이현석
동시통역사, EBS 방송 진행자
유학 대비 영어 특강
Presenting Korean Culture and History in English
중앙공무원교육원(과천)
(현) EBS FM Radio <입이 트이는 영어> 집필 및 진행
(현) EBSe TV <EBSe 생활영어> / <EBSe 영어회화> 집필 및 진행
(현) EBSlang <리얼라이프 스피킹> 집필 및 진행
Korean
Politics
한국의 통치 체계
Korea follows a presidential governing system. The President
gets a five-year single term and is elected through a direct
vote. Though the President doesn’t rule alone, he/she does
have the ultimate say in who gets to rule alongside him/her.
The President appoints the Prime Minister and the
Ministers of each Ministry. The President also determines
who will run the major government agencies, such as the
intelligence agency or the tax service. The National Assembly
acts as the legislative body in the central government.
There are a total of 299 members of parliament that are
elected every four years. The Grand National Party (GNP) is
currently the ruling party, holding over half of the
parliamentary seats. The Democratic Party (DP) is the largest
opposition party. The judicial body, on the other hand, is
completely independent from the two branches of
government.
국회
The Korean National Assembly is the legislative body
of Korea. It issues bills, sets national budgets, holds
parliamentary hearings, and inspects the state
administration. There are 299 lawmakers in the
National Assembly, 243 of whom are elected by direct
vote from electoral districts. The rest is elected through
proportional representation. The proportional
representation system distributes seats to the different
parties based on the percentage of total votes that they
win. Any Korean citizen over the age of 25 can run for a
seat in the National Assembly. Members of parliament
serve a four-year term, so the elections are held
accordingly. The major parties in the Assembly are the
Grand National Party and the top opposition Democratic
Party. Regular sessions are held on September 1st of
every year for no more than 100 days.
선거
The presidential election in Korea takes place
every five years. The Korean president is
elected through direct vote and gets a five-year
single term. Korean parliamentary elections
are held every four years, in the same year as
the Summer Olympics. Local elections are
conducted every four years in the year of the
FIFA World Cup. The election will elect mayors,
provincial governors, and regional office chiefs.
Stars and Stripes
태극기
태극기
The Korean flag, called “tae-guk-gee,” is simple but
packed with meaning. Essentially, there are three parts
that make up the flag: a white background, a blue and
red yin-yang circle, and four black trigrams. The circle
in the middle is called the “tae-guk” and symbolizes
the source of all that exists in the universe. The four
trigrams at the corners are made of solid and broken
bars. They are each called “gun, gon, gam, li,” and
represent the sky, the earth, the moon, and the sun
respectively. They also mean justice, abundance, life, and
wisdom. But remember, the trigram with the three solid
bars should always be in the upper left-hand corner.
Hanging it correctly is just as important as the flag
itself! On national holidays, such as Korea’s Liberation
Day(August 15) Koreans proudly hang the flag from the
balconies of their apartments, their front doors, and
throughout the city streets.
애국가
Korea’s national anthem, Ae-guk-ga, literally translates
into “the song of patriotism.” It has up to verse 4 and
was written by composer Ahn Ik-tae. It is sung to kick
off official events or sports matches, and television
stations also play it to mark the beginning and ending
of the day’s broadcasts. What is it with the national
anthem that makes the Olympic gold medalist shed a
tear on the podium? The Ae-guk-ga melody and lyrics
conjure up a sense of belonging and unity. The first
line begins by saying: “Let God protect this country, until
the East Sea dries up and Mt. Baekdu is worn away. Long
live our country (the Republic of Korea)!” The chorus
goes: The Rose of Sharon (Korea’s national flower) and
3,000 lis of brilliant rivers and mountains! Long live
Koreans in this wonderful country.”
무궁화
The 무궁화, known as the Rose of Sharon to
Westerners, is the national flower of Korea. The
Korean name 무궁화 translates something into
“immortal flower.” The flower has been mentioned in
Korean history for thousands of years. However, it
was officially recognized as our national flower in
the early 1900s. That was when Korea’s national
anthem was born. You can hear 무궁화 being
mentioned in the chorus of the national anthem.
A type of train in Korea was also named after the
flower. The flower comes in white, pink, red and
violet. The Rose of Sharon can withstand diseases
and insects pretty well. Such characteristic
symbolizes Korea’s resilience because the country
has also gone through many difficult times in history.
Korean
History
한국전쟁
Exactly 61 years ago today, North Korea invaded
South Korea, initiating a full-blown war. Before the
invasion, there was political division along the Korean
peninsula with the US troops overseeing the southern
half and the Soviet troops overseeing the northern half.
The division between the two sides continued to
become more pronounced. The 38th Parallel became the
divider between the upper and lower halves.
Reunification negotiations continued but to no avail.
The North and South fought fiercely for three years.
Foreign powers joined in to help each side turning the
civil war into a proxy war. The two Koreas finally
signed an armistice treaty in July of 1953, which is still
in effect as of today. Technically, the two countries are
still at war.
이산가족
Many Korean families have been ripped apart in the
aftermath of the Korean War back in the 50s. Families
were unwillingly separated and remain separated even
to this day. It’s already been 60 years since the war, but
many families are still dealing with the repercussions.
Communication between individuals across the border is
very difficult. After the first Inter-Korean Summit took
place in 2000, sporadic family reunions and letter
exchanges have taken place. Unfortunately, these
reunions were only for a strictly limited number of
people. They only covered a small fraction of those
affected by the war. Plus, those reunions were halted
whenever tension between the two Koreas rose.
Because the survivors of the Korean War are getting
extremely old, time is running out.
한일 관계
Korea’s history has been intertwined with Japan for as
long as anyone can remember. One significant turning
point between the two countries took place between
1910 and 1945. That’s when Japan colonized Korea and
committed some horrific war crimes. One example
would be the use of Korean women as sex slaves at
military brothels during World War II. Many Koreans are
angry that Japan has yet to formally apologize for its
wartime atrocities. The two countries have come a
long way in working out their differences. However,
this is not to say that relations between them are perfect.
There is still a major dispute over which country
rightfully owns the Dokdo islets located in the East Sea.
Japan calls the islets Takeshima, and claims it’s their
territory located in what they call the Sea of Japan.
북한 정권
North Korea, or the Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea, is one of the few countries in the world that is
under a military dictatorship. Its political system is
based on the Juche ideology of self-reliance, first
brought into practice by Kim Il-sung. Kim Il-sung ruled
the country until his death in 1994. The current head of
state is his son Kim Jong-il. With Kim Jong-il’s failing
health in recent years, the whole world has been keenly
interested in who would become the next successor of
the North Korean regime. In October of 2010, news
surfaced that his son, Kim Jong-eun, was appointed as
the heir-apparent. Meanwhile, North Korea is the most
militarized nation in the world with roughly 12 million
active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Despite it
being a very isolated and reclusive nation, the DPRK has
always had close ties with China and Russia.
광주 민주화 운동
The May 18th movement, also known as the Gwangju
Massacre or the Gwangju Democratization Movement,
was a popular uprising that took place in Gwangju in
May of 1980. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the
incident. Citizens protested against Chun Doo-hwan's
military dictatorship. They called for a number of
reforms that included democratization, an end to martial
law, and freedom of press. They took up weapons to
defend themselves and took control of the city.
However, they were violently crushed by the military,
which opened fire on citizens. Hundreds were killed
and thousands more were wounded. The movement was
depicted as a rebellion instigated by communist
sympathizers during that time. But today, the movement
is celebrated as a symbol of the long fight for
democracy in Korea.
태권도
Taekwondo is Korea’s representative martial art. It
differentiates itself from other martial arts by its
emphasis on kicking techniques. In addition, taekwondo
seeks the harmony of mental and physical strength.
Gyeokpa in taekwondo is known as board-breaking.
Sparring in taekwondo is called gyeorugi. Pumsae, which
means form or pattern, is a memorized sequence of
moves. You have to master a certain pumsae to advance
to the next. Students of taekwondo have ranks
distinguished by the color of their belts. Beginners
start off with a white belt and gradually work up to black.
Once you earn a black belt, further advancement is
indicated by dan, or degrees. Taekwondo was adopted
as an official event at the 2000 Summer Olympics in
Sydney.
Korean
Society
군 복무
Korea has a mandatory draft system under which
men have to serve two years in the military. Most
men serve as ordinary soldiers in the army, navy, air
force or the marine corps and are discharged when
they become sergeant. One can also serve as a
non-commissioned officer, in which case, the
duration of service is four years. Officers, on the
other hand, have to graduate from military school
and become carrier officers. College students who
finished their ROTC training serve three years as
officers after they graduate. Meanwhile, doctors can
serve as public health doctors for three years to
fulfill their military duty. People who passed the
Korean bar exam can serve as military lawyers for
three years.
예비군 훈련
Korean males are required to dedicate two years of their
lives serving in the military. Once those two years are up,
they’re not exactly in the clear. After they finish their service,
they are automatically assigned to the army reserve for
seven years. There are mandatory reserve army training
sessions annually. Depending on the type of training, it can
last for a single day or three full days. The army reserve
members go through drills to brush up on their combat
skills. This is done through basic military training, liveammunition shooting practice and tactics training through
survival games. They also refresh their memories on the rules
of engagement. Accommodations are made for college
students. They can attend an eight-hour cram training session
once a year. Once the reserve army duties are completed,
men move on to become members of civil defense units.
법적 연령
Due to a civil law revision bill that was submitted recently,
Koreans will be considered to be a legal adult when they
reach their 19th birthday from July of 2013. It has been the
20th birthday up until now. When you hit this coming-of-age
milestone, one can engage in all economic activity without
the permission of one’s parents. You can legally purchase
property or get a credit card issued on your own. However,
another piece of legislation called the Protection of Minors
Act governs the legal age for the consumption of alcohol
and tobacco. The Act defines adults as people who will
become 19 that year. So, if you are 18 but will become 19
that year, you are legally allowed to purchase alcohol or enter
bars. You are allowed to vote if you are fully 19 before
election day. Plus, you must be at least 25 to run for public
office and 40 to run for president. On the other hand, one
becomes eligible for a driver’s license in Korea when your 18th
birthday has passed.
저출산율
South Korea’s birthrate is among the lowest in the
world. South Korean women give birth to 1.2
babies on average. As a result, the nation’s
population is predicted to peak around 2018 and
then start to decline after that. This low birthrate
paired with the Korea’s rapidly aging population is
expected to lower domestic consumption and create
a labor shortage. This will end up reducing the
country’s economic productivity. Faced with an
impending economic and social crisis, the
government is busy trying to come up with different
measures to boost the birthrate. Recent policies
include giving subsidies to expectant mothers, and
giving tax benefits for families with three or more
children when they buy cars or homes.
쓰레기 종량제
Ten plus years ago, Korea adopted the “volume-based”
or “pay-as-you-go” garbage system. It’s pretty
straightforward as the name would suggest. The more
trash you produce, the more you have to pay. You
can’t just dump your trash in any old bag either.
Regulation garbage bags must be purchased at
supermarkets or convenience stores. Otherwise, you
can face a fine. These plastic bags come in several sizes,
and prices vary according to size. Recycling is also very
well practiced throughout Korea. We separate
recyclables into groups of plastic, glass, aluminum, and
paper. This may seem like a pain to foreigners, but
Koreans are used to it. One thing they’re not used to,
however, is the concept of garbage disposals under the
kitchen sink. Koreans throw away food waste
separately in designated outdoor containers.
국민연금/국민건강보험
When it comes to health insurance in Korea, almost
everyone is covered under a universal system. It’s
sponsored by a government agency. The monthly
insurance fee is determined by factors such as your
income, property value, and even what kind of car you
drive. The benefits at clinics, hospitals, or drug stores are
all the same though. There is a different category of
private health insurance policies too. These mainly
target life-threatening illnesses such as cancer. Korea
also has a national pension system. Most people with
an income are bound by law to join this pension
system. There are separate pension funds for civil
servants, private school teachers, and military personnel.
