What Will Happen to Technical
Services?
 Remaining processes will be either very easy
or very complex
 Either very complex or very simple
 Backlogs not an option
 Immediate availability is the rule
 Technical Services tasks migrate to many
Divisions
Changing Standards
 Replacement for MARC due in five years
 Replacement may determine fate of
Technical Services
 How will this happen?
What’s Wrong With MARC
 MARC does not express relationships
between materials
 MARC does not work well for archives and
digitized materials
What’s Wrong With MARC
 Not intuitive
 Too much detail
 “Buried” information
MARC’s Replacement
Must be:
 Intuitive
 Streamlined
 Fully Machine-Readable and manipulable
MARC’s Replacement
 Must be a standard suitable for what is now
non-MARC metadata
RDA: Not The Future
 Not adequate for non-print materials
 Doesn’t deal with part/whole relationships
 Poorly written and organized
What IS The Future?
 What will happen next?
 “Big Heads” don’t know
 Future is wide open
Restructuring Monographs
Acquisitions:
Adopting New Technologies to New
Markets
Michael Luesebrink, MLIS, PhD
Monographs Acquisitions Librarian
Florida State University Libraries
It’s a Matter of Economics
The contemporary academic library of the
Twenty-First Century is in the midst of
transformation…
 From traditional librarian centric, supply side
driven model
 To an innovative user centric demand driven
model
 Acquisition units are at the forefront of this
transformative process
Objectives of Discussion
 Describe changing acquisitions workflows
 Adapting technological efficiencies
 Describe changing acquisition’s role in 21st
century information landscape
 Innovative economic models i.e. PDA
 Describe new staffing roles in acquisitions
 Adopting new skill sets
Traditional Acquisitions Cycle
Patron uses
book, finds
references
Request
placed by
patron
Book placed in
Stacks
Order placed
with vendor
Book sent to
Acquisitions
Book invoiced,
processed
Changing Workflows
Libraries Monographs Acquisitions Unit
organizational Structure: Past
 Traditional model: Monographs & Serials
 Monograph Acquisitions Unit
 Staff of seven
 Staff roles:
 Ordering and invoicing monographs
 Library of Congress cataloging
Changing Workflows
Libraries Monographs Acquisitions Unit
organizational Structure: Today
 Staff of five; two less library associates
 Staff roles
 Ordering and invoicing
 Reduced Library of Congress cataloging
 Actually substantial increased productivity
 So, what’s changed?
Innovative Models:
Patron Driven Acquisitions
 Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA):
 Innovative acquisitions model
 Seamless acquisition or lending of
e-books
 Purchase triggered by threshold
 Hybrid model evolving
Patron Driven Acquisitions Cycle
E-book in
PDA profile/
package
Book now
part of
collection
Patron sees
E-book in
OPAC
Book is
seamlessly
acquired
Patron
accesses
e-book
Book triggers
threshold
Changing Role of Acquisitions
PDA: Historical Context
 PDA programs emerged in early 2000’s
 Different models are developing
 For example Florida has statewide initiatives
 UF-FSU
 SUS consortium initiative
Changing Role of Acquisitions
PDA: What does it bring to the table?
 Point of demand acquisition responds to
users
 Efficient use of funds
 Research studies are inconclusive
Changing Role of Acquisitions
PDA: What are publishing issues?
Supply driven
 Muddied waters of book publishing industry
 Copyright/licensing issues
 Publishers rely on print revenue streams.
 Academic publishers like e-journal model
 E-book technology more user friendly
 Approval plan conundrum
Changing Role of Acquisitions
PDA: How does it affect acquisitions
staff and change workflow activities?

