History and Impact of Title VI on Language Learning in the U.S. Elaine Tarone CARLA, University of Minnesota America needs more foreign language expertise Foreign language ability =‘soft power’ (Armitage & Nye 2008, Heyman 2008, Center for Strategic & International Studies: CSIS) Insistence on English is arrogant. Not all those we need to communicate with know English (Gates 2009). English is only one of several world languages (e.g. Spanish and Chinese) Languages like Arabic, Persian, Russian and Korean are critical to our security Foreign language expertise continues to be as central to the national interest as math and reading. CAL Surveys 1987, 1997, 2008 (two Title VI-funded) CAL Survey: Languages Studied 1997, 2008 We need increased foreign language study in U.S. schools K-12 Foreign languages are not tested in NCLB: lower priority (Nancy Rhodes, CAL) Recession increasing foreign language class cuts nationwide (Education Week, Mar 4 2009) Children learn foreign languages best in elementary schools, so these trends bode ill for the national capacity in the future History of Title VI and Language 1958 National Defense Education Act (NDEA) 1961 Fulbright-Hays Act 1980 Higher Education Act (HEA) 1992 HEA Reauthorization Fifty years of foreign languages studied and supported by Title VI Between 150 and 200 languages have been taught and/or supported by new materials, assessments, and pedagogical tools, with funding from Title VI programs >75,000 FLAS fellowships for individual study of languages Less commonly taught language courses offered at postsecondary level through NRCs Curricular materials and assessments developed through IRS and LRCs for use in teaching less commonly taught languages K-16 teachers of many languages have been trained by LRCs in workshops, conferences and intensive summer institutes Focus on Five Title VI Programs FLAS fellowships National Resource Centers (NRCs) International Business Education & Research (CIBER) International Research & Studies (IRSP) Language Resource Centers (LRCs) FLAS Fellowship Languages In just the last 3 years, between 2005-2007, 5,927 FLAS fellowships have supported university students’ study of 125 languages in either academic-year or intensive summer programs (IRIS, 2009): *Akan, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic (incl Modern Standard, Egyptian, Tunisian, Sudanese, Moroccan), Armenian, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Bamana, Bambara, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Burmese, Buryat, Cakchiquel, Cantonese, Catalan, Chatino, Chinese (incl Mandarin), Croatian, Czech, Dan, Danish, Dogon, Dutch, Estonian, Ewe, Finnish, French, Fulfulde (Pulaar), Gaelic (Irish) , Ganda (Luganda), Garifuna, Georgian, German, Greek, Gikuyu, Guarani, Gujarati, Haitian Creole French, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, and more … Icelandic, Igbo, Indonesian, Inuktitut, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khmer, Kongo, Korean, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Lao, Lingala, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malagasi, Malayalam, Mandinka, Maori, Marathi, Marshallese, Maya (incl Yucatec Maya, Mam Maya), Mbundu (incl Loana), Mixteco, Mongolian (Halh), Nahuatl, Nepali, Newari, Norwegian, Pali, Pashto, Persian (incl. Farsi), Polish, Portuguese (incl. Brazilian Portuguese), Punjabi (Lahnda), Quechua (incl Cuzco, Ayacucho), Quiche, Romanian, Russian, Rwanda, Samoan, Sanskrit, Scots Gaelic, Serbo-Croatian (Serbian), Shona, Sinhalese, Somali, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Sunda, Swahili (incl. Kiswahili), Swedish, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai (Northern), Tajiki, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Turkmen, Twi, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uygur, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Wolof, Xhosa, Yiddish, Yoruba, Zapotec, Zulu Most Frequently Studied FLAS Languages, 1958-2009 (IRIS, 2009) National Resource Centers (NRC) Currently, 125 National Resource Centers, located at 50 universities in 25 states and D.C. In addition to educating students & K-12 teachers about world areas, they dramatically expand access to language instruction, supporting instruction in a total of more than 150 languages at their university campuses. Many of the “much less commonly taught languages, such as Xhosa, Kazakh, and Maya, are not offered in any government institute but only at Title VI centers and their summer intensive language institutes.” (Wiley, 2001: 20) National Resource Centers Offer academic year classes and summer institutes at several proficiency levels in less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) like Pashto, Tagalog, Swahili, Urdu, Arabic, Persian, Korean, Kurdish and many more. Leverage the universities’ investment of their own resources (Wiley 2001). Because of them, universities: Co-fund NRC-supported LCTL courses, and Add institutional funding for LCTL courses, as these grow to meet minimum enrollments Example: U Minnesota’s 3 NRCs Fund all third-year LCTL courses whose enrollments fall below college minimum: currently, Turkish, Hindi, Urdu, Korean, Danish, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian (with the U supporting first and second years of these languages). Offer supplementary funds for teaching materials for all LCTL teachers, including those supported by UMN. Offer summer language courses: in 2008, Vietnamese, Hmong (2 levels), Chinese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean Administer FLAS fellowships for LCTL study: 26 in last 4 yrs, >50% for study abroad, to enable students to move to more advanced levels of LCTL study than is possible at UMN. International Program Learning Abroad Center: earn program credit for FL study abroad ( NAFSA’s Paul Simon award for 2009). Centers for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) Located in business schools on university campuses, to prepare students to do business in contexts where they MUST know the language to compete Teach less-commonly-taught business languages: Arabic, Catalan, Farsi, Filipino, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese, Wolof Students taught: 1989 to 1995: 16,522 1989 to 2002: 108,817 1989 to 2006: 181, 541 Is the language instruction good? Have you ever had trouble learning a language because of poor instruction or poor materials? Money spent for poorly taught, ineffective classes is money poured down the drain. The effectiveness of any language course depends on the quality of its teaching materials & assessments and the teaching methods used by its instructor. Supporting Effective Language Instruction: IRS and LRC LRCs, often supplemented with IRSP funds, develop teaching resources and in-service teacher education to support the effectiveness of the language classes offered nationwide in schools and universities, through FLAS, by NRCs and CIBERs. LRCs produce: Materials: books, audio-visual, computer resources Language proficiency assessment measures & procedures Inservices for language teachers on effective methods Research documenting what works A dissemination infrastructure to make materials, resources and information widely available to teachers & students International Research and Studies Since 1959, IRSP has offered grants for the development of language teaching materials, and projects such as the development of language assessment measures, surveys and research studies. Projects: for example, CAL national K-12 foreign language surveys in 1995 and 2006; research on innovations in elementary school foreign language teaching. International Research and Studies Materials: for example, instructional modules for Arabic, Persian and Turkish in the middle schools; online translation modules for Japanese and Arabic; Chinese literacy instructional materials; computer-adaptive tests in a variety of languages. Language Resource Centers (LRC) 1990: LRC program established: 3 centers. Mission: improve the nation’s capacity to teach and learn languages effectively. 2009: 15 LRCs, leading applied linguists and SLA researchers. Focused on effective materials, assessments and teacher preparation. The LRCs hand out fish ... … and teach to fish. Locations of the LRCs LRCs Today, the LRC network provides teaching resources, workshops, and support for language teachers (both university-level and K-12), whose expertise sustains the effectiveness of the language classes offered by the nation’s K-16 system. That infrastructure also disseminates resources and information to language teacher educators, program administrators, and language policymakers. Search the LRC website: http://nflrc.msu.edu Material Series for Specific Languages • Handbooks for students of Middle Eastern languages • NMELRC @ BYU • Introduction of strategies and resources for students studying Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish Materials for Specific Languages Learners’ Reference Grammars, and the Let’s Speak Series NALRC @ Madison Swahili, Amharic, Shona, Zulu, Asante-Twi, Kikongo, Somali, Akan, Hausa, Sesotho, & more Material Series for Specific Languages • Intermediate Reading & Listening Modules and Podcasts • CelCAR @ Indiana University • Mongolian, Pashto, Tajiki, Uyghur, Uzbek Material Series for Specific Languages • Digital Media Archives • LARC @ San Diego State University • Lesson at different levels include video, audio, and activities • Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, German, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Mayan, Portuguese, Spanish Language Materials for K-12 • Business Language Packets for High School Classrooms (French, German, Spanish) • CLEAR @ Michigan State University • Downloadable PDFs that focus on business content Online Tools to Create Materials • Rich Internet Applications • CLEAR @ Michigan State University • Online programs for recording, uploading, mixing, and interacting Teacher/Instructor Guides • The Essentials of Language Teaching • NCLRC--George Washington University, Center for Applied Linguistics and Georgetown University • An on-line guide to essential principles and methods of FL instruction Teacher/Instructor Guides How does a teacher effectively respond to the diverse needs of the learner? National K-12 FL Resource Center @ Iowa State • How do teachers vary instruction and assessment in order to be responsive to the needs of all students? Teacher/Instructor Guides • Corpus Portal • CALPER @ Penn State University • Provides quick and easy access to all corpus-related materials developed by CALPER. Teacher/Instructor Guides • Content-based Language Teaching through Technology • CARLA--University of Minnesota • CoBaLTT provides online resources that help foreign language and immersion teachers create content-based lessons/units using technology to enhance students' language proficiency and content or cultural knowledge. Language Materials & Assessments • LinguaFolio Online K-12 assessment MOSAIC Content-based lessons in social sciences in French, Japanese and Spanish • CASLS @ University of Oregon Directories of Resources • The LCTL Database • CARLA @ University of Minnesota • A database of where Less Commonly Taught Languages are taught in North America. Includes over 12,500 listings for over 300 languages. Directories of Resources • Orient Yourself: Online Catalog of Study Abroad Opportunities in East Asia • NEALRC @ Ohio State University • For American students to access information about East Asian institutes and American institutes that offer study abroad programs in East Asia, as well as scholarships and financial aids for study abroad. Journals and Newsletters American Council on Immersion Education Newsletter archives • The Culture Club e-magazine • Global Connections annual newsletter • Heritage Language Journal online blind-refereed journal • Intercom email service • Language Documentation and Conservation peer-reviewed journal • Language Learning and Technology online peer-reviewed journal • The Language Resource monthly e-newsletter • Reading in a Foreign Language online peer-reviewed journal • South Asian Language Blog • South Asian Language Pedagogy and Technology online peer-reviewed journal Journals and Newsletters • South Asian Language Pedagogy and Technology • SALRC-University of Chicago • Online peer-reviewed journal Journals and Newsletters • Language Learning and Technology • CLEAR @ Michigan State University & NFLRC @ University of Hawai’i • Online peerreviewed journal Journals and Newsletters • Heritage Language Journal • NHLRC-UCLA & UC Consortium for Language Learning and Teaching • Online peer-reviewed journal Title VI programs, including FLAS fellowships, NRCs, CIBERS, IRS & LRCs, have been fostering expertise in foreign languages in the nation’s schools & universities, K-16, since 1959. And yet too few Americans have been able to benefit from these programs. Efficient use made of limited funding. But Title VI Programs like Title VI need more funding and programs be expanded to have more the supportmust if they are to truly address widespread impact on the nation’s foreign language nation’s need for FL expertise in the 21st expertise, building on its capacity in the K-16 century. school system.