TBLT in a Dual Language Program Maria Angelova Cleveland State University Goals of DLP Dual Language Programs are based on an educational model that integrates native English speakers and native speakers of another language for all or most of the day, with the following goals: To develop high levels of proficiency in TWO languages for both English and Spanish speakers. To achieve long-term high academic performance in both languages. To promote appreciation and respect of one’s own language and culture. To develop understanding of other cultures and encourage positive cross-cultural attitudes. Instructional model 50/50 model Homogeneous settings Native Language and Literacy Heterogeneous settings Population Language Math/Science/ Social Studies/Specials Resources in both languages in two separate classrooms (English and Spanish) METHODOLOGY Data collection participant observation in Dual Language first grade (Spanish class & English class); audio & videotaping in Dual Language first grade (Spanish class & English class); semi-structured interviews with 4 focal children; collection of relevant literacy artifacts; Participants English- dominant, Spanish-dominant, and balanced bilingual speakers in a Dual Language Program Homogeneous groups of English-dominant or Spanish-dominant speakers in the native literacy classes; Heterogeneous groups in the Science, Math, and Social Studies classes. Fluidity of language roles in a Dual Language classroom the expert In the English classroom where the teacher delivered the lesson entirely in English, the English speakers were the language experts, while the Spanish speakers were the novices the novice The dual language expert In the same Science lesson in Spanish, the Spanish speakers The role of the bilinguals assumed the role of language experts while in both classrooms never changed. Their task the English speakers seemed to be more were the novices. complex as they functioned as dual language experts in both contexts. The nature of an effective task in a Dual Language classroom The best context for language learning in the DLP proved to be the task based language learning; The tasks can be real-life or pedagogic but in both cases they should have the following characteristics: There should be a clearly specified goal for the activity; Tasks should stimulate real communicative exchanges; There should be a problem–solving activity at the task’s core; The task should provide ample opportunities for using both language structures and new content concepts in situations that motivate learners; Collaboration is the key to successful language learning in a Dual Language classroom Pseudo collaborative activities It is not enough simply to create task situations that seem important for the topic studied at the moment. The task may be of interest to the students but if instead of working in groups (solving a given problem) the class works together on a task following the teacher’s instructions, there will be no or minimum language exchanges. Example: The “apple sauce” task. This is a real life task but it does not provide any opportunities for practicing language because there is no collaboration among peers and hence very little communication and language learning. Tasks that promote language learning Examples: Shopping activity (simulation of a reallife task) Christmas activity for Math lesson (cognitive task, sorting) In both activities students work in mixed groups and try to achieve a goal through solving a problem together. Peer teaching and learning strategies in TBL in a DLP classroom (Socio-cultural perspective) Learners construct knowledge collaboratively as a joint activity. In a DLP students act as peer teachers who help each other learn the language using different strategies in tasks that are jointly accomplished. “Strategies are mental and communicative procedures learners use in order to learn and use language.” (David Nunan, 1999) Strategies are an integral part of a task. They can be: Linguistic Social LINGUISTIC Practicing/repeating Translating Paraphrasing Code-switching Use of formulaic speech and linguistic routines Scaffolding with cues Hedging Using context Echoing Clarifying Peer correction Imitation Asking about a word in the target language SOCIAL Asking for help/clarification in L1 Relying on others for help Pretending that one can understand the language Complying with the classroom rules Being polite and culturally sensitive Cooperating Resolving conflicts Socializing Modeling Appropriating teacher strategies Comparison of strategies in different tasks Repetition Teacher: I’ll be right with you. Karla: ((returns to desk and waits again; when teacher arrives, she reaches over Lori’s desk to place the apple pieces onto her plate and sits down looking around)) Karla: Mrs. Urutia. Teacher: Yes? Karla: Um….. Lori: ((jumps in to help Karla)) Oh. She needs another napkin. Karla: ((quietly)) Napkin. Lori: Aquí a español. [Here a Spanish.] Tania: No, Aquí se habla español. [No, Spanish is spoken here. Lori: Aquí a habla //español.// ( ) [Here a speak Spanish.] Unknown: //español.// [Spanish.] Beatríz: ((leans in towards Lori)) Aquí. [Here.] Lori: Aquí a habla. [Here a speak.] Beatríz: No. Aquí. [No. Here.] Lori: Aquí. [Here.] Beatríz: Se. [One.] Lori: Se. [One.] Beatríz: Ha. [1st syllable of speak] Lori: Ha. [1st syllable of speak] Beatríz: Bla. [2nd syllable of speak] Lori: Bla. [2nd syllable of speak] Beatríz: Español. [Spanish.] Lori: Español. [Spanish Beatríz: ¡Aquí se habla español! [Spanish is spoken here.] After several attempts and an exchange in English Lori: ((leans in towards tape player)) Aquí a hablan español. Aquí a hablan español. [Here a they speak Spanish. Here a they speak Spanish.] Beatríz: ((applauds Lori)) Lori: Aquí se hablan español. [Here they speak Spanish.] Beatríz: Hola. ((looks at Lori)) Amiguita. [Hello. Little friend.] Girls giggle and shake hands. Scaffolding with cues Teacher: Ok, after you cut them, what happens? What’s next? Karla? Karla: ((lifts head slightly and looks at teacher)) Teacher: What happened next after we cut the apple into little pieces? ((pauses)) What did we do? Did we eat them? Karla: ((quietly)) ( ) little pieces? Teacher: Can’t hear you. Karla: ((shifting side to side and covering mouth with arm)) ( ) the little pieces? Teacher: ((stops to discipline another child)) Karla: From the little pieces in the…((pauses as if to think)) uh. Teacher: We put the little pieces in the ((pauses)). Unknown: ((whispers)) Oven. Teacher: Tania help her. In the what? Tania: We put ‘em in the oven. Teacher: This is not the oven. Karla: ((raises hand)) Teacher: Karla, go ahead. What is it? Karla: ((arm on her head)) In ( ) ((has finger in her mouth)) Teacher: Tell Lori. See if Lori understands what you ( ) mean. Karla: ((turns to Lori)) Lori: Pot. In the pot. Teacher: In the what, Karla? Karla: In the pot. Invented Spelling English classroom (The shopping task) First pair of students [Lori(English speaker) and Luisa(Bilingual speaker)] 1. We boat [bought] some burbujas [bubbles] and it cost 4 ¢. 2. We boat [bought] a ball and it cost 7 ¢. 3. We boat [bought] una Purcera [a purse]. Second pair of students [Karla (Spanish speaker) and Uma (English speaker)] 1. We biy [buy] some burbujas [bubbles]. 2. We biy [buy] a Dall [doll]. 3. We biy [buy] a abion [airplane]. 4. We biy [buy] a necls [necklace]. 5. We biy [buy] a ball. Strategies in Collaborative Writing Fluent speaker becomes the scribe; Reinforcing native language skills; Code switching; Debating over the lexicon; Using the vernacular; Negotiating words and phrases; Repeating syntactical patterns during sentence construction. Practical Suggestions for Teachers To maximize the learning of a second language through peer interaction, teachers should consider organizing effective collaborative learning activities in which the following factors are taken into account: The nature of the task; The language proficiency level of each child and their linguistic role in performing the task (novice, expert, or dual language expert); The context in which the activity will take place (Spanish or English classroom); The materials to be used; The personality of each learner when placing children in groups for group work activities. It seems that these findings confirm the importance of the use of appropriate tasks as learning environments that encourage the use of both languages in order for children to openly communicate and function at higher cognitive levels in Dual Language Programs.