Principles of Learning and
Teaching (PLT)
from the Praxis II Series
Test Preparation Session
Created by Dr. Diane Kern
Assistant Professor,
University of Rhode Island, School of Education
What we’ll do and why
Prepare for PLT…time well spent!
 RI Teacher Certification
 Exit from Rhode Island Teacher
Education programs
 Become familiar with exam
 Reduce stress, raise confidence, save
 Self-diagnose areas to study further
The PLT Exam Basics
K-6 OR 5-9 OR 7-12…at this time in RI you’ll want to
either take the K-6 or the 7-12
Two hour exam
Test Dates & RI Test Centers
Registration & Cost
Test Takers with Disabilities
Primary Language Not English
Your Scores & Score Reports
Most URI programs have an additional content exam
(or more). See you advisor for the specific name(s) of
your area’s content exam and materials to use for
Case Histories
4 Detailed teaching
 Each followed with 3
 Scored on a scale of
Multiple-Choice Questions
Discrete, stand alone multiple choice
questions (not about constructed
response questions, in other words!)
 24 multiple-choice questions are
included in two sections of 12 questions
Categories on Score Report
Categories that will appear on your score report &
Approximate Percentage of Total Score
I. Students as Learners (multiple-choice questions)
II. Instruction and Assessment (multiple-choice questions)
III.Teacher Professionalism (multiple-choice questions)
IV.Students as Learners (short-answer questions)
V.Instruction and Assessment (short-answer questions)
VI.Communication Techniques (short-answer questions)
VII.Teacher Professionalism (short-answer questions)
Four categories
Students as Learners
 Instruction and Assessment
 Teacher Professionalism
 Communication Techniques
URI coursework connections
EDC 102/502 or 503 Intro to American Ed
EDC 312 or 512 Psychology of Learning
EDC 402 Educating Students with Special
EDC 415 or HDF 310 Adolescent
Development and Classroom Management
EDC 448 Literacy Practices…
And several other aspects of any EDC prefix
Students as Learners
Strategies to maintain discipline
Strategies to encourage desirable &
discourage undesirable student behavior
Making learning goals clear to students
Making content comprehensible to students
Encouraging students to extend their thinking
Meeting the needs of diverse learners
Instruction and Assessment
Monitoring students’ understanding of content
& adjusting learning activities
Current research on teaching for thinking and
Using instructional time wisely
Relevant aspects of students’ background
knowledge & experiences
Articulating clear goal for lessons
Creating or selecting teaching methods &
evaluation strategies
Teacher Professionalism
Reflecting on the extent learning goals are met
Demonstrating sense of efficacy
Building professional relationships with
colleagues, parents, & paraprofessionals
Current trends in and research findings in
Communicating with parents/guardians about
student learning (includes legal rights of
teacher and students)
Communication Techniques
Dynamics of interpersonal relationships
Appropriate teacher responses to individual
and cultural diversity
Nonverbal communication skills
Questioning techniques
Creating classroom environments that
promote fairness
Classroom and school expectations, rules
Appropriate motivational strategies
Sample Test Items
K-6 Case History
 7-12 Case History
 Multiple Choice items
General Test-Taking Strategies
#1 Issue!!! Plan how you will use your time for the
 Get a good night’s rest
 Eat a healthy breakfast
 Bring your proof of registration papers, 2 forms of
identification and extra pencils with erasers
 Arrive to the test early & take a moment to relax and
reduce your anxiety
 Listen attentively to test proctor
 Keep a steady pace & don’t let more difficult questions
affect your attitude & steal your valuable time
Test-Taking Tips, continued…
Rely on your knowledge and don’t watch
for patterns
 Change only answers when you’re
 When you’ve completed your test use
remaining time wisely—proofread,
review your difficult questions, check that
you’ve answered all questions.
Test Preparation Resources
Educational Testing Service Website
 Test Preparation Resources
 On-line Resources
Dr. Lee’s from Harding University’s PLT site
 Other supports
Your academic advisor
URI Counseling Center, particularly for Test Anxiety 874-2288
Final tips
Additional fees for: phone test score results, additional score reports,
scoring verification request, diagnostic information
URI does NOT get your results from ETS. It is your
responsibility to keep your original in a safe place, make one copy
of ALL four pages (even if they’re not filled in) to give to the Office
of Teacher Education 701 Chafee and another copy to give to
your methods instructor
Don’t wait until you only have one chance to pass.
Start your studying now, register with plenty of time for two or
more retakes so you do not have to delay your student teaching
The PLT is not a reflection of how well you will
teach; it’s a teacher certification requirement that you CAN
reach! Your URI advisors are here to help you.

Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT)