Supporting the school library program
through effective organizational strategies
• Introduction
• Standards :
– International Standard Bibliographic Description
(ISBD); Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
(AACR2R); MAchine Readable Catalogue
(MARC21)
•
•
•
•
Subject cataloging
Classification
Copy cataloging
Access, catalogs and the school library
August 9,2007
Cataloguing is…
• A subset of a larger function:
– Bibliographic control or the
organization of information
• And Arlene Taylor states that retrieving
information can only be done if it is
organized. And organizing information
allows us to keep a usable record of
human activities for historical purposes.
August 9,2007
The universe of knowledge
• How many of you have written a bibliography
for a paper?
• In this process, you have organized a small
part of what we call the “universe of
knowledge.”
– The universe of knowledge includes all
knowledge, even that which cannot be expressed
verbally. Within our universe of knowledge, there
is a part which has been written down or recorded
in some other way, eg. painted, digitized, taped.
This is the bibliographic universe.
August 9,2007
Yes, we’re amazing, but…
• You can probably see why only the
bibliographic universe can be controlled
• However, in order to have this control, we
need a specific set of standards to deal with
the information.
• And thus, we need to define common data
elements within each item so we can arrange
them in the same way, using the same pieces
of data every time.
August 9,2007
Why is
cataloging
about access?
August 9,2007
The haystack
• How would you describe
searching for information on
the Internet? What are the
major problems in finding
information?
• How do you look for
information at the library?
• Do you think library
catalogues are easy for
users to use? Consider the
challenges.
August 9,2007
How do children search?
• Use the GVPL catalog
• http://catalogue.gvpl.ca
• Try car as keyword
• Try searching for cars as subject
Where do you think the average kid would
look for a magazine article?
August 9,2007
Browsing
• Many authors have discussed the power of
browsing. When users do not have a known
item search: when they have a title and/or
author.
• Other experts believe that a controlled
vocabulary is better. Hagler--Canada’s
cataloging guru--among them.
• He writes that the days of the manual
catalogue was limited, but this was
advantageous. Users had to know their
search strategy before opening the drawer.
August 9,2007
Why are library catalogs difficult to use?
August 9,2007
• In your searching, what
confused you?
• Other reflections on library
catalogs?
• One study found people
spelled Tchaikovsky 21
different ways!
• Try spelling it incorrectly
eg. Tchaikovzky and
entering in author, then in
keyword, then in Google
What is this?
University of Hong Kong Press
Teaching as a leader: A guide to best
practice
Chan Siu Ming
August 9,2007
How did you know that?
• Would a computer give me the same
answers?
• How must we communicate with a
computer?
August 9,2007
A catalog card
027.8
P9
August 9,2007
Prostano, Emanuel T.
The school library media center /
Emanuel T. Prostano, Joyce S.
Prostano. -- 4th ed. -- Littleton, CO :
Libraries Unlimited c1987.
xiv, 257 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes index.
1. School libraries. I. Prostano, Joyce
S. II. Title.
Web catalogue
screen
August 9,2007
MARC display
August 9,2007
Bibliographic control
Bibliographic control uses common data
elements. It also uses bibliographic
tools:
– Bibliographies
– Indexes
– Catalogues
– Finding aids
– Bibliographic databases
August 9,2007
Bibliographic tools
• Catalogs in a library organize
information about their holdings. But
indexes cover information from a wide
range or materials kept in different
collections.
August 9,2007
What do bibliographic tools do?
Taylor lists three basic functions:
1. Finding information. Allows a user to find a
known item. (Title or author search).
Which is, of course limited by the tool the user is
consulting eg. a library catalogue. A user can find
items only in that library.
2. Collecting information. Our term is
collocating which means to put a whole
group of items on the same subject or related
in some other way, together.
August 9,2007
Taylor Three functions cont.
3. Evaluating. Allows a user to select a
specific item according to edition etc.
August 9,2007
This discussion originally
began with Charles
Ammi Cutter, the man
who developed
cataloguing procedures
a very long time ago.
His “Rules for a
Dictionary Catalog” are:
August 9,2007
To enable a person to find
a book of which either:
a. the author or
b. the title or
c. the subject is known
To show what a library has
d. by a given author
e. on a given subject
f. in a given literature
To assist the user in the
choice of book
g. as to the edition
h. as to its character
August 9,2007
And when we catalogue an
item, we pay close
attention to:
• An author entry the
catalogue supplies (a
and d)
• Title entry (b)
• Subject entry, crossreferences and classed
subject tables (c and e)
• And we add notes to
our catalogue records
so that users can
choose (f, g and h)
(Taylor 2000)
*But we do need to modernize
The boxes on the previous slide should
state: an item, whether print or non-print
And the catalogue does have a function in
collocating. Describing the relationships
between items. Subjects relating to
other subjects, books by the same
author, etc.