Saves time placing orders and invoicing, a
good fit in demand driven market
 Segues well with e-book market: focus - price,
delivery time, content
 Allows selectors to focus, identifying difficult to
find items, and refine strategic collection
development outcomes
Changing Role of Acquisitions
PDA: How does it affect acquisitions
staff and change workflow activities?
 Acquisitions need strong IT skill sets
 Need adaptability and flexibility
 Critical thinking skills
 Adopt new technologies as they emerge
In Summation
“On demand information delivery requires
that libraries re-conceptualize how they
provide information to users. The
fundamental library role of facilitating
access to information remains, but how
libraries accomplish this and who their
partners will be are changing significantly.”
Douglas Jones
The Future of Bibliographic Control
Scope of this discussion
 Current trends:
 Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
Description (FRBR)
 Resource Description and Access (RDA)
 Library Linked Data
 Timeline of the Collection and Organization
of the Human Record… and into the Future
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
Entity-Relationship Model
User Tasks
• Find
• Identify
• Select
• Obtain
Entity = Work
Attributes
Title
Creator
Value
Value
A Christmas Carol
Charles Dickens
Group 2 Entities
Group 1 Entities
Work
created by
Expression
realized by
Person
Family
Manifestation
Item
produced by
Corporate
Body
owned by
Final Report. Section 3.2
Group 1 Entity
Work
has as its subject
Work
Person
Expression
Manifestation
Item
Group 1 Entities
Concept
Object
Family
Event
Corporate
Body
Place
Group 2 Entities
Group 3 Entities
IFLA. Final Report. Section 3.3
AACR2 Record
RDA Record
FRBR and RDA lay the foundation
for Library Linked Data
 Now: Boxed Data (MARC record)
 Future: Library Linked Data on the Semantic
Web
A
A
C
R
2
I
S
B
D
A
A
C
R
2
M
A
R
C
Title:
The Nature and future of
the catalog / edited by
Maurice J. Freedman.
Publication:
Phoenix, AZ : Oryx Press,
1979.
Description: xvi, 317 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Notes:
Includes bibliographical
references and index.
Subject:
Cataloging--Congresses.
Added name: Freedman, Maurice J.
Next Gen Catalog
Dumb Terminal
OPAC
Boxed Data
Semantic Web & Linked Data
 Post-MARC metadata
 XML-based data sets and catalogs
Bowen, Jennifer. Moving Library Metadata toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the Exensible Catalog.
Library Linked Data
Elements of description
expressed as data sets
linked by identifiers
Linked Data
Timeline of the Collection & Organization
of the Human Record…
and into the Future
Innovations?
 Embedded Metadata:


Not only for electronic documents
Nano chip RFID embedded paper
 New interfaces for Post-MARC cataloging:



Fields for free text
Fields that auto fill
Pull down from controlled vocabularies
Bibliography
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
Bowen, Jennifer. Moving Library Metadata toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the
Exensible Catalog. Proc. Int’l Conf. on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2010. p. 44-59.
Clancy, Michael. From Memory to Written Record. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
______. Looking Back from the Invention of Printing. In Literacy in Historical Perspective. Edited
by D.P. Resnick. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1983.
Coyle, Karen. Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata. Library
Technology Reports (46:1; January 2010).
Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural
MoreRFID - Secured Digital to Introduce Nano Chip RFID Embedded Paper in Q4 2007.
<http://www.morerfid.com/details.php?subdetail=Report&action=details&report_id=3366&dis
play=RFID>. Accessed April 9, 2012.
Rubin, E. Richard. Foundations of Library and Information Science. New York: Neal-Schuman
Publishers, Inc., 2000. p. 208-261.
Transformations in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press,
1979.
Thompson, James Westfall. Ancient Libraries. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1957.
All graphics created by Annie Glerum. All images either public domain or Creative Commons
license. Attributions for timeline animation: 3000 B.C . Marcin Wichary; Book of the Dead #1.
McKay Savage; Cordoba Mihrab. James Gordon.
Online Catalog : Encoded MARC Bibliographic Record

000
01563cam a22003377a 450

001
6563162

005
20080703101713.0

008
711222s1961 dcu b 000 0 eng

010
__ |a 61064605

035
__ |a (OCoLC)ocm00185973

040
__ |a DLC |c CWR |d DLC |d OCLCQ |d BTCTA |d OCLCG |d DLC

042
__ |a lccopycat

043
__ |a n-us---

050
00 |a UA927 |b .M23 1961

100
1_ |a Mack, Raymond W.

245
14 |a The occasion instant : |b the structure of social responses to unanticipated air raid warnings / |c by Raymond W. Mack, George W.
Baker ; Foreword by Robin M. Williams, Jr.

260
__ |a Washington, |b National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, |c 1961.

300
__ |a xv, 69 p. ; |c 25 cm.

490
1_ |a National Research Council (U.S.). Disaster Research Group. Disaster study, |v no. 15

500
__ |a National Research Council. Publication 945.

504
__ |a Includes bibliographical references (p. 65-69).

650
_0 |a Civil defense |z United States.

650
_0 |a Air warfare |x Psychological aspects.