In addition, most companies provide their employees
with some sort of medical benefits as well.
국가고시
Some of the most competitive jobs in Korea require
the passing of a state exam. This goes for diplomats,
lawyers, senior-level government officials, and public
school teachers. If one wants to become a diplomat,
he/she has to pass the wae-moo-go-shi. This test is
similar to the foreign service exam in the U.S. Anyone
who wants to practice law as a profession must pass
the sa-bub-shi-hum. Think of the bar exam required for
lawyers in the States. This test will die out in the very
near future because Korea adopted a new law school
system. People who want to work in senior-level
government posts go through cutthroat competition
to pass the heng-jung-go-shi. One last example of a
major state exam is the im-yong-go-shi. This exam is
for anyone wanting to become a public school teacher.
Korean
Culture
한국인들의 국민성
One Korean word that doesn’t have an exact English
translation is jung. Jung is a sort of emotional
attachment or bond that one feels for a person. It can
be a combination of love, affection, and loyalty. One
thing that really sets apart the Korean people with others
is jung. Jung typically develops over the course of a
relationship as the person gradually grows on you. This
explains why Koreans are extra happy to meet a friend
from their hometown. The funny thing is that you don’t
even have to like a person to feel jung for them.
Koreans call this a case of mi-oon jung. Similarly, you
can develop jung for a place or thing over time. It’s
kind of like you being sad to let go of your old cell
phone for a new one. That’s because you developed jung
toward it. The same goes to a school you attended for
many years.
정(情)
One Korean word that doesn’t have an exact English
translation is jung. Jung is a sort of emotional
attachment or bond that one feels for a person. It can
be a combination of love, affection, and loyalty. One
thing that really sets apart the Korean people with others
is jung. Jung typically develops over the course of a
relationship as the person gradually grows on you. This
explains why Koreans are extra happy to meet a friend
from their hometown. The funny thing is that you don’t
even have to like a person to feel jung for them.
Koreans call this a case of mi-oon jung. Similarly, you
can develop jung for a place or thing over time. It’s
kind of like you being sad to let go of your old cell
phone for a new one. That’s because you developed jung
toward it. The same goes to a school you attended for
many years.
한국 나이
Koreans have a different system from Western countries
when it comes to calculating their age. Koreans say that
they’re a year older than they would be according to the
Western aging system. This is partially because Koreans
consider the time spent in a mother’s womb to be a year.
This is why a newborn would already be considered a oneyear old. People’s birthdays can also change every year if
they go by the lunar calendar. Many people actually choose
to follow the lunar calendar rather than the solar calendar.
This may sound confusing for some people, but it’s a system
that has worked just fine for Koreans for ages. Your best bet in
calculating someone’s age more accurately is to ask them for
their birth year. This is why it’s common for people in Korea
to ask for someone’s year of birth rather than their age.
한국 이름
Korean names most typically consist of three syllables.
First comes the family name, which is almost always
one syllable. There are people who have a two-syllable
surname as in 남궁 or 황보. The given name always
goes after the family name, and usually consists of two
syllables. For example, if a person’s name is 임보경. 임 is
her family name, and 보경 is her given name. Each letter
in most Korean names is based on a Chinese character.
Same names can have different meanings depending on
which Chinese characters are used. Koreans place great
importance on their names. Parents will often consult
with a fortune teller at a name-making place called a 작
명소. There are even cases of adults changing their
names for better luck in their lives.
한국의 결혼식
At a typical Korean wedding, tables are set up on each
side of the entrance—one for the groom and one for the
bride. Depending on who they’re there to see, wedding
guests drop money gifts off at the right table in white
envelopes. A friend of the groom usually emcees the
ceremony. An older distinguished acquaintance of the
family officiates the wedding. Often there’s a special
song sung in dedication to the happy couple. There are
also things that happen the behind the scenes before
the wedding. Traditionally, the man buys or rents the
house and the bride-to-be the hone-soo, or what goes
in the house. There’s also ye-mool, which are gifts
exchanged between the couple. Common ye-mool
items are rings, jewelry, or his-and-her watches. The
future missus also has the ye-dan to worry about. Yedan is basically a dowry for her future in-laws.