August 9,2007
Cataloguing
• Is the activity of creating a catalogue.
• This usually begins with descriptive
cataloguing and continues in subject analysis
and guided throughout by authority control.
Encoding
• The data from cataloguing, subject and
authority work is all encoded so that records
can be read and stored in a computer.
August 9,2007
Stages of cataloguing
There are two distinct aspects to cataloguing
• Descriptive cataloguing
– Describing the item
– Allocating access points
(this is reflected in how AACR2 is arranged)
• Subject cataloguing (physical access)
– Classification
– Subject headings
August 9,2007
Let’s begin at the end…
Classification
• In small groups, and in only about five
minutes, name and note all the ‘things’ you
would need to take camping.
• Put the objects in groups according to some
type of general characteristic (label the
groups with a heading too).
Feel free to debate.
August 9,2007
Dewey Decimal Classification
• What is the purpose of classification?
– Organizing information
• How does DDC work?
– Classify knowledge in notations
• Advantages of notations?
August 9,2007
History of Dewey Decimal
Classification
• Conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873
• Published in 1876
• Owned and published by OCLC in print and
electronic format
• Developed and maintained by Library of Congress
• Most widely used classification system in the world
(used in 135 countries)
• Used primarily by public and school libraries
August 9,2007
The Dewey Decimal System
• DDC is divided into 10 main classes
- then 10 divisions
- then each division into 10 sections
• The first digit in each three-digit number
represents the main class.
– “500” = natural sciences and
mathematics.
August 9,2007
DDC continued
• The second digit in each three-digit number
indicates the division.
– “500” is used for general works on the
sciences
– “510” for mathematics
– “520” for astronomy
– “530” for physics
August 9,2007
Try searching to see how numbers are ‘built’
Search the www.gvpl.ca catalog in the SUBJECT
field
Search mammals
Then felidae
Then tigers
And try a search for cats
Search hockey; then search Coaching hockey
Search KEYWORD Tiger Woods biography, note
inconsistencies And compare to searching biography
golf; and biography athletes
August 9,2007
The DDC classes
• The Thompson Nicola library system
has provided a detailed Dewey page for
their users
http://www.tnrdlib.bc.ca/dewey.html
August 9,2007
More (fun?) DDC sites
DDC lesson ideas from LM_NET
http://mte.anacortes.k12.wa.us/library/de
wey/dewles.htm
OCLC multimedia tour
http://www.oclc.org/dewey/resources/tour/
ddc7.html
August 9,2007
Descriptive cataloguing
• Identifying and describing an information
package or format. The recent term is
package. Literally how is the item put and
kept together.
• Cataloguing aims to uniquely identify an
entity so that it cannot be confused with
another. Multiple copies of a book will share
the same data, but will also be described with
other data that sets them apart.
August 9,2007
Areas of description
• Description of an item is an important task - the rules
for description are collected in AACR2
• Elements of the description:
Title and statement
of responsibility
Edition
Material specific
details
Imprint
August 9,2007
Physical description
Series
Notes
Standard numbers
We also have information packages
which cannot be physically touched or
held.
– Internet documents
– Also are described by title, statement of
responsibility
– Edition
– Date of creation
– Location (URL)
August 9,2007
Structure of the rule book: AACR2R
• AACR2r is divided into 2 parts:
– Pt 1 covers description of an item (chs. 1-12)
– Pt 2 covers access points and headings (chs. 21 –
26)
• In addition there are appendices:
–
–
–
–
–
A
B
C
D
E
August 9,2007
Capitalisation
Abbreviations
Numerals
Glossary
Initial articles
Content of AACR2r Part 1
• Chapter 1 has a very general approach &
covers many types of materials
• Chapters 2-12 deal with specific formats
(books, maps, manuscripts, music etc.)
These chapters often refer back to Ch.1. The
same numbering system used in Ch.1 also
applies to subsequent chapters, e.g. date of
publication will be in .4D for all formats
• Chapter 13 is only about analytical entries
August 9,2007
Content of AACR2r Part 2
• Chapter 21 is about the choice of access
points as the main heading entry & added
entries
• Chapter 22 is headings for persons
• Chapter 23 is geographical names
• Chapter 24 is headings for corporate bodies
• Chapter 25 is uniform titles
• Chapter 26 is about references
August 9,2007
Access
• In a manual catalogue, an item’s record
is filed under…
– Author? Title?
