What Will Happen to Technical Services? Remaining processes will be either very easy or very complex Either very complex or very simple Backlogs not an option Immediate availability is the rule Technical Services tasks migrate to many Divisions Changing Standards Replacement for MARC due in five years Replacement may determine fate of Technical Services How will this happen? What’s Wrong With MARC MARC does not express relationships between materials MARC does not work well for archives and digitized materials What’s Wrong With MARC Not intuitive Too much detail “Buried” information MARC’s Replacement Must be: Intuitive Streamlined Fully Machine-Readable and manipulable MARC’s Replacement Must be a standard suitable for what is now non-MARC metadata RDA: Not The Future Not adequate for non-print materials Doesn’t deal with part/whole relationships Poorly written and organized What IS The Future? What will happen next? “Big Heads” don’t know Future is wide open Restructuring Monographs Acquisitions: Adopting New Technologies to New Markets Michael Luesebrink, MLIS, PhD Monographs Acquisitions Librarian Florida State University Libraries It’s a Matter of Economics The contemporary academic library of the Twenty-First Century is in the midst of transformation… From traditional librarian centric, supply side driven model To an innovative user centric demand driven model Acquisition units are at the forefront of this transformative process Objectives of Discussion Describe changing acquisitions workflows Adapting technological efficiencies Describe changing acquisition’s role in 21st century information landscape Innovative economic models i.e. PDA Describe new staffing roles in acquisitions Adopting new skill sets Traditional Acquisitions Cycle Patron uses book, finds references Request placed by patron Book placed in Stacks Order placed with vendor Book sent to Acquisitions Book invoiced, processed Changing Workflows Libraries Monographs Acquisitions Unit organizational Structure: Past Traditional model: Monographs & Serials Monograph Acquisitions Unit Staff of seven Staff roles: Ordering and invoicing monographs Library of Congress cataloging Changing Workflows Libraries Monographs Acquisitions Unit organizational Structure: Today Staff of five; two less library associates Staff roles Ordering and invoicing Reduced Library of Congress cataloging Actually substantial increased productivity So, what’s changed? Innovative Models: Patron Driven Acquisitions Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA): Innovative acquisitions model Seamless acquisition or lending of e-books Purchase triggered by threshold Hybrid model evolving Patron Driven Acquisitions Cycle E-book in PDA profile/ package Book now part of collection Patron sees E-book in OPAC Book is seamlessly acquired Patron accesses e-book Book triggers threshold Changing Role of Acquisitions PDA: Historical Context PDA programs emerged in early 2000’s Different models are developing For example Florida has statewide initiatives UF-FSU SUS consortium initiative Changing Role of Acquisitions PDA: What does it bring to the table? Point of demand acquisition responds to users Efficient use of funds Research studies are inconclusive Changing Role of Acquisitions PDA: What are publishing issues? Supply driven Muddied waters of book publishing industry Copyright/licensing issues Publishers rely on print revenue streams. Academic publishers like e-journal model E-book technology more user friendly Approval plan conundrum Changing Role of Acquisitions PDA: How does it affect acquisitions staff and change workflow activities? Saves time placing orders and invoicing, a good fit in demand driven market Segues well with e-book market: focus - price, delivery time, content Allows selectors to focus, identifying difficult to find items, and refine strategic collection development outcomes Changing Role of Acquisitions PDA: How does it affect acquisitions staff and change workflow activities? Acquisitions need strong IT skill sets Need adaptability and flexibility Critical thinking skills Adopt new technologies as they emerge In Summation “On demand information delivery requires that libraries re-conceptualize how they provide information to users. The fundamental library role of facilitating access to information remains, but how libraries accomplish this and who their partners will be are changing significantly.” Douglas Jones The Future of Bibliographic Control Scope of this discussion Current trends: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Description (FRBR) Resource Description and Access (RDA) Library Linked Data Timeline of the Collection and Organization of the Human Record… and into the Future Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Entity-Relationship Model User Tasks • Find • Identify • Select • Obtain Entity = Work Attributes Title Creator Value Value A Christmas Carol Charles Dickens Group 2 Entities Group 1 Entities Work created by Expression realized by Person Family Manifestation Item produced by Corporate Body owned by Final Report. Section 3.2 Group 1 Entity Work has as its subject Work Person Expression Manifestation Item Group 1 Entities Concept Object Family Event Corporate Body Place Group 2 Entities Group 3 Entities IFLA. Final Report. Section 3.3 AACR2 Record RDA Record FRBR and RDA lay the foundation for Library Linked Data Now: Boxed Data (MARC record) Future: Library Linked Data on the Semantic Web A A C R 2 I S B D A A C R 2 M A R C Title: The Nature and future of the catalog / edited by Maurice J. Freedman. Publication: Phoenix, AZ : Oryx Press, 1979. Description: xvi, 317 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subject: Cataloging--Congresses. Added name: Freedman, Maurice J. Next Gen Catalog Dumb Terminal OPAC Boxed Data Semantic Web & Linked Data Post-MARC metadata XML-based data sets and catalogs Bowen, Jennifer. Moving Library Metadata toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the Exensible Catalog. Library Linked Data Elements of description expressed as data sets linked by identifiers Linked Data Timeline of the Collection & Organization of the Human Record… and into the Future Innovations? Embedded Metadata: Not only for electronic documents Nano chip RFID embedded paper New interfaces for Post-MARC cataloging: Fields for free text Fields that auto fill Pull down from controlled vocabularies Bibliography » » » » » » » » » Bowen, Jennifer. Moving Library Metadata toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the Exensible Catalog. Proc. Int’l Conf. on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2010. p. 44-59. Clancy, Michael. From Memory to Written Record. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979. ______. Looking Back from the Invention of Printing. In Literacy in Historical Perspective. Edited by D.P. Resnick. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1983. Coyle, Karen. Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata. Library Technology Reports (46:1; January 2010). Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural MoreRFID - Secured Digital to Introduce Nano Chip RFID Embedded Paper in Q4 2007. <http://www.morerfid.com/details.php?subdetail=Report&action=details&report_id=3366&dis play=RFID>. Accessed April 9, 2012. Rubin, E. Richard. Foundations of Library and Information Science. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2000. p. 208-261. Transformations in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Thompson, James Westfall. Ancient Libraries. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1957. All graphics created by Annie Glerum. All images either public domain or Creative Commons license. Attributions for timeline animation: 3000 B.C . Marcin Wichary; Book of the Dead #1. McKay Savage; Cordoba Mihrab. James Gordon. Online Catalog : Encoded MARC Bibliographic Record 000 01563cam a22003377a 450 001 6563162 005 20080703101713.0 008 711222s1961 dcu b 000 0 eng 010 __ |a 61064605 035 __ |a (OCoLC)ocm00185973 040 __ |a DLC |c CWR |d DLC |d OCLCQ |d BTCTA |d OCLCG |d DLC 042 __ |a lccopycat 043 __ |a n-us--- 050 00 |a UA927 |b .M23 1961 100 1_ |a Mack, Raymond W. 245 14 |a The occasion instant : |b the structure of social responses to unanticipated air raid warnings / |c by Raymond W. Mack, George W. Baker ; Foreword by Robin M. Williams, Jr. 260 __ |a Washington, |b National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, |c 1961. 300 __ |a xv, 69 p. ; |c 25 cm. 490 1_ |a National Research Council (U.S.). Disaster Research Group. Disaster study, |v no. 15 500 __ |a National Research Council. Publication 945. 504 __ |a Includes bibliographical references (p. 65-69). 650 _0 |a Civil defense |z United States. 650 _0 |a Air warfare |x Psychological aspects. 700 1_ |a Baker, George W. |q (George Walter), |d 1915- |e joint author. 810 2_ |a National Research Council (U.S.). |b Disaster Research Group. |t Disaster study ; |v no. 15. 830 _0 |a Publication (National Research Council (U.S.)) ; |v 945. 856 41 |3 Table of contents |u http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0804/61064605.html MARC 21 ILS, CC AACR  Current Cataloging Standards Anglo American Cataloging Rules – AACR2 These are to be replaced with: Resource Description Access - RDA New bibliographic description standard for the digital age Now Libraries are being told to look to the future and expose the bibliographic data in our catalogs as linked data on the Semantic Web. Semantic Web and Linked Data The Semantic Web is a "web of data" that enables machines to understand the semantics, or meaning, of information on the World Wide Web. "W3C Semantic Web Frequently Asked Questions". W3C. Viewed October, 18, 2011. Current Visualization of the Linked Data Cloud  Within the cloud: LCSH and VIAF  The Machine Application layer of Linked Data is where most librarians hit a wall when getting involved with Linked Open Data. The explanation of Extensible Markup Language (XML), Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), Resource Description Framework (RDF) with talk about subject, predicate, object triples is difficult to understand. Tim Berners-Lee (2006) the originator of the linked data concept, outlines its four main rules: Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using Web standards Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things  With limited staff and very tight budgets, many libraries will wait to see what direction the earlier adaptors will go. Most Academic Libraries catalog their original records in OCLC and then export into their local catalogs. Policies and licensing issues with data is a big concern. In the blog “Managing Metadata” - Sept. 27, 2011 by Laura Smart @ Caltech Libraries: » Focus instead on authority records and on enhancing our repositories. We can add value for our customers. Concentrate on the unique metadata that exposes the work of the faculty, researchers and Ph.D. graduates in our organizations. VIAF Virtual International Authority File http://viaf.org/ VIAF, implemented and hosted by OCLC, is joint project of several national libraries plus selected regional and trans-national library agencies. The VIAF project's goal is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking widely-used authority files and making that information available on the Web. VIAF Members National Library of Australia National Library of the Czech Republic Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Egypt) Bibliothèque nationale de France Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Getty Research Institute National Library of Israel Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico (Italy) » Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » Biblioteca Nacional de España National Library of Sweden Swiss National Library Library of Congress/NACO Vatican Library NUKAT Center (Poland) Library and Archives Canada National Széchényi Library (Hungary) RERO (Switzerland) Russian State Library-test VIAF have the “potential” for international sharing The authorized forms can be shared through the VIAF project What is important is not the “text” but the URI (uniform resource identifier) Example: http:viaf.org/viaf/35605 URI Example: http:viaf.org/viaf/35605 » » » » » » » John Paul II, Pope, 1920-2005 Jean-Paul II, pape, 1920-2005 Juan Pablo II, Papa Jean Paul II, pape Johannes Paulus Papa, II. 1920-2005 Iohannes Paulus PP. II, 1920-2005 Jan Pavel II., papež, 1920-2005 » » » » » » » Johannes Paulus II, påve, 1920-2005 Jan Paweł II (papież ; 1920-2005). Ioannes Paulus <papa ; 2.> John Paul II, Pope lived1920 1920-2005 , אפיפיור,2 יוחנן פאולוס . م2005-1920 ، البابا، الثانى،يوحنا بولس VIAF ID:35605 Bibliography » “Encoding bibliographic data: the things and strings of the semantic web”, Karen Coyle. ALA Presentation. June 24, 2011.  » “Linked data: the play’s the thing”, Ed Jones. ALA Presentation. June 24, 2011. [2-3] » “Practical strategies for cataloging departments,” Rebecca L. Lubas, editor. Libraries Unlimited, c2011. p. 40.