William Lacy SWING
Special Representative for the Democratic Republic of the Congo
MONUC
Briefing to the
Parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Defence
Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Defence
Cape Town, 23 June 2006
ISSUE: COST AND SUSTAINABILITY
UN MISSION
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: ACHIEVE TIMELY RESULTS TO REMAIN CREDIBLE
MONUC OFFICES
GBADOLITE
ARU/MAHAGI
ITURI BDE
EASTERN DIV.
BUNIA
KISANGANI
REGIONAL OFFICE
Kampala, Uganda
BENI/BUTEMBO
LOG BASE
MBANDAKA
LUBERO
GOMA
KIVU BDE N
KIVU BDE NS
LOG BASE
HQ MILITARY
KINDU
BANDUNDU
VILLE
LOG BASE
Entebbe, Uganda
BUKAVU
REGIONAL OFFICE
Kigali, Rwanda
UVIRA
HQ KINSHASA
KIKWIT
MATADI
KANANGA
KALEMIE
LOG BASE
Kigoma, Tanzania
MBUJI-MAYI
HQ Kinshasa
17 Field Offices
5 Military HQs
4 Logistics bases
3 Regional Offices
LUBUMBASHI
REGIONAL OFFICE
Pretoria, South Africa
MESSAGE: CONTINUE TO DECENTRALISE
Why the DRC Matters
One of world’s largest on-going tragedies
Potential political center of gravity for central
Africa
Latent African economic powerhouse
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: IF CONGO SUCCEEDS, ALL AFRICA PROFITS
Introduction
THREE KEY POINTS:
1. MONUC: Most sweeping changes since
1999;
2. DRC:
Unprecedented international
commitment;
3. Issues:
Most favorable constellation
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MESSAGE: CONGO IS AT CROSS ROADS
Unprecedented
International Commitment
5 international peace agreements
(Lusaka, Sun City, Pretoria, etc);
30+ UNSC resolutions;
7 UNSC Missions to DRC.
USD 4 billion+ (1999-2006) for MONUC
33 peacekeepers killed in action
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: DRC TRANSITION HAS INTL LEGAL
FRAMEWORK; FINANCES; STRUCTURE
An African process
Mbeki Masire Obasanjo Sassou N. Konare
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MESSAGE: REGIONAL SUPPORT ESSENTIAL
Core Goals
I. Elections with Stability
II. Peace and Security /
SSR
III. Address War’s Legacy
IV. Mission Support &
Reform
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I. Elections with stability
Elections and the region
Sudan (1) VAR (1) Rcongo Uganda
DRC (2) Rwanda (1) Burundi (1) Angola (4) Zambia Tanzania
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: 10 UN PKOs in 7 COUNTRIES SINCE 1960
Constitution & Essential Legislation
In Government (1)
In Parliament (2)
Promulgated (14)
Law on Voter Registration
Law on financing of
political parties
Law on Magistrates
Law on the Conseil
Superieur de la Magistrature
Law on Political Parties
Law on the IEC
Law on the TRC
Law on the High Media Auth.
Law on the National HR Ob.
Law on the Ethics and
Anti-Corruption Com.
Joint Commission: Constitution & Essential Legislation
Law on Nationality
Law on Army & Defense
Chaired by: SRSG and National Assembly President
2005 Budget
Secretariat: MONUC
Constitution
Referendum Law
Law on Amnesty
Electoral law
MESSAGE: LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR ELECTIONS SET
I. Elections with stability
Elections
Challenges for the Elections:
Largest country (2,344,885 sq km)
Largest electorate (25.6 million)
First free and fair elections in 40 years
Last census 1984; no ID cards
53,000 Polling stations, 300,000 poll workers
“Europe without roads”
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: LARGEST ELECTIONS UN HAS ASSISTED
I. Elections with stability
Elections
Challenges for the Elections (2):
Stringent deadlines
Funding and equipment
Intl technical support
Civic education
Tense political environment
Security situation
Supreme Court of Justice credibility
Transport of cash for payments
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
I. Elections with stability
Electoral process
Some achievements so far:
25.6 million voters registered
 New Constitution adopted at a referendum
 33 presidential; 9,632 parliamentary, 10,000+
provincial assembly candidates
 Process at point of no return
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
I. Elections with stability
Candidates: statistics (1)
Some statistics:
33 Presidential candidates
 9,632 candidates for 500 seats in Parliament in 169
districts
 17 candidates per seat on average
 56 per seat in Kinshasa, 12 in Equateur and Maniema
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
I. Elections with stability
Candidates: statistics (2)
Have registered as candidates:
80% of current MPs
 70% of Government members
 60% of incumbent Governors and D/Gov.