– The point is, we need to put our records
somewhere and again, we must make a
decision based on what we think provides
access.
August 9,2007
Access points criteria
And so access points are really answers to
possible questions. Our job is thus to guess,
what the questions might be.
And so access points are generally, according
to Hagler:
'a characteristic' we can easily and accurately
remember after reading or viewing a document
or 'a characteristic' someone else would likely record
when making reference to it.
• Such as?
August 9,2007
Access points criteria
What about color?
http://portia.nesl.edu/screens/well_its_re
d.html
Hagler also suggests that the most useful
characteristics are those that are permanent,
associated with the content and
unique…common to few documents
August 9,2007
Where do you put it?
• Imagine…In the days of catalog cards you had
different sets of card drawers.
• Traditional access points:
–
–
–
–
Author
Title
Subject
Series
• What goes at the top of the ISBD? Ie. under
what field are items entered?
• So you have a MAIN entry, then other entries
August 9,2007
Access point
•
•
•
•
As technology has become incorporated
into many library processes, the terminology
has also evolved
Another name for access point is heading
The term heading is still in use but its
origins are in the card catalogue
Headings are divided into two kinds:
1. Main entry
2. Added entry
August 9,2007
Still today…
• The limitations of the card catalog still
influence automated (machine readable)
cataloging
– We still have a main entry
– Technically an access point is author, title or
subject
– Allowed only two authors in added entries (a
manual catalog accommodation)
• But this is not relevant with the computer age!
August 9,2007
Imagine
• Typing (or even handwriting) catalog
cards
• The main entry was the most complete
record (if author)
– Added entries: Title and subject less
complete
• What do we do with items that have no
author?
August 9,2007
AACR2R and access
• When AACR2R came around, even with
automated catalogues, it was still assumed
that libraries needed to determine an access
point.
• This is one of the argued limitations of
AACR2…
• But, even in an automated catalogue, we still
need to standardise the way we formulate our
access points.
August 9,2007
Main entry & added entry
• The main entry is the most important access
point
• In an online catalogue, main and added
access points are effectively equal
• In the card catalogue the main entry was a
more detailed record which also included
tracings of all the added entries
• AACR2 still retains the distinction between
main entry and added entry
August 9,2007
Access points
• AACR2 chapter 21 is all about access points
• In addition to the access points detailed in AACR2,
the online catalogue can provide other entry points,
e.g. publisher, keyword, material type. Many
catalogues can limit by date
• Control numbers such as LC control numbers or
ISBN do not feature as access points in AACR2 –
they are a direct result of computerisation
• But, in a machine readable catalogue almost any part
of the record can be used as an access point
August 9,2007
Access point definition
• An access point is the heading
• A way for an item in a library catalogue
or bibliography to be retrieved or at
least located.
• What are the traditional access points?
August 9,2007
Access points cont.
• How do we decide…
• An admittedly western approach to the
process:
–Author
• The person (mainly) responsible for the
creation of the work in hand
August 9,2007
Authorship
• Can include personal authorship
AACR2 Ch. 22
– a person prominently named responsible
for the work.
Remember, this is anyone principally
responsible.
A child’s picture Hebrew dictionary illustrated
by Ita Meshi
Entry under Meshi, Ita the illustrator
August 9,2007
Author isn’t just a guy who writes the text
• Creation includes the intellectual and
artistic content of a work. The person
responsible for this is the “author”
• Illustrator, photographer, compiler,
editor, adapter (retelling of folktales),
translater, reviser,
• producer, director of multimedia
• And the rules for this are in AACR2
August 9,2007
Corporate Author
• This is a named group of people who
are acting as a single unit
• Examples: government bodies or
departments, institutions, associations,
named conferences, musical groups,
etc.
