’s Framework
• Council of Europe:
-The European Convention on
Human Rights (1950)
-European Social Letter (1951)
-European Convention for the
Prevention of Torture and
Inhuman or Degrading Treatment
or Punishment (1987)
-Framework Convention for the
Protection of National Minorities
•The Constitution:
–National Objectives
and Directive Principles
– Article 21 and 35
Affirmative Action
•The Uganda’s Human Rights
Commission.
•The Equal Opportunities
Commission.
•The Council on Disability Act
(2005)
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Vietnam
The Constitution of 1959, 1980
and 1992 all have
regulations to protect the
rights of PWDs.
On 23 June 1994, Viet Nam's
National Assembly passed a
new Labour Code with four
sections that advocate the
employment of PWDs.
On 29 June 1997, Ordinance on
PwDs includes 9 chapters
and 47 sections aimed at
systemizing and
institutionalizing existing
documents for the rights of
PWDs
Vietnam was also among the first
countries in Asia to ratify the
UN Convention on the
Rights of the Child in 1990.
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Similarities & Differences
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Common laws and policies in our countries
Law
Policy
•The Constitution
•The Law on Education
•The Law on Children – named differently
in different countries with the same target
group.
•Georgia: The Law of Children’s welfare is
being prepared (to be finished in 2008)
•The legislative documents on the Persons
with Disability – named differently in
different countries.
–Ethiopia: The Law on Disability.
– Kenya and Uganda : PwDs Act
– Vietnam: The Ordinance on PwDs
–Spain: The Law on Social Integration
of PwDs
–Georgia: The Law on Social Welfare
of PwDs.
•The national policy for providing special
needs education
–- In Georgia, the policy only deals with
special schools.
–- Vietnam is finalizing the policy.
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Different laws and policies in our countries
Country
Ethiopia
Georgia
Law
Policy
X
.The development and social
welfare policy 1996 declares that
protecting and ensuring the healthy
development of children deserves
special attention
•Deinstitutionalization policy
X
Kenya
Spain
X
-The Law on Elimination of Physical
barriers (15/1995 30 May)
The Law on Rights to Education
(8/1985 3 July)
-The Law for the patrimonial
protection for disabilities persons
(41/2003 18 Nov)
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White book for the Attention to
persons in a dependence’s situation
(23 December 2004)
-European Letter of Child’s Right
(Resolution A 3-0172/92)
-Green book for the Accessibility in
Spain (29 October 2003)
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Different laws and policies in our countries
Country
Uganda
Vietnam
Law
Policy
•University and other tertiary institution Act
(2001) Section 28”… Admission
Committee shall take into consideration
affirmative action in favor of marginalized
groups…”
•Parliamentary Elections Statute (1996)
•The Local Government (amended) Act
2001
•Uganda Traffic & Road Safety Act (1998)
•UNISE Act (1998)
•The Uganda Communication Act (1998)
•The Land Act (1998) Section28
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Ordinance on PwDs concerning all the
related issues of PwDs, which is
implemented and reinforced by legal
documents and instruction.
Directive by the Prime Minister on
Strengthening the implementation of
policies concerning PwDs taking
into consideration of current socioeconomic development status
(dated 09/01/06)
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Adaptation of laws and policies
Reasons for why we should adapt any of the laws in each
other’s country
Ethiopia
Law on inclusion
Georgia
Georgia has no policy on SNE/Inclusive Education
Kenya
Law on Social Welfare
Spain
Law on Protection for PwDs
Uganda
Law on Compulsory and Universal Education
Law on Social Welfare
Vietnam
Law on Social Welfare
How to reinforce the current laws is the most urgent and more
important?
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SERVICES AND PROGRAMES
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Common services and programes
in our countries
•Advocacy and lobbying
•Early Intervention Service
•Special Education services and programs
•Habilitation and Rehabilitation
•Training teachers in SNE
•Community-based training program.
•Vocational Training
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Services and programs in each country
Ethiopia
•.Adult Literacy
•.Vocational Education Training Program
•.Medical Services for disabled person
•.Physiotherapy-orthopedic
•.Pension service
•.Educational assessment resources Services
•.Rehabilitation and Habilitation
•.Human Rights Society
Georgia
•State Program: Attestation of Georgian Pedagogical Staff. (Financed by World Bank)
•Deinstitutionalization program (the pilot project)
•Introduction to inclusive education( from 2002 by UNICEF)
•2006-2010 Program of Cooperation between UNICEF and the Government of
Georgia, launched 11 April, 2006 targets the most vulnerable children in Georgia and
will support the implementation of adequate social policies and structures to address
their needs.
Kenya
HIV/ AIDS campaign program,
National Malaria Control Programmes,
Reproductive Health Programme (family planning);
CBR and other NGO Programmes for PWDs
Immunization services;
Habilitation and Rehabilitation services;
Educational Assessment and Resource Services (EARS)
Guidance and Counselling VUGESK
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Services and programs in each country
Spain
Committed for Social Protection.(2000)
National Action plans for the Social Inclusion (2005-2006)
Communitarian Action Program Against Social Exclusion (2002-2006)
National Program against Social Exclusion (2005-2006)
Programs for the Universal accessibility for persons with disabilities.
Early Interventions Services.
Rehabilitation and Integration Services.