한국의 장례식
Unlike western cultures where the funeral service lasts for
a couple hours, a Korean funeral goes on for several
days. The family members normally rent out a funeral
parlor in a hospital. Mourners come to pay their
respects to the person who has passed away. The
person’s picture will be set up and people who visit
perform a ceremonial bow. The family members
usually stay throughout the entire duration of the
wake, day and night. Funeral-goers express their
sympathy to the family members and eat the food and
drinks offered there. After a couple of days, the body
will then be taken to either the burial site or the
crematorium. More and more people are choosing
cremation these days because there aren’t enough burial
grounds. (columbarium : 납골당)
회식
Koreans are known to enjoy their alcohol. So much so
that it’s hard to get through a week without at least
one drinking session. Sometimes I also have to attend
what’s called a hwe-shik in Korean. Hwe-shiks are
company gatherings with your co-workers and upper
management for dinner and drinks. It’s hard not to get
at least a little drunk at hwe-shiks because it’s
considered slightly rude to turn down a drink offered
by your superior. Luckily, I can handle my alcohol pretty
well. Even when I do drink too much, I’m not that bad
of a drunk. I simply get a bit more talkative, but that’s
pretty much it. The worst-case scenario would be that I
would start dozing off. However, I can usually pick up on
when I’m about to hit that point, and try to sober up a
little.
한류
Hallyu refers to the popularity of Korean entertainment in
surrounding Asian countries. Korean pop culture blew up in
the early 2000s with the immensely popular Korean TV
dramas. Stars like Bae Yong-joon, Lee Young-ae, and Choi Jiwoo enjoy tremendous popularity in countries like Japan.
However, recently Hallyu has started to take a new form. Kpop music has been blowing new life into the Hallyu wave.
This is through talented young girl and boy bands. Groups
like Girls Generation and KARA have massive followings in
Japan. Their faces can be seen on billboards and
advertisements quite frequently. There are even some Korean
stars who enjoy more popularity overseas than in Korea. The
new Hallyu wave has been helping Korean businesses as
well. As Asians get more familiar with the Korean pop-culture,
it’s easier for companies to sell their products abroad.
개고기 문화
One Korean dish that many Westerners are
uncomfortable with is boshintang. Boshintang is
basically a stew made out of dog meat. It is believed
to boost one’s energy level and stamina in Korea.
Many people eat it when they’re feeling weak or during
the extremely hot summer season. It should be noted
that there is a specific type of dog bred on farms for
the meat. Boshintang isn’t made from the dogs that
people keep as pets. Westerners also think that all
Korean people eat dogs, but this is far from the truth.
With so many dog lovers in Korea, there are many
Koreans who can’t stand the idea of eating dog. Only
a small fraction of the population regularly enjoys this
dish. All in all, boshintang is simply one aspect of the
Korean dining culture, dating back to hundreds of years
ago.
대리운전
The driver-for-hire service in Korea comes in handy
when you’ve had too much to drink. It’s called dae-ri
un-jeon in Korean. It’s basically a service that provides
a driver to drive your car home. You simply call the
agency, tell them where you are, and they’ll send a driver
to you. The driver will safely take you home. The service
doesn’t cost much either. Of course it depends on how
far your destination is, but the cost is almost similar to
a taxi ride. The driver-for-hire has been around for
several years. It has created a new part-time job sector
and helps society practice safe-drinking habits. There
are tons of different agencies to choose from. Services
circulate fliers and advertise all over the place so you
can find the number to one quite easily.
퀵 서비스
There’s a speedy delivery service in Korea called
quick service. New Yorkers may be familiar with this
service because it’s similar to their bike couriers.