• AACR2 Ch. 21 and 24 all the rules to
determine and format
August 9,2007
Some hints
•
•
•
•
•
•
With an item in hand…look for:
People’s names
Corporate names
A title, a variant title (begins with Or)
Any relevant subtitles
Series (important for children’s
materials)
August 9,2007
Choice of main entry
• Whatever kind of item, the main entry will be
under one of the following:
• Personal authorship
• Corporate body
• Title
21.1A
21.1B
21.1C
• There are no other possibilities
August 9,2007
Title proper
• This is the formal name used in AACR2R for
the main title of an item (excludes the subtitle,
$b)
• Every item you catalogue must have a title
• If there is no title you are allowed to make
one up, enclosed in square brackets […]
• This is necessary if you are cataloguing an
object or poster
August 9,2007
Multi-part items
Equal importance of items
• When items are in different formats and
of equal importance the item is
catalogued as a kit (multimedia)
• When all the pieces of the item have to
be used together – it is considered a kit
• Games are not regarded as kits and
should follow the rules in chapter 10
August 9,2007
The rules
• You cannot be expected to memorise all the
rules – you should be familiar with where to
check in AACR2R
• You will be copy cataloging and we’ll discuss
this later
• However, as the person responsible for the
organization of your library, you should be
informed of the framework for that
standardization: the tools and standards
August 9,2007
Good news!
• When in doubt, the cataloguer’s
judgement is ultimate authority
• It is best to make a judgement promptly
and make the item available to users
• Catalogue records can always be
updated to reflect a change of condition
• Expertise comes with practice
August 9,2007
Exercise
• In groups, and using the sheet ‘Determining
main and added entries” have a look at the
records for the title pages that are distributed
in class
• Try to determine the main entry (personal or
corporate author or title) and consider what
you would choose as added entries (other
authors or persons responsible for the
creation of the work, title)
August 9,2007
International Standard
Bibliographic Description
• The development of this standard dates back
to 1974 (the need first evolved after the
release of the first edition of AACR, 1967)
• ISBD lays down description standards for
each physical form of publication: These
describe:
– The sources of information to be used in the
description
– The order in which the elements are transcribed
– The punctuation that should be used to separate
the elements
August 9,2007
• The ISBD (International Standard
Bibliographic Description)
• Descriptive part of cataloging, not access
points, or determining what to put an item
‘under’
– Eg. Choice of entry or form of entry
• Not how catalog records are formatted
now however, it laid the foundation for
machine readable records.
August 9,2007
Eight areas for description
Learning these
areas is the first
step in standard
cataloguing
August 9,2007
Area 1: Title
Area 2: Edition
Area 3: Material specific details
Area 4: Publication, distribution, etc.
Area 5: Physical description
Area 6: Series
Area 7: Notes
Area 8: Standard numbers
A standard manual bibliographic record:
Monograph
Title proper : other title information or subtitle / first
statement of responsibility ; subsequent statement of
responsibility. — Edition statement / statement of
responsibility relating to this edition. — Place of
publication : Publisher, Date of publication.
Pagination : Illustrative matter ; Size. — (Series title,
ISSN ; Series number)
Notes.
ISBN
August 9,2007
Example of a manual catalog record:
Linden, Tracy. Hockey hippos / by Tracy
Linden ; illustrated by Jennifer Lait. – New
York : H. Holt, c 1984.
[33] p. : col. Ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN 0-7040-0730-1
August 9,2007
ISBD card catalog
• Punctuation was standard
• Use rules in AACR2R
• Eg. Transcribe the title exactly as it
appears on the chief source of
information
– Eg. title page
August 9,2007
Chief source of information
• Rule 1.0A1 states that information must
come from the chief source, outlined in
each respective chapter of AACR2R
• Standard source, but the sources are
not all standard, later you will try some
ISBD data element identification, note
how different title pages are
August 9,2007
Other sources of information
• Also use the verso of the title page
• Often this is where the CIP is
August 9,2007
Titles and statements of responsibility
Mice : everything about care, nutrition,
diseases, behavior, and breeding / Horst
Bielfeld ; with 33 color photographs by
outstanding animal photographers and 30
drawings by Fritz W. Köhler ; translated by
Maria Cooper.
Michael Bolton : the passion, secrets, soul, &
truths / by Layne A. Seeloff ... [et al.]
August 9,2007
Title with statement of
responsibility
Oooh-la-la : (Max in love) / Maira
Kalman.
—
Hooray for Diffendoofer Day! / by Dr. Seuss
Anne Frank in the world : essays and reflections
/ edited by Carol Ann Rittner
August 9,2007
ISBD areas 3-6
• Self-explanatory, we’ll focus on
determining these areas when we look
at the MARC format later
• Notes (area 7) are very important for
catalog records for young people.
August 9,2007
ISBN details
• 10 digit numbers sets of numbers separated
by hyphens
• Unique to an item
• Assigned by R.R. Bowker in the United States
• The first digit is for the country of publication,
the next digits, represent the publisher,
another set identifies the work, and the final
digit is a “check digit”
August 9,2007
Exercise
• Look at some of the items and books.