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
I. Elections with stability
Candidates: statistics (3)
Candidates of 218 parties for 500 seats:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Alliance présidentielle : 1,100+
CODECO: 600+
MLC: 435
RCD: 425
UNADEC: 400
Forces du renouveau (RCD-KML+): 430
PALU: 200
Démocratie Chrétienne: 200
I. Elections with stability
Electoral process: UN role
Electoral assistance (MONUC, UNDP)
 Electoral funds management, incl. procurement (UNDP)
Logistics to and beyond 166 local sites (MONUC)
 Security in Eastern DRC (MONUC)
Public information (MONUC/Okapi)
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: UN’S ROLE ESSENTIAL TO DRC ELECTIONS
ISSUE 1: MORE STAFF & AIRCRAFT NEEDED
I. Elections with stability
Electoral Security
Concerns:
FARDC/PNC:
Congolese National Police
No equipment, weak
support
MONUC Force:
Limited, focused
on East (13/15 batts)
DDRRR:
10,000 foreign
combatants
DDR:
150,000 Congolese
combatants
Presidential Guard
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
ISSUE: INTL SUPPORT FOR FARDC AND PNC
I. Elections with stability
DDR & Integration
150,000+ (est.) combatants in FARDC
123,159 processed:
 79,659 demobilized, of which 17,000 children
 38,293 re-integrated in the FARDC
 80,000 weapons collected
75,000+ remaining most difficult
PERSISTENT DELAYS, BLOCKAGES
MONUC’S ROLE:
(1) Secure orientation centres with FARDC/CNP;
(2) Disarm and control armament with SMI, CONADER;
(3) Dispose of defective arms/munitions.
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MONUC Police: FPUs
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
ISSUE: RETAIN FPUs AFTER ELECTIONS
Duties of the 6 MONUC FPU
1. Support MONUC Police Activities
Protect UN officials and police in the discharge of their duties
Support MONUC Police tactically and operationally
2. Crowd Control and Public Security
Rapid response and public order capacity
Manage crowd / riot situations
Fill potential security vacuum during subsequent UN military
withdrawal
other mandated duties
Duties of the 6 MONUC FPU
3. Assistance to the National Police (PNC)
Give PNC rapid crowd control and public order capacity
Assist and train PNC to develop this capacity
4. Assistance to Humanitarian Agencies
and other Organizations the UN supports
Assist the humanitarian agencies and other organizations
acknowledged by the United Nations
I. Elections with stability
Public Information
Supporting
MONUC’s mandate
Listeners: 30 million+
Cov. pop.: 80% FM, 100% SW,
on satellite, on internet
7 days a week, 24-hours
a day in five languages.
The only national radio
Crucial to ‘elections with
stability’
[PMG note: map & graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: PRESERVE OKAPI’S PROFESSIONAL, IMPARTIAL
VOICE
Until December 2006
I. Elections with stability
BUDGET :
Finances
Description
Budget (USD)
INDEPENDENT ELECTORAL COMM. (CEI)
40,000,000
BUREAU NATIONAL DES OPERATIONS
14,504,941
APEC TECHNICAL UNIT
15,896,596
REGISTRATION
98,273,952
REFERENDUM
25,814,505
COMBINED POLLS
110,073,080
LOGISTICS
103,503,151
SECURITY
50,700,000
Total
458,846,225
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: STRONG INTL SUPPORT FOR ELECTIONS
I. Elections with stability
Comparative Costs
Country
Cost (USD) Population Polls Cost/capita/Poll
DRC
422 M
Liberia
17.5 M
Afghanistan
170 M
Haiti
41 M
60 M
5
1.4
3M
1
5.8
30 M
1
5.7
8.4 M
4
1.2
Log.+Sec. incl.