However, the delivery people in Korea use
motorcycles rather than bikes to ensure even
speedier service. Motorcycles can zip around and
avoid congested areas. You can choose from many
quick service places depending on their service and
rates. You first call them to tell them where you are
and what you need delivered. A delivery person will
come and pick up your package and take it to
your desired destination immediately. You can
choose to either pay before or have the receiver
pay on arrival. They are very reliable as you can
call for their help 24/7.
공중 목욕탕
There are several different types of public baths in
Korea. They’re called 목욕탕, 찜질방, 한증막, or a
sauna. You can think of a 찜질방 as a Korean-style
mega-sauna. The bathing areas are split up for
each sex. Here you can choose from different tubs
or saunas to enjoy. There’s also a common area
open to both sexes to mingle and socialize. You
can kick back and enjoy a good TV show or movie
as well. If you simply want to sleep, there are also
designated quiet rooms for that. Plus, you can order
hot snacks, steamed eggs, rice and soup at the food
corners. You get all of these services for an unlimited
amount of time for about 10,000 won! The beauty
about these establishments is that many places
are open around the clock.
때밀이
Koreans are no strangers to skin exfoliation. Many of
them get their skin exfoliated regularly through a
body scrub. There are a plethora of public bath
houses all over the country where you can do this. You
can go with your close family members or friends. First,
you soak yourself in a hot tub to get your skin nice
and soft. Then grab a scrub towel and use some elbow
grease to start scrubbing. These scrub towels are called
ttae-mi-ree soo-geon in Korean. Stocking up on these
towels won’t set you back much because they’re only
about 500 won. After scrubbing your entire body, rinse
off all the dead skin that’s left behind with water.
Then enjoy a nice shower to finish squeaky clean. Don’t
be freaked out if your skin turns red after an exfoliation
session. It’ll soon fade and you’ll be left feeling refreshed
and rejuvenated!
한국 전통 놀이
Long before video and computer games, there were a variety
of popular traditional games in Korea. One classic example is
go-moo-jool, which means “rubber band” in Korean. Go-moojool is the Korean version of long jump-roping. Large
rubber bands are stretched out and wrapped around players’
ankles. Other players then do step routines set to songs,
jumping over the bands. Girls also used to enjoy gong-ginori, a game similar to Western-style jacks. Players go
around tossing one gong-gi piece up and trying to scoop up
the other pieces before it comes down. Another game popular
with the boys is jae-gi-cha-gi. It’s like hacky-sack using a
shuttlecock-like toy. Boys also used to enjoy ddak-ji-chi-gi,
which is similar to the game of Pog. You basically try to flip
over your opponent’s game piece by slapping your own
piece down on it. Koreans have their own version of top
spinning as well. It’s called Paengi-chi-gi. It involves whipping
a thin rope at a top to keep it spinning.
PC 방
If you’re an internet junkie, Korea is one of the best
places to be at. You can get access to high-speed
internet at internet cafés that are basically on every
street corner. We call them “PC bang” in Korean, which
translates to “PC room”. You may be wondering why
people would pay money to use the internet when they
have internet access at home. Internet cafes come in
handy when you’re on the go without a laptop. Most
internet café users are young computer game players.
They usually come in in groups to play multiplayer
games together. Non-game players can do plenty of
other stuff like update their social networking sites.
These cafés are the perfect place to just kill some
time when you have nothing better to do. There’s a
law that bans minors from staying past 10 PM though.
노래방
Westerners are more used to karaoke bars where one
has to come on stage to sing. Koreans are more used to
room-settings when it comes to singing. A Korean
karaoke room is called a norae-bang. Norae-bangs are
practically on every street corner. If you go inside the
separate norae-bang rooms, there is a karaoke machine,
a table, and places to sit down. When you’re out to paint
the town red, stopping at a norae-bang is almost a ritual.
It’s typically the second or third stop after dinner and
drinks. Of course, alcohol helps people to be loosened
up to belt out song after song. The singing and
dancing help colleagues let their guards down and
bond with one another. Norae-bangs can hype up the
mood, but it can also help wind down the night.
