Journal Entry: Have you ever been on a road trip, whether it be with friends or family? How was it? How did you feel about a long trip with a semilarge group of people? What did you do to stay entertained during the hours of travel? What was the purpose of the journey? Are you a fan of road trips or extended journeys with other people? Why or why not. Get your brains moving… MIDDLE ENGLISH, THE MIDDLE AGES, AND THE CANTERBURY TALES Recap—You can’t proceed into the future without referring to the past. Old English Celts Roman invasion 53 B.C. Germanic Conquest 449 A.D. Converted to Christianity 597 A.D. English Old English 449-1100 Middle English 1100-1500 Early Modern English 1500-1800 Present Day English 1800-Present Progression: Old English to Middle English https://eee.uci.edu/programs/medieval/a udio.html MIDDLE ENGLISH “Toward the close of the Old English period an event occurred that had a greater effect on the English language than any other in the course of its history.” The Norman Conquest in 1066 “The Norman Conquest changed the whole course of the English language. An event of such far-reaching consequences must be considered in some detail.” The Norman Conquest (1066) Normandy was an area of modern day France. Derives its name from the bands of Northmen who settled there, similar to the Danelaw (same time). Before the Norman Conquest, relations between England (A.S.) and Normandy (Northman) was close. A long chain of events occurred that led to the fall of the Anglo-Saxons and the rise of the Middle Ages (and Middle English). Break it down Mr. T… King Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon ruler of England, dies without an heir. Three men grab at the crown Harold Godwinson (earl of Wessex) ○ Actually had the crown for a while, step brother to E.T.C. Duke William (Normandy) ○ Distantly related to E.T.C. and claimed that he promised him the throne. ○ Was given the name William the Conquerer Harald Hadrada (King of Norway) Break it down Mr. T… Battle of Stamford Bridge-Sept. 16th, 1066 King Harald of Norway invades England and is met by Harold Godwinson, current English King. The English were victorious, but their army suffered damages and were weakened. King Harald was killed in battle. This adversely affected England’s ability and capacity to repel the Norman invasion. The Battle of Hastings-Oct. 14th, 1066 After an hour, Norman army was badly damaged. Amateur move by the English king led them to attack. King Harold is hit in the eye with an arrow and dies. You Go Mr. T… On Christmas Day, 1066, William is crowned King of England marking the end of the Old English/AngloSaxon period. Domesday Book By 1086, Englishmen held on about 1/20th of landed wealth in England. Normans held most of the positions of authority. (Court, Church, etc.) The king of England does not speak English, but Norman French! William wanted to rule the Anglo-Saxons, not eliminate them. Today, as a result, we have a culture and language that combines Norman and Anglo-Saxon elements. Middle Ages and the birth of the Medieval Times Anglo-Saxons Democratic and artistic tendencies Normans Adminstrative ability, emphasis on law and order, and cultural unity Normans kept their rule in Normandy as well as their rule in England As a result, William divided the holdings of the fallen English landowners among his own followers. When brought over to England, they brought feudalism with them. The term "medieval" comes from the Latin meaning "middle age.” Middle Ages and the birth of the Medieval Times As the population grew, an increasing number of people lived in towns and cities. Development of city classes Lower, middle, and upper This progression is evident in the work of Geoffrey Chaucer. The Crusades (1095-1270) War between Christians and Muslims for the holy land, Jerusalem. Contact brought mathematics, astronomy, architecture , and crafts. Opened up the door to the life that we see in Chaucer’s work. Middle Ages and the birth of the Medieval Times Thomas a Beckett “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” Said by the king about Thomas a Beckett. 4 knights took this literally and murdered him in his own cathedral. Led to corruption within the Church (Catholic church) ○ Public outrage caused a backlash against the king. When there were abuses within the Church, the king could not use his influence to correct them. (power shift) The Magna Carta (1215) Became the basis for English constitutional law. Limited the monarch’s power. No taxes without representation. Established first democratic ideals. Middle Ages and the birth of the Medieval Times Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Between England and France Gradually developed an English national consciousness Black Death (1348-1349) Bubonic plague Reduced the nation’s population by a third ○ Causing a labor shortage Resulted in the freedom for the serfs Greater power for the lower classes Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Father of English poetry In the time of Latin and French, it was not fashionable for serious poets to write in English. Composed in the vernacular—the everyday language spoken in London and the East Midlands. Born into middle class London. Served as a government official. Began writing The Canterbury Tales in 1387 Famous for his use of language, wit, and personality. “In a dark, troubled age, he was a comfortable optimist, serene, full of faith.” Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Used several metrical (meter) forms. Iambic pentameter Based on 10 syllables Unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. It is a rhythm that most closely matches the way English is spoken. And bathed every veyne in swich licour Abandoned the alliterative Anglo-Saxon world for lines of meter. Heroic couplet- Two lines of rhyming iambic pentameter. A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used for epic and narrative poetry. **Tip** Let punctuation and meaning guide your reading instead of the lines. The Canterbury Tales A collection of stories and a snapshot, a picture frozen in time, of life in the Middle Ages. Pilgrimage A religious journey to a shrine or holy place. Where? Why? Begins during spring Archetypal time of new life and awakening. Poet-pilgrim narrator Considered to be Chaucer himself Quest narrative Frame story A story within a story. Terms and concepts to know: Feudalism- A social (caste), economic, and political system consisting of God, kings/overlords, barons/vassals, knights, and serfs A hierarchy with God as the supreme overlord. Simply put, it was an exchange of land, which was power, for military devotion and services. Vassal-A holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage (public respect) and allegiance. Serf- A laborer that was bound to his lord, usually not even allowed to leave the land they maintained. Chivalry- A knight’s code of conduct. 1st obligation to defend his lord, the king, and the Christian faith, but the code also covered how to treat a lady, how to help others, and how to resist the urge to run away if captured. Terms and concepts to know: Chivalry comes from French and is related to cheval, the word for ‘horse.’ In French, a chevalier was a knight who rode a horse. Knighthood was founded in the feudal idea of loyalty. Chivalry led to an idealized attitude toward women and gave rise to a new form of literature, the romance. (foreshadowing) Irony-The expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite. Typically for humorous or emphatic effect. Sarcasm Satire- The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people’s stupidity or vices. Often used to convey insults or scorn. Terms and concepts to know: Imagery- Visually descriptive or figurative language. Visual symbolism Appealing to the ‘senses’ Genre- A category of literary composition characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter. Allegory- A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. Suggestive Moral Charity: Serves God and others. Cupidity: Self serving/greedy Our new unit… Class Set Packet Verse vs. Prose Poetry Differentiated reading strategies Aloud (popcorn style) Self To you Process Vocab read in class discussion & activities Concerns? Major project The Canterbury digitales Things to remember… The journey is the destination You have to be here anyway Give yourself over to the reading It WILL help, especially as the texts get more difficult Poetry is meant to evoke emotion Use your brains Read between the lines Learn, have fun, grow, and be nice to me.