• Determine ISBD areas of description
• Specifically 1, 2, 4, 6, 8
Don’t worry about the punctuation, but try
to identify these common data elements
August 9,2007
The aims of ISBD
• To help make catalogue records more
interchangeable – libraries can use each
other’s records
• To assist in interpreting records across
language barriers
• To assist in converting records to machinereadable form
(punctuation is a fundamental feature of
AACR2)
August 9,2007
AACR2R and description
• Cataloguers are only allowed to take
information from specific places in the item
e.g. the title and statement of responsibility of
a book must come from the title page (other
elements may be permitted a greater range of
sources, e.g. edition)
• If you need to take information from a nonprescribed source, it must be enclosed in
square brackets […..]
August 9,2007
Levels of information
• AACR2 recognises that not all libraries will
want the same amount of detail in their
catalogues
• There are 3 different ‘levels’ of description
e.g. in level 1, the place of publication can be
omitted, but still display publisher and date
• The library can also choose not to display all
the information from a more detailed record
• Most academic libraries & cataloguing cooperatives use level 2, which is not much
different to level 3
August 9,2007
The skill of copying
• Much of cataloguing consists of being able to
copy or transcribe carefully
• You are not allowed to standardise on
spellings (organisation / organization)
• You must also copy an error as you find it, but
show that you have noticed the mistake by
inserting [sic] after the mistake
• An added entry should be created for the
correct format – that brings us to the other
part of cataloguing – access points
August 9,2007
The importance of standardisation
• Sharing resources – copy cataloguing can only
exist if the same codes apply, fostering
communication of information
• Users benefit by using catalogues that are
compiled in the same way
• Economic reasons – to benefit from being able
to acquire quality records, in a timely fashion,
at a cost-effective rate
• Enables libraries to use automated library
systems to manage library operations – to
assist migration to new technology
August 9,2007
Some areas are not copied
• There are exceptions to copying accurately
from the title page to the catalogue record and
these are:
• Punctuation
– For example ….a dotted line in a title is replaced by
a dash – (because ….dots can also mean the
omission of words)
• Capitalisation
– Title pages can put text in capitals for many reasons
– Use of capitals can vary depending upon language
– Check in appendix A if you are undecided
August 9,2007
The automated catalog
• ISBD is the groundwork
• But we use computers to catalog and
display, the ISBD punctuation is not
relevant
• Data is standardized using MARC
records
August 9,2007
MARC Records
• A MARC record is a bibliographic record in a
specific format that can be displayed on a
computer. It contains:
–
–
–
–
A description of the item
Main entry & added entries
Subject headings
Classification or call number
• MARC records often contain more
information than is required by AACR2
August 9,2007
The aims of MARC
• Speed up the cataloguing process
• Standards usable for all kinds of library
materials (not just books)
• Usable in automated systems
August 9,2007
MARC21 – the new code
• By the 1990s there were nearly 50 different
kinds of MARC formats in use in various
countries
• These were mostly based on either the British
or American original
• But varied…not completely standard across
• In 2001 the British Library discontinued its
own format, UKMARC, and adopted the LC
version renamed MARC 21
August 9,2007
MARC & AACR2
• AACR2 gives you the rules to follow when
producing catalog records
• MARC gives a structure for the records that
are produced according to the rules
• MARC is not a cataloguing code in itself
• The MARC format divides the catalogue
record into fields that correspond to areas of
description in AACR2 & also includes access
points
August 9,2007
MARC format
A MARC record has 3 main parts:
1. The record leader
– Coded data at the beginning of the record
2. The directory
– Index to the record
3. The fields themselves (008, 100, etc.)
– These are 3 digit numbers called tags
August 9,2007
Field, subfield, delimiter & field end
• MARC fields are divided into subfields, using subfield
codes
• The subfield code has two characters:
- A ‘delimiter’ is the character that introduces the
subfield
- A lower case letter, or occasionally a number
• The LC manual uses $ (dollar) sign as the delimiter but
other systems may use an*, (asterisk) | (pipe) or a
double dagger sign
e.g. 260 $aLondon : $bMacmillan :$c2003#
Some systems require an end of field sign, e.g. #
August 9,2007
Indicators, fixed & variable length
fields
• Each field starts with a 3 digit number,
followed by 2 spaces – for the indicators, if
they are required
• The indicator is always a numeric value – but
sometimes do not contain data
• Most MARC fields are of variable length
(authors and titles can vary) Some fields are
fixed e.g. 008 field has 40 character positions
(00-39) The data is coded and is useful for
retrieval & management purposes
August 9,2007
MARC tags online
• Explore www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic
• We will try some MARC field
identification (and coding if you wish)
with some examples in a moment.
• First, familiarize yourself with the MARC
record: Exercise sheet “Looking at
MARC records”
August 9,2007
Main entry MARC fields
• These are:
– Personal author (100)
– Corporate author (110)
– Conference proceedings (111)
– Uniform title (130) Example: Bible
– Collective title (240) Example: poems
– Title (245)
August 9,2007
Other access points
•
•
•
•
•
•
Series entry (440, 490, 840)
Author added entries (700)
Corporate body (710)
Title (745)
References (See & see also - chapter 26)
Added entries may be made for headings that
cataloguers consider appropriate
August 9,2007
MARC exercises
• Using the item samples, try searching on the
Library of Congress:
www.loc.gov Compare the record: fields, subfields, etc. to the item in hand to get a feel for
its description in MARC format. OR
• A MARC worksheet is provided for any
wishing to try to create a MARC record. Use
the online site on the sheet with
corresponding information for the fields, etc.
August 9,2007
Authority control
August 9,2007
What is it?
August 9,2007
What is the impact
on access to information?
August 9,2007
We need to control
• This is called authority control
• Bogan cites Doris Clack who states this
is based on uniqueness, standardization
and linkages (p. 42)
This includes names and subjects
Subject authority control will be discussed
later.
August 9,2007
Authority control aims to:
• Give unique names to people, bodies, objects
and concepts;
• Use the names chosen consistently in
reference to them and in describing them
• Identify other possible names users might
search for and link those with preferred terms
– So in a catalog, we should be directed to
automobiles if we type in cars (subject authority
control) SEE
– And we should be directed to Twain, Mark if we
type in Clemens, Sam SEE
– And we should be directed to Classical education
when looking for Education, humanistic SEE ALSO
August 9,2007
More on the subject AC later
•
•
•
•
•
Names
Personal names
Corporate names
Geographic names
Time consuming! Normally an AC list is
purchased through the Library of Congress or
through a bibliographic utility like OCLC.
http://www.oclc.org/about/default.htm
And uploaded to a library automated system.
August 9,2007
Name AC
• Most common factor is uniqueness
– Search author in http://lib.hku.hk
for Smith, J. A.
– Note the use of dates
– If they were very close, they would add a qualifier
eg. Smith, J.A., composer
• Also need to account for the different ways
people will enter information into a catalog
– Now search author -> Wong
August 9,2007
Most familiar form
• How to decide what is THE form of a
name?
• AACR2R ch 22
• Rules on pseudonyms, name changes,
hyphenation, other languages
• In most cases you would add a see
reference for variant forms of names
August 9,2007
Add references
• In most cases you would add a see reference
for variant forms of names
•
•
•
•
Read the rules 22.17 and 22.18
Note examples
Read Rule 22.24 & 22.26E
Distinguishing identical names, common
names, dates help to add uniqueness
August 9,2007
Classification and Subject Headings
Classification
(DDC)
•Numerical order
•A work has only one class
number and can stand in
only one place
• Less precise
Subject Headings
(Sears)
•Alphabetical order
•A work can be entered
under many points of entry
• More precise
August 9,2007
How to determine the subjects ?
BOOKS:
•Examine the table of contents
•Read the preface and introduction
•Examine the text
•Other formats:
•Examine the container, label, guides, etc.
IMPORTANT: Consider the subject from your
reader’s viewpoint!
August 9,2007
Symbols used in Sears
UF = Used for
SA = See also
BT = Broader term
NT = Narrower term
RT = Related term
[Former heading] =
Term that has been
canceled ; formerly
used
(May subdivide
Geog.) = Heading
may be subdivided
by place
“X” before a term
means “see”; “XX”
means “see also”
August 9,2007
Look at your
sheet of
LCSH for
comparison
Types of subject headings in Sears
1. TOPICAL HEADINGS- words & phrases for
common things that represent the work’s content
Ex: Gun control, Abortion, Seals
2. FORM HEADINGS- headings that are created
based on the “form” of the literary work. Ex:
Almanacs, Directories, Gazetteers, Dictionaries,
Encyclopedias, Essays, Drama.
3. GEOGRAPHIC HEADINGS- established names of
individual places. Ex: United States, Ohio, Great
Britain
August 9,2007
Types of subject headings in Sears, cont.