Services for the Professional Formation of Persons with disabilities.
Programs for the Work Integration.
(Ministry of Work and Social Services and National Institute of Social Service)
Uganda
Rehabilitation programs (CBR) by government and NGOs
Immunization campaign program by government mainly
Conventional/ In-service training for the teachers/ other personnel in special needs
Educational Assessment Programs decentralized
Vocational Training/ resettlement package scheme
Adult Literacy program (FAL)
Vietnam
- Social assistance in their communities or social protection centres (Assisting PwDs with living
allowances)
-Community-based rehabilitation centres and provide training for families with PwDs.
-People with severe disabilities receive orthopedic rehabilitation operations.
-Education: inclusive/semi-inclusive and special schools.
-Vocational training
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-Job creation for PwDs
Early intervention services
Ethiopia
.Pre and postnatal services to expectant mothers
.Immunization
.Family planning program
.NGOs Activities
Georgia
Prenatal and postnatal services for expectant mothers
Family planning program
NGOs activities
Kenya
Educational intervention services
Medical intervention
Rehabilitation;
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Early intervention services
Spain
White book for the Early Intervention:
Early intervention in Spain includes intervention in 3 different areas (Health / Education /
Social services) and its main objective is the treatment of special needs education the sooner
as possible for these children that present some barriers to learning and development and for
these who could be present this barriers.
This services are based in some basic principles:
•Dialogue, Integration and participation.
•Equalization of opportunities, universality and public responsibility.
•Coordination of work between the different intervention areas and personnel training
Early intervention services works on three different levels: Diagnostic; Treatment and
Evaluation
Uganda
•Health sector, early intervention has been directed to the six killer diseases with the majority
of parents actively participating.
•In education, this terms is interpreted on individual basis favoring the “haves”
Vietnam
-- Yes, mostly initiated and implemented in term of project and run by INGOs.
- Community Based Rehabilitation through the network of Primary Health Care network is a
channel to provide early intervention in Vietnam. 40 provinces have carried out CBR activities
reaching the needs of many persons with disabilities at the grass-roots level. CBR suits
Vietnam as it involves not only medical rehabilitation but also social and educational aspects
which make it efficient and cost-effective.
-Include early diagnostic, identification of ability and needs of CwDs and their families and
implementing early intervention. VUGESK
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Standard Rules for Equalization of Opportunities
Country
Known
individually
Translated
Considered
Ethiopia
Yes
Yes
On the process of implementation
Georgia
No
Not in official
document
No
Kenya
Not much
yes
Some traces of it
Spain
No
Yes
On the basis of this Rules, Spain
formulated the most of its laws and
policies.
Uganda
Yes
Yes to a greater
extent
They are the basis on which many
policies and laws on disability are
debated and formulated
Vietnam
Not much in term
of investigation and
study or
application.
No
Not mentioned in any Reports related.
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Salamanca declaration
Country
Known
Translated
Considered
Ethiopia
YES
YES
Being Implemented
Georgia
No
Not in official
documents
No
Kenya
YES
YES
Being Implemented
Spain
YES
YES
With this declaration Spain started a new
special needs education’s policy.
Uganda
YES
YES
Being Implemented
Vietnam
Yes
Yes
Yes. Acting as the framework for initiating
and developing inclusive education in
Vietnam. However, it has been active at
policy making level (marco-system)
VUGESK
44
Needs of each country
Ethiopia
.Promoting the awareness of the society
.Improving the number of qualified personnel in SNE
.Improving the quality, equity, and quantity of Education
Georgia
Awareness about SNE (Inclusive education) in the society.
Training of teachers and experts
Usage of psychologists and other specialists for consultation
Social security of teachers
Parental involvement
Accurate statistical data dealing with disabled children
Laws dealing disabled people in every sphere
There are no adequately trained teachers.
Alternative forms of special schools or boarding schools do not exist.
Few children can receive adequate medical treatment. For the vast majority of the children
such treatment or special facilities are not available.
There are no adequately trained medical staff.
Kenya
Clear and reliable data on children with special needs;
Adequate tools, equipment and skills in identification and assessment of children with
special needs;
Qualified staff;
Appropriate infrastructure;
Awareness creation on disabilities, and the importance of Early childhood education
VUGESK
45
Needs of each country
Spain
• Disabilities persons’ protection Law.
• Promotion the inclusion in society.
Uganda
Advocacy and Lobbying
Resources – Qualified and committed teaching and non teaching staff
Infrastructure
Support staff and Assistive devices
Parental support and involvement
Early intervention/ Assessment
Vietnam
-Coherent and consistent among the related legal instruments and policies; - Awareness raising should be improved and reinforced especially in the
issue of importance role played by education for CwDs.
-Teachers and curriculum for CwDs in inclusive settings.
-Capacity building of health care, medical treatment and rehabilitation
- Management and use of resources, including monitoring work, need to be
improved to enhance coordination, effectiveness and transparency;
-Finally accessibility in term of physical, educational and social.
VUGESK
46
Group process
• Members having too much to give, and therefore becoming
difficulty to define “very brief”
• High spirit of cooperation and the desire to accomplish the
task.
• Division of tasks and later mini-presentation of at one’s
country’s information
VUGESK
47
Thank you!
VUGESK
48
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Laws, policies and trends in a multicultural perspective