Cost/Capita/Poll
6
5
4
USD 3
2
1
0
DRC
Liberia
Afghanistan
Country
Remarks
Haiti
I. Elections with stability
Geographical challenge
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MESSAGE: UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
A continent-sized country…
213 times larger than Kosovo;
86 times larger than Burundi;
24 times larger than Liberia;
or, the same size as…
Portugal,
Spain, Italy,
France, Switzerland,
Belgium Luxembourg,
Netherlands,
Germany,
Denmark,
Austria, Poland
…combined
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
I. Elections with stability
Geographical challenge
Cambodia Liberia Democratic Republic
of the Congo Sierra Leone Haiti Côte
d’Ivoire Afghanistan Sierra Leone
AREAS:
2,345,410 sq km (DRC)
1,180,820 sq km
(Afghanistan +
Cote d’Ivoire + Haiti +
Liberia + Sierra Leone)
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
FORCE
COMMANDER’S
SCHEME OF
MANOEUVRE
FORCE HQ
KINSHASA
DIVISIONAL HQ
KISANGANI
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: TROOP LEVELS INADEQUATE, DIV HQ VITAL
DEPLOYMENT IN ITURI - 77 220 km2
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: HETEROGENEOUS BRIGADE INADVISABLE
REINFORCEMENT IN THE KIVUS:
NORTH KIVU BRIGADE
-
A+
7,300 troops at 13 locations in an area
5 times
II
larger than Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
and Burundi combined.
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
-
roops at 13 locations in an area 5 times
2/ IIICoast C
han Sierra Leone,
2/ IIILiberia, AIvory
rundi combined.
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
REINFORCEMENT IN THE KIVUS
NORTH AND SOUTH KIVU BRIGADES
7,300 troops at 13 locations in an area 5 times
larger than Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
and Burundi combined.
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
II. Peace and Security
Foreign Armed Groups
Rwandan: FDLR [7,000 - 8,000]
Ugandan: ADF/NALU [1,500 – 2,000] & LRA
Burundian: FNL [<500?]
Threat to local population and regional relations
Local business/political interests
Increasing FARDC / MONUC military pressure
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: FAGs MENACE DRC PEOPLE, REGIONAL
RELATIONS, BUT NOT DRC ELECTIONS OR NEIGHBOURS
DDRRR Strategy
1. Political pressure:
• Security Council/Tripartite sanctions Neighbors and Governments to
support peace process
• Denial of safe havens/rear bases
2. Military Measures:
• Area Domination Missions
• Joint FARDC-MONUC operations
• Establishment of arms-free zones (cordon and search operations)
• Dismantlement of illegal checkpoints/road tax blockades
3. Justice:
• Arrest of Gedeon; and“India Queen
•Arrest of General Jerome Kakuavu and Kisembo from the Ituri militias
•Arrest of General Widi , FARDC commander of the 6e military region
•ICC extraditions: e.g. Thomas Lubanga
•Arrest of FDLR Leader Murwanashyaka
•Uganda arrest of MRC leaders
•Extradition treaties
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR: Building
military pressure
Objectives:
Protect the population
Dominate foreign group-held areas


Means: Area domination, show of force, deterrence
(« Iron Fist », « Falcon Sweep », «Thunder Storm », etc. )
Constraints:
MONUC: Inadequate mapping;
FARDC: Poor log & ops support
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR: statistics
12 June 2006
REPATRIATED
Ex-cbts
Civilians
Total
Rwandan
4, 537
4,316
8,853
Ugandan
415
292
707
Burundese
3,656
124
3,780
Total
8,608
4,732
13,340
KILLED
Ex-cbts
Civilians
Total
Rwandan
43
0
43
Ugandan
99
0
99
8
0
8
150
0
150
Burundese
Total
* Shows reduction in number of foreign combatants and dependents on DRC territory, whether by repatriation or death.