4. PROPER NAME HEADINGS- unique names given
to various people, businesses, and organizations
A. Individual or Personal Names Ex: Clinton, Bill
B. Corporate Names (institutions, buildings,
sports teams, business firms) Ex: The University
of Hong Kong
C. Uniform titles (established names of
periodicals, computer programs, TV programs,
radio programs, and certain literary works) Ex:
Eudora (Computer File)
August 9,2007
Forms of Sears
Forms of headings
Single Noun
Compound headings (ex. Bow and arrow)
Adjective and noun, (Tropical fish)
Phrase
Subheadings (for a specialized aspect or point of
view)
Key headings - pattern for subdivision (World
War, 1939-1945)
August 9,2007
Forms of subject headings continued
• Special topics-specific to individual topic (AirplanesPiloting)
•Time-specific chronology (Europe-History-1789-1900)
•Geographic-a) area or b) subject – (GeographyBolivia)
•Themes of Literature (Science Fiction)
Order of subdivisions (set by conference in May 1991)
•Topical, Geographic, Chronological, Form
August 9,2007
Extending Sears
Note: If you must create subject headings, keep these tips
in mind. The creation process involves a lot of personal
preferences and therefore undermines uniformity. Always
try to use what SEARS provides. Remember, You can use
subdivisions and formulate combinations, using Sears
subject headings.
Tips:
American spelling & terminology should always be
used. Labor not Labour
•Create terms that are commonly used by your patrons.
August 9,2007
More tips
•Choose the term that is most inclusive.
*Use “Regional Planning” rather than many
smaller ones like: county planning, state planning.
•Keep the headings clear and unambiguous
* Consider homonyms
Eg: Depression (too broad)
Use: Depression (Economic) or
Depression (Psychology)
August 9,2007
Problem
Area
Biography
Nationalities
Literature
August 9,2007
Rule(s)
Example(s)
Collective (3+)
Individual
•Biography
•Baseball-Biography
•Shakespeare,
William
Geog. subdivision after
topical subject area,
except: Authors, Novelists,
Dramatists, and Poets
•ArchitectureFrance
•American poets
Works about Literature:
use forms themselves
Literary Works:
anthologies or individual
•Drama
•British Literature
•Latin American
literature
•Poetry-Collections
More basic principles
Problem
Area
Rule(s)
Wars & battles: name, date
Wars &
Events
Non-book
Materials
August 9,2007
Events: name, place, date
Treat the same as a book
Example(s)
•World War, 19391945
•Gettysburg (Pa.),
Battle of, 1863
•Tiananmen Square
Incident, Beijing
(China), 1989
Biographical films
Subject headings: More tips
•Keep a Local Authority File
• Revise headings regularly
August 9,2007
Web pages for examples and tips
August 9,2007
Copy cataloging
• When a cataloger searches for a record on a
database or cataloging service, downloads an
appropriate record and edits the record to meet
local policy. This is standard practice, rather than
descriptive cataloging.
• There are many places to find records.
• Some libraries belong to OCLC
• A large consortium of libraries. Membership in
OCLC gains access to catalog records. You can
read more at:
• http://www.oclc.org/about/default.htm
August 9,2007
Copy cataloging
Open the ALA Notable Children’s books page at
http://www.ala.org/ala/alsc/awardsscholarships/children
snotable/notablecbooklist/currentnotable.htm
Search, retrieve, and check a few of the titles as if you
were copying the records for your library catalog.
Compare DDC numbers for any non-fiction to other
catalogs. Double-check subject headings to confirm
you agree with them, again, feel free to compare
these in other catalogs.
Sites to use on next slide.
August 9,2007
Places to find copy cataloging
• National Library of Canada
http://www.collectionscanada.ca/amicus/indexe.html
• Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov
• Infohio (Ohio schools) http://www.infohio.org
• Public libraries are also a good place to find
records, however only some have MARC display:
New York Public Library http://www.nypl.org
Seattle Public Library http://www.spl.lib.wa.us
August 9,2007
Take some time to explore these Web pages
• Resources for school librarians
http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/support/catalogue/index.html
http://www.sldirectory.com/libsf/resf/catalog.html
http://tpot.ucsd.edu/Cataloging/catwebsource.html \
http://dante.uark.edu/webdocs/cataloging/kits.pdf
http://www.ipl.org/div/subject/browse/hum45.40.40
Idaho libraries online tutorials for staff development, eg. Copy
cataloging
http://libraries.idaho.gov/able
Boulder CO was once considered cutting edge in designing search
tools for young people
http://www.boulder.lib.co.us/youth/
August 9,2007
Enhancing records for young people
• We can improve the basic display by including more
data.