700
1_ |a Baker, George W. |q (George Walter), |d 1915- |e joint author.

810
2_ |a National Research Council (U.S.). |b Disaster Research Group. |t Disaster study ; |v no. 15.

830 _0 |a Publication (National Research Council (U.S.)) ; |v 945.

856 41 |3 Table of contents |u http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0804/61064605.html
MARC 21
ILS, CC
AACR
[1]
Current Cataloging Standards
Anglo American Cataloging Rules – AACR2
These are to be replaced with:
 Resource Description Access - RDA
 New bibliographic description standard for the
digital age
Now Libraries are being told to look to
the future and expose the bibliographic
data in our catalogs as linked data on the
Semantic Web.
Semantic Web and Linked Data
The Semantic Web is a "web of data" that
enables machines to understand the
semantics, or meaning, of information on the
World Wide Web.
"W3C Semantic Web Frequently Asked Questions". W3C. Viewed October, 18,
2011.
Current Visualization of the Linked Data Cloud [2]
Within the cloud: LCSH and VIAF [3]
 The Machine Application layer of Linked Data is
where most librarians hit a wall when getting
involved with Linked Open Data.
 The explanation of Extensible Markup Language
(XML), Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs),
Resource Description Framework (RDF) with talk
about subject, predicate, object triples is difficult
to understand.
Tim Berners-Lee (2006) the originator of the
linked data concept, outlines its four main rules:
 Use URIs as names for things
 Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those
names
 When someone looks up a URI, provide useful
information, using Web standards
 Include links to other URIs so that they can
discover more things [4]
With limited staff and very tight budgets, many
libraries will wait to see what direction the
earlier adaptors will go.
 Most Academic Libraries catalog their original
records in OCLC and then export into their local
catalogs.
 Policies and licensing issues with data is a big
concern.
In the blog “Managing Metadata” - Sept. 27,
2011 by Laura Smart @ Caltech Libraries:
» Focus instead on authority records and on
enhancing our repositories. We can add value for
our customers. Concentrate on the unique
metadata that exposes the work of the faculty,
researchers and Ph.D. graduates in our
organizations.
VIAF
Virtual International Authority File
http://viaf.org/
 VIAF, implemented and hosted by OCLC, is joint
project of several national libraries plus selected
regional and trans-national library agencies.
 The VIAF project's goal is to lower the cost and
increase the utility of library authority files by
matching and linking widely-used authority files and
making that information available on the Web.
VIAF Members
National Library of Australia
National Library of the Czech Republic
Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Egypt)
Bibliothèque nationale de France
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Getty Research Institute
National Library of Israel
Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico
(Italy)
» Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
Biblioteca Nacional de España
National Library of Sweden
Swiss National Library
Library of Congress/NACO
Vatican Library
NUKAT Center (Poland)
Library and Archives Canada
National Széchényi Library (Hungary)
RERO (Switzerland)
Russian State Library-test
VIAF
 have the “potential” for international sharing
 The authorized forms can be shared through
the VIAF project
 What is important is not the “text” but the
URI (uniform resource identifier)
 Example: http:viaf.org/viaf/35605
URI Example: http:viaf.org/viaf/35605
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
John Paul II, Pope, 1920-2005
Jean-Paul II, pape, 1920-2005
Juan Pablo II, Papa
Jean Paul II, pape
Johannes Paulus Papa, II. 1920-2005
Iohannes Paulus PP. II, 1920-2005
Jan Pavel II., papež, 1920-2005
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
Johannes Paulus II, påve, 1920-2005
Jan Paweł II (papież ; 1920-2005).
Ioannes Paulus <papa ; 2.>
John Paul II, Pope lived1920
1920-2005 ,‫ אפיפיור‬,2 ‫יוחנן פאולוס‬
.‫ م‬2005-1920 ،‫ البابا‬،‫ الثانى‬،‫يوحنا بولس‬
VIAF ID:35605
Bibliography
» “Encoding bibliographic data: the things and strings of the
semantic web”, Karen Coyle. ALA Presentation. June 24, 2011. [1]
» “Linked data: the play’s the thing”, Ed Jones. ALA Presentation.
June 24, 2011. [2-3]
» “Practical strategies for cataloging departments,” Rebecca L. Lubas,
editor. Libraries Unlimited, c2011. p. 40. [4]
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Library Technical Services Moves into the 21st Century