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR: statistics
Cumulative repatriations
16000
14000
13340
12664 12992
12112
11883
11638
11754
13082
12845
11368 11453
10788 10925 11187
10629
11694 11793 11964 12279
11033 11273 1140511555
10758 10842
12000
10000
10469
9290
8000
6000
6732
4000
4613
2477 2749
1851
2937
2000
1396
2582
2344
1040
1650
823 1316
0
Oc
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No
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De
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5
J an
. 06
Feb
Ma
r. 2
006
14 Ju n
-06
Sep
Aug
J ul
Ma
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J un
Ma
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Apr
Sep
t
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4
J an
. 05
Feb
Jun
J ul
Aug
Ma
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Ma
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Apr
Sep
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3
J an
. 04
Feb
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Aug
Ma
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Apr
Ma
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J un
Feb
J an
. 03
MESSAGE: VOLUNTARY DDRRR AT STANDSTILL, POL;
MILITARY; LEGAL PRESSURE REQUIRED
II. Peace and Security
Ituri Armed Groups
OPPORTUNITIES
10,000 FARDC and 5,000 Blue Helmets in Ituri
Build-up in FARDC-MONUC ops
Ending impunity: T. Lubanga extradited / 7-8 in Kampala detention, several in
DRC jails
« India Queen »
LIMITATIONS
MAIN PROBLEM: illegal weapons – illegal exports syndrome
DCR payments ending 30 June
Elections: reduced operational tempo
Weak FARDC ops & log capacity
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MARCH 2005: AREAS OF OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
Mahagi
Kwandruma
Tche
Fataki
Tchomia
Kaseny
Aveba
Ndre Marobo
le
Marobo
Gina
Kafe
Mambasa
Mahag
Mongwalu
Mambasa Marobo
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
ARU
Aru
AUGUST 2005: AREAS OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
Mongwalu
Kwandruma
Mahagi
Kasenyi
Fataki
Tche
Gina
Marabo
Mambasa
Kafe
Bunia
Aveba
Tchomia
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
Aru
MAY 2006: AREAS OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
Mongwalu
Fataki
Mahagi
Gina
Kwandruma
Tche
Mambasa
Tchomia
Marabo
Bunia
Kafe
Kasenyi
[PMG note: map not included, please email [email protected]]
Essential Tasks: Army integration
NYALEKE
KISANGANI
RUMANGABO
KITONA
LUBERIZI
KAMINA
Army brassage center
Army/DDR Orientation
centre MORE IMPORTANT THAN NUMBER
MESSAGE:
QUALITY
II. Peace and Security
New Army (FARDC): Status
TG Objective: 3 waves x 6 Integrated Brigades by Elections
1st WAVE
2nd WAVE
3rd WAVE
Brigades
Training
Deployment
Donor
1st
Jan-Jun 04
Ituri
Belgium
2nd
Jan-May 05
North Kivu (Rutshuru)
Angola
3rd
Feb-Jun 05
South Kivu (Bukavu)
Belgium-RSA
4 th
Apr-Aug 05
Ituri (border areas)
DRC
5th
Jul-Sep 05
Re-deployment
DRC
6th
Jul-Sep 05
Ituri (mining areas)
DRC
- 7th , 8th and 9th ready and waiting deployment
- 10th, 11th and 12th to be ready shortly
MAY – ? 06
- SIX BDES
II. Peace and Security
FARDC: Short-term requirements
• 9 integrated Brigades:
– 3 Bdes Ituri
– 3 Bdes North Kivu
– 3 Bdes South Kivu
•
•
•
Logistics: food, water, medical,
transport
TG to provide arms and ammunition,
optical, accommodation and medical
support
DONORS NEEDED: clothing, individual
equipment, communications
equipment, vehicles, nautical assets
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: URGENT INTL SUPPORT REQUIRED
II. Peace and Security
Regional relations
FRAMEWORKS
Joint Verification Mechanisms
DRC/Rwanda
DRC/Uganda
Tripartite+ Commission
ACHIEVEMENTS:
Joint Verification Missions
Intelligence Fusion Cell
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
ISSUE: JVC DORMANT
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
4 million+ deaths in 6 years
380,000 assisted DRC refugees
1.6 million IDPs: almost ½ children
1,200 preventable deaths / day;
1 “tsunami” every 7 months
40,000/month flee their homes
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
71% of pop. food insecure,
8% access clean water
43% of children no access to
vaccinations; 1 in 5 die < 5 years.
43% go to school (mostly boys)
2.6 million+ HIV-infected;
+900,000 expected in 2006
168/177 in UNDP Human Development
Index
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
UN Response: ACTION PLAN 2006/7
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
MONUC’s action:
Humanitarian Affairs Section
Protection of civilians
Humanitarian access
Humanitarian personnel and cargo
Facilitation of return and resettlement
Emergency medical transportation
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Refugees & IDPs
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
CONGOLESE REFUGEES IN AFRICA
[PMG note: graphics & maps not included, please email [email protected]]
IV. Mission Support & Reform
SEA: Impact
Damages Individuals and Communities
Defames UN and Member States
Jeopardizes Mission’s Credibility
Related Areas of Concern
(Sexual Violence; HIV/AIDS; etc.)
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
IV. Mission Support & Reform
Conduct and Discipline Team
Focal point for all conduct & discipline matters
relating to all categories of mission personnel:
Policy Development
prevention/early detection, welfare, disciplinary
measures, coordination
Training & Advocacy pre-deployment, induction/in mission personnel,
sensitization of local communities.
Database Management System:
record and track all allegations of
misconduct by all categories of mission personnel
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
IV. Mission Support & Reform
Investigations
 June to December 2004
OIOS:
OHRM:
72 allegations; 7 substantiated (GA Document)
5 civilian allegations
 December 2004 to September 2005
SEA Team, OASEA: 131 allegations; 46 substantiated
(High Level Investigation Team, Office for Addressing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse)
 September 2005 to May 2006
OIOS:
174 allegations received, including 102 Category I SEA
12 Investigation reports received on SEA, 5 substantiated
(Investigations of all Category I misconduct)
ISSUE: OIOS LIMITED INVESTIGATIVE CAPACITY,
PROCEDURES
IV. Mission Support & Reform
Disciplinary Actions To Date
December 2004 – May 2006 Total actions: 181
CIVILIAN PERSONNEL:
20 actions taken or initiated
7 Pending disciplinary action
1 suspension with pay,
1 suspension without pay,
3 charged,
2 under review
13 actions taken, cases closed
7 summarily dismissed (4 civilians, 3 UNVs)
3 Reprimand (not disciplinary): (UNVs)
2 Non renewal of contract: (1 civilian, 1 UNV)
1 Resignation
MILITARY PERSONNEL:
 41 repatriated on disciplinary grounds
POLICE PERSONNEL:
 120-member FPU withdrawn; (including 10 repatriations on disciplinary grounds)
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
IV. Mission Support & Reform
SEA
ISSUES
Follow up mechanism with TCCs
OIOS investigative capacity and
procedures
Welfare Policy
Pre-deployment training
Victim support
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post Elections: juncture
MONUC:
Future and Role depend on DRC Government and
Security Council
Staying the course: Lessons learned from Haiti, Liberia
and Sierra Leone
From peacekeeping to peacebuilding
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post Elections: MONUC
Post transitional peace building
 Help establish new institutions
 DDRRR / DDR / SSR (Army & Police)
Protection of civilians
Regional relations / stability
 Rule of law / Justice & Reconciliation
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
MESSAGE: BUILD SUSTAINMENT STRATEGY NOW
Post Elections Stability
REQUIREMENTS:
Political INCLUSIVENESS
 Better ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT
Administrative DECENTRALISATION
Cultural TOLERANCE
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post Elections Stability
ISSUE: POST ELECTORAL
Avoid “winner-take-all” victors
& “rejectionist” losers
Interregnum governance (Jul-Dec)
Economic situation:
no IMF/IBRD budget support
$ 699 M Humanitarian Action plan
under-funded
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post Elections Stability
Example: Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ)
Issue 1: Controversial decisions erode SCJ’s credibility
Amnesty law
Turncoat Parliamentarians lose seats
Issue 2: SJC to adjudicate electoral disputes
Proposed solution:
 Appoint “Eminent Persons” Group as SCJ Counselors
(e.g. Tutu, Richard Goldstone, Professeur Masclet, Albie Sachs)
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post-Electoral Concerns
Economic
IMF: staff-monitored program only
World Bank: no further budget support in 2006
Humanitarian action ($681 million): under-funded
[PMG note: graphics not included, please email [email protected]]
Post Elections: “Hour-glass”
A Post Electoral “Expectations Gap”
HIGH
LOW
2000
HIGH
ELECTIONS
2006
LOW
2007+
Peacebuilding Blocks
Voter registration
Essential
legislation
Refugee and
IDP returns
DDRRR
Electoral
security
Constitutional
Referendum
Extension of
State authority
Integrated National
Integrated
Army and DDR
National Police
ISSUE: MOST TRANSITION TASKS REMAIN
MONUC
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