• This can be something provided by the cataloguing
agency, ie. you, if you are doing the cataloguing. Or a
collective effort, like the district centralized cataloging
for school libraries. Or they may be provided by the
vendor, from whom you purchase your records.
• Most enhancements are the notes fields, and
generally, there are no limits, AACR2R offers flexibility
here.
August 9,2007
505 Contents note
• A list of the titles of a collection, on a sound recording or video.
Also useful for identifying parts of a collection.
Example:
505 8# $aContents on sound disk: A suitable tone ; Left hand
colouring ; Rhythm and accent ; Tempo ; Flexibility ; Ornaments
-- Sonata in D major, op. V, no. 1 / Corelli -- Sonata in G minor /
Purcell (with Robert Donington, gamba) -- Forlane from Concert
royal no. 3 / Couperin.
See MARC site for more examples.
• http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdnot1.html#mrcb505
August 9,2007
511 Participant or performer note
• Enter any names of players, narrators,
presenters, or performers in plays, films or
recordings.
Example:
511 0# $aVoices: Peter Ustinov, Cloris
Leachman, Sally Kellerman, Andy Devine.
See MARC site for more examples.
• http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdn
ot1.html#mrcb511
August 9,2007
520 Summary note.
• Here, the cataloguer adds a note describing
the item. A summary should give the user a
good sense of what the book or item is about
but it should not evaluate the work. There
should be no hint of positive or negative
statements about the contents. (Association
for Library Collections and Technical
Services/CCS Cataloging of Children’s
Materials Committee)
• *520 not required if a contents note is
included (505)
August 9,2007
520 and 538 notes examples
520 ##$a Pig Pig refuses to grow up until one day, he solves a
problem on his own.
See MARC site for more examples.
• http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdnot1.html#mrcb520
538 System requirements note. Include for sound recordings,
video recordings and computer files any notes for users to play
or access an item.
Example of a video:
538 ## $a VHS.
Interactive media.
August 9,2007
More 538 examples
538 ## $a System requirements (PC): IBM PC
or compatible with 486/ 100MHz or better
processor; 16MB RAM; Windows 95/98/2000
or NT4.0 or later; color monitor with
800x600x256 resolution; double-speed CDROM drive; sound card.
See MARC page for more examples.
• http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdn
ot2.html#mrcb586
August 9,2007
586 Awards note
Enter a note if the item has won an
award.
Example:
586 ##$a Caldecott Medal, 1979
See MARC page for more examples:
• http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/e
cbdnot2.html#mrcb586
August 9,2007
658 Index term—Curriculum Objective
Examples
658 ##$aReading objective 1 (fictional)$bunderstanding
language, elements of plots, themes, motives,
characters, setting by responding to the multiplemeaning word$cNRPO2-1991$dhighly
correlated.$2ohco
658 ## $aMath manipulatives$dhighly
correlated.$2local
658 ##$aDrug abuse awareness$bpeer
pressure$bunderstanding the law.$2local
August 9,2007
Works consulted:
Association for Library Collections and Technical
Services/CCS Cataloging of Children’s Materials
Committee, 1998, Guidelines for Standardized
Cataloging of Children’s Materials, in Cataloging
correctly for kids: An introduction to the tools, 3rd edn,
Sharon Zuiderveld, ed., ALA, Chicago.
Hagler, Ronald, 1997 The bibliographic record and
information technology, 3rd edn. Chicago, ALA.
Jacobsen, L. (1998). How children search. In Zuiderveld,
S. (Ed.) Cataloging correctly for kids: an introduction to
the tools. Chicago: ALA.
August 9,2007
Works consulted cont.
Nebraska Library Commission –Library Services Development.
Retrieved June 2, 2003, from
http://www.nlc.state.ne.us/libdev/basic/organizationoflibra
rymaterials/sears.html
Reitz, J., 2001, Online dictionary of Library and Information Science,
(Online) http://vax.wcsu.edu/library/odlis [Accessed 5 January 2002].
The Six Essentials…Plus. Retrieved June 3, 2003, from
http://www.sisess.htm
Subject Heading Tips. Retrieved June 3, 2003,
from:http://www.subjtips.htm
Taylor, A. (2000). Introduction to cataloging and classification. Westport,
CT, Libraries Unlimited.
Wynar, B. & Taylor, A., 2000, Wynar’s introduction to cataloging and
classification, 9th edn. Englewood, CO, Libraries Unlimited.
August 9,2007
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