The EU Citizenship A little quiz • • • • • • • • • What is the EU? When and how was the EU established? Which are the founding states? Why was the EU established? How is the EU organised? What are main roles of European Parliament? What are the Copenhagen criteria? What are the EU symbols? What is the motto of the EU? What is the European Union? • economic and political partnership between 28 democratic European countries primarily located in Europe When and how was the EU established? • established by the Treaty of Mastricht on November 1, 1993 upon the fundations of the European Communities Founding states • Six original founding states – Belgium, France, (then – West) Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands • Today European Union is composed of 28 sovereign Member States Why was the EU established? • It was set up to bring peace, stability and prosperity for its citizens – in a fairer, safer world How is EU organised? • To realize all goals, EU countries set up bodies to run the EU and adopt its legislation: • • • • • • • • • The European Parliament The Council of the European Union The European Commission The Court of Justice The Court of Auditors The European Economic and Social Commitee The Commitee of the Regions The European Central Bank The Europe Investment Bank EU bodies The decision making triangle • The European Parliament (representing the people of Europe) • The Council of the Europen Union (representing national goverments) • The European Commission (representing the common EU interests) The decision making triangle The European Parliament • Elected every five years by the people of Europe • Has the power to dismiss the European Commission • Members of the European Parliament are members of Europe-wide political groups • The main meetings of the Parliament are held in Strasbourg (France) • Parliament works in all 24 official EU languages • Martin Shulz is the current President Roles • The European Parliament has three main roles: • debating and passing European laws, with the Council • scrutinising other EU institutions, particularly the Commission, to make sure they are working democratically • debating and adopting the EU's budget, with the Council. The Council of the European Union • EU’s principal decision-making body • Defines the general political direction and priorities of the European Union • In charge of the EU’s foreign, security and defence policies, and responsible for key decisions on justice and freedom issues • Consists of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission • meets twice every six months, convened by its President • Current President is Herman Van Rompuy The European Commission • EU's executive organ which represents and upholds the interests of Europe as a whole • drafts proposals for new European laws, which it presents to the European Parliament and the Council • manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and spending EU funds • also seen as the motor of European integration • currently composed of 28 commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state • Current Commission President is José Manuel Barroso Copenhagen criteria • To join the EU a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993 Copenhagen European Council. These require: • a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law • a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU • the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law Member states • Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council and they must have a public administration capable of applying and managing EU laws in practice. • No member state has ever left the Union • Official candidate countries: FYR Macedonia, Montenegreo, Serbia and Turkey. • Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina are officially recognised as potential candidates. The EU Symbols • The European flag • The 12 stars in a circle symbolise the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony amog the people of Europe. The European anthem • The melody comes from the Ninth Symphony by Beethoven, it is called “Ode to Joy” • When this music is used as the European anthem, it has no words. • Europe Day, 9 May • The ideas behind what is now the European Union were first put forward on 9 May 1950 in a speach by the then French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman. • Each year, 9 May is celebrated as the EU’s EU Motto • „United in diversity”. EU Citizenship EU Citizenship • Any person who holds the nationality of an EU country is automatically also an EU citizen. • EU citizenship is additional to and does not replace national citizenship. It is for each EU country to lay down the conditions for the acquisition and loss of nationality of that country. From the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU: • Citizens of the Union shall enjoy the rights and be subject to the duties provided for in the Treaties. • They shall have, inter alia: • • (a) the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States; • (b) the right to vote and to stand as candidates in elections to the European Parliament and in municipal elections in their Member State of residence, under the same conditions as nationals of that State; (c) the right to enjoy, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which they are nationals is not represented, the protection of the diplomatic and consular authorities of any Member State on the same conditions as the nationals of that State; • (d) the right to petition the European Parliament, to apply to the European Ombudsman, and to address the institutions and advisory bodies of the Union in any of the Treaty languages and to obtain a reply in the same language. Economy • Since its origin, the EU has established a single economic market across the territory of all its members. • Currently, a single currency is in use between the 16 members of the eurozone. • EU has the largest economy in the world and the second largest trade bloc economy in the world. • It is the largest exporter, and the largest importer of goods and services, and the biggest trading partner to several large countries. Military and defence • The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a strong military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. • Twenty-two EU members are members of NATO while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality. Humanitarian aid • The European Commissions Humanitarian Aid Office, or „ECHO“, provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. • Counting the EU's own contributions and those of its member states together, the EU is the largest aid donor in the world. EU’s mission in the 21st century • Provide peace, prosperity and stability for its people • Overcome the divisions on the continent • Ensure that its people can live in safety • Promote balanced economic and social development • Meet the challenges of globalisation and preserve the diversity of the people of Europe • Uphold the values that Europeans share, such as sustainable development and a sound environment, respect for human rights and the social market economy. Some positive results so far • • • • • • • • • Frontier – free travel and trade The Euro (the single European Currency) Safer food and greener environment Better living standards in poorer regions Joint action on crime and terror Cheaper phone calls Millions of opportunities to study abroad Freedom, security and justice for all Equal chances for everyone A brief history of the EU • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgnXwrsMBUs Translate the following: • Europska unija jedinstveno je gospodarsko i političko partnerstvo 28 europskih država koje zajedno pokrivaju velik dio kontinenta. Europska unija osnovana je nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Sve je počelo poticanjem gospodarske suradnje s namjerom da zemlje koje međusobno trguju postanu gospodarski ovisne jedna o drugoj i time izbjegavaju sukobe. Tako je 1958. nastala Europska ekonomska zajednica (EEZ) kojom je u početku pojačana gospodarska suradnja šest zemalja: Belgije, Njemačke, Francuske, Italije, Luksemburga i Nizozemske. Otada se stvaralo ogromno jedinstveno tržište koje se i dalje razvija u smjeru dostizanja svog punog potencijala. Suggested translation • The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries that together cover much of the continent.The EU was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. The result was the European Economic Community (EEC), created in 1958, and initially increasing economic cooperation between six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Since then, a huge single market has been created and continues to develop towards its full potential. Thank you for your attention!