Lesson 12:
E-Commerce Practices
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ITD 110 Web Page Design
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Objectives
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Compare e-commerce to traditional commerce
Define e-commerce terms and concepts
Relate the concept of supply chain to e-commerce
Identify payment models used in e-commerce
Identify ways to protect private transactions
Identify issues related to working in a global
environment
• Identify ways to build e-commerce relationships
using Web-based technology
Traditional Commerce
vs. E-Commerce
• Similarities
– Both aim to deliver a valued product or service
– Both want to serve a large audience
– Both strive to quickly deliver products and services
• Differences
– E-commerce customers expect shorter fulfillment time
– E-commerce customers must understand Web-based
technologies
– E-commerce provides a global audience
– E-commerce orders are processed without human
interaction or travel to a store location
– E-commerce relies upon encryption for security
E-Commerce Models
• Business to consumer (B2C)
– Targets consumers or end users, and sells
products and/or services
• Amazon.com, small business sites
• Business to business (B2B)
– Helps organizations to manage relationships
and transactions with other businesses
• B2BExchange
• Consumer to consumer
– Not a traditional B2C model
• eBay
Business and Internet
Technologies
• Traditional businesses also use e-commerce
– Not an either/or proposition
– Web technologies make traditional
business more efficient
• E-commerce concepts:
– Supply chain management
– Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
– B2B information sharing
– Internet marketing
Supply Chain Management
• The ability to manage the process that
generates a product and distributes it to
customers
– You must manage the process that begins
with raw materials and ends with a product
delivered to a consumer
– Customer can be:
• An end user
• Another business that resells your
product after adding value to it, known
as a Value Added Reseller (VAR)
Supply Chain Management (cont’d)
• Traditional supply chain management model
• Professionals running e-commerce sites
increasingly need to understand this model
Supply Chain Management (cont’d)
• Supply chain management involves the
following business aspects:
– Product demand
– Information flow
– Finance management
• Essential supply chain management terms
– Upstream and downstream
– Capacity requirements plan
– Additional terms found in coursebook
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
• Use of software to create an automated plan for
company operations
• ERP goal -- enhance communication among all
company departments and divisions through
software automation
• Accomplished through automation of tasks and
reporting
• All company/organization departments involved
• Common terms:
– Bolt-on system
– Application programming interface (API)
– Library
B2B Information Sharing
with XML
• XML allows information to be indexed once,
then used in many different applications and
companies
• DTD limitations
• XML schema
Internet Marketing
• More than technical knowledge is needed
– Relationship to the business, including the
marketing department
• Marketing terms
E-Commerce Information-Formatting
Technologies
• When businesses need to exchange
information, they must agree upon universal
information-formatting methods
• The two most common ways to format
information are:
– Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
– Open Buying on the Internet (OBI)
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
• A universal method for formatting information so it
can be transferred among organizations
• In place for over 20 years
• Useful for exchanging:
– Invoices
– Bills
– Purchase orders
– Inventory lists
– Supply chain information
• EDI implementation and drawbacks
• EDI and XML
Open Buying on the Internet (OBI)
• Designed as an alternative to EDI
• Developed to target high-volume, low-cost
transactions
– These account for almost 80 percent of
most companies' purchasing activities
• OBI components
• OBI transactions
• OBI and EDI
• OBI and XML
E-Commerce
Payment Technologies
• Payment technologies include:
– Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
– Payment gateways
– Secure Electronic Transactions (SET)
– Open Trading Protocol (OTP)
– Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) / Transport
Layer Security (TLS)
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
• A generic term that describes the ability to transfer
funds using computers rather than paper
• Also known as wire transfer
• EFT systems must ensure:
– Confidentiality of payment information
– Integrity of payment information
– Merchant authentication
– Interoperability
• Automated Clearing House (ACH)
– Governed in the United States by the National
Automated Clearing House Association
– Used in EFT
Payment Gateway
• Mediates between a merchant and a merchant
bank
• Once the merchant receives payment from a
customer, the merchant uses the payment gateway
to transmit credit card information to the bank
• Responsibilities:
– Forwarding information
– Authenticating participants
– Ensuring confidentiality
– Ensuring data integrity
• Payment gateway companies
Secure Electronic
Transactions (SET)
• Uses digital certificates to secure financial
transactions
• Public and private keys ensure encryption,
data confidentiality and non-repudiation
• Designed to allow both simple and complex
transactions
• History of SET
• SET example
• SET vs. conventional transactions
Open Trading Protocol (OTP)
• Alternative to SET
– An open standard (RFC 2802)
– Used for both B2C and B2B
– Often used with XML
• OTP features:
– Provides trading protocol options to control the
way that the trade occurs
– Provides a record of a particular trade
– Supports real and virtual delivery of goods and
services (payment tracking)
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) /
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
• Not transaction methods
• Used to secure transactions
• Services provided:
– Authentication
– Data confidentiality
– Data integrity
SSL/TLS and
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
• You need a certificate to enable host
authentication before you can begin an SSL
session
• Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
– A collection of individuals, networks and
machines that comprise the ability to
authoritatively confirm the identity of a
person, host or organization
PKI Elements
• PKI elements include:
– Digital certificate
– Certificate authority (CA)
– Registration authority (RA)
– Certificate server
– Certification chain
Digital Certificates and X.509
• Digital certificates used in PKI conform to the ITU
X.509 standard
• X.509 describes how to format digital certificates
PKCS Standards
• Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS)
– Used to store and transport certificates
• PKCS #7
– Used to secure e-mail certificates
• PKCS #10
– Used to generate a certificate request to a
certificate authority (CA)
Certificate Life Cycle
• Certificates usually have a limited life (e.g., 1
month, 2 years, 6 years)
• Life cycle helps reduce the likelihood of fraud
• Terms include:
– Certificate policy
– Certificate Practice Statement (CPS)
– Certificate expiration
– Certificate revocation
– Certificate suspension
– Certificate renewal
– Certificate revocation list (CRL)
– Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
Additional SSL/TLS Concepts
• The SSL/TLS handshake
• Common applications
• Beginning an SSL/TLS session
– Encryption begins after authentication
– Issues:
• Different host name
• Certificate expired
• Certificate date not yet valid
• Invalid certificate format
• Certificate presented by the server not
signed by a recognized CA
• Incompatible encryption settings
Working in a Global Environment
• By placing your business on the Web, you
expand your audience to include anyone in the
world with a browser and Internet access
• Consider the level to which you will
accommodate potential customers from
countries outside yours
– Issues to consider include:
• Currency exchange rates
• International shipping
• Language concerns
• Relationship management
Currency and Trade
• Each country (e.g., China) and economic block
(e.g., European Union) uses its own currency
• Businesses and organizations must be able
to:
– Automatically calculate exchange rates for
the day of the transaction
– Calculate taxes and tariffs on goods
• Taxes, tariffs and trade
International Shipping
• Consider the following issues:
– Customs searches
– Costs incurred by customs
– Delays caused by customs
– All tariffs
• Legal and regulatory issues
Language Concerns
• As you develop an e-commerce site, consider
the following issues:
– The language(s) used by the target
audience
– The characters necessary (e.g.,
alphanumeric, mathematical or currency
symbols)
• Character sets and languages
– Computers can use different character sets
– Unicode
Relationship Management
• Building trust
– Quality customer service
– Frequent contact
• Customer self-service
– Automatic order tracking
– Unattended choice
– Order customization
Lesson 12 Summary
• Lesson 12 Ecommerce Practices
• See Skills Review
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