People can sit back and sing some of their favorite
tunes to sober up.
고스톱
The Western card deck has four suits and 13 cards per
suit, for a total of 52 cards. Go-stop cards have 12
different suits, with four to a suit. Poker cards use
shapes to differentiate each suit, while go-stop cards
resort to the numbers one through 12. However, there
are designs on each card that are similar for the four
that share the same suit. The point of the game is to
match your cards to the cards that are laid out in front
of you. You can flip an extra card from a stack in the
middle whenever it’s your turn. There are several sets
of cards you have to get to earn extra points, such as
hong-dan, chung-dan, cho-dan and godori. In go-stop,
there can be no more than three players per round.
It’s called go-stop because you can decide whether you
want to “go” or “stop” once you score three or more
points.
당구
Korean guys are much more used to playing
carom billiards than regular pool. There are two
red balls and two white balls. Each player gets their
own white ball. The goal is to hit the white ball
into the two red balls, while avoiding the other
white ball. You earn a point and can continue
playing if you do that. If you hit the other person’s
white ball, you get a penalty. You want to create
different angles for the white ball by using the banks
as much as possible. I’m just an average player
shooting around 150. That means that I have to hit
both red balls 15 times before getting my chance for
the finishing shot. To finish up the game, you have
to hit both red balls one final time, managing to
hit three banks in between.
존댓말
Honorifics are one of the biggest characteristics of the
Korean language. It’s a way of showing your respect
through your speech. You typically use honorifics for
people who are older than you or in higher positions of
authority. You almost always use honorifics when
meeting someone for the first time. The only exception
would be if they’re significantly younger than you. There
are also different levels of honorifics. You can roughly
differentiate the levels by listening to the end of a
sentence. If it ends with yo, that’s the casual form of
honorifics, whereas if it ends with ni-da, it’s more
formal. Once you get closer to the person, you naturally
lose the honorifics. There are also special ways you
should address people who are older than you, which
roughly translate into “big brother” or “older sister”.
대학교 엠티
Korean College students are all familiar with something
that’s called an “MT”. MT stands for “membership
training” and it’s a time when a group of college
students take off for a quick overnighter. Rarely do
these MTs last for longer than one night. The people
who attend are not just a clique of friends taking a
trip somewhere. Instead, they are students from the
same department or club. The whole point of an MT
is for the students to get to know each other better.
In that sense, every aspect of the trip is done as a group
effort. Students shop together for the necessary food
and supplies, cook together at the site, and eat and drink
together all night. All in all, MTs are great opportunities
to bond. Many people look back on their college years
and say that some of their fondest memories took
place at MTs.
Korean
Education
한국의 학년 편제
Korean children start elementary school when they turn 8
years old Korean age. Children attend six years of
elementary school where they learn all the different
subjects from one teacher. Next comes three years of
middle school, which is mandatory. Students start to
have different teachers for different subjects. Then comes
three years of high school, which is optional. An
important career related decision must be made in
high school. Students face a fork in the road during
their second year where they have to choose from the
humanities track or the science track. Students can also
choose to attend a special type of high school. Such
schools include foreign language, international, science,
and art schools. In Korea, the first semester runs from
March to July followed by the second semester lasting
from August to February.
대학수학능력고사
Korea’s college entrance exam is the Korean version of
the SATs and it can make or break a student’s
academic career. The results of this exam will potentially
determine what university the student will get in to, that
is, if they even get in at all. Korean students study well
over twelve hours a day in high school hoping to get
accepted into their first-choice university. Students
typically take about nine hours to complete the Korean
SAT in various subjects. The test consists of tests in
Korean, math, English, sciences, social sciences, and
foreign languages. Students can choose what subjects
they wish to be tested on. Up until now, high school
seniors were only allowed to take the exam once a
year. However, the government passed a new bill this
past August. Starting from 2014, students will be able to
take the test twice a year and choose the better score.
학내 체벌
In the latter half of 2010, corporal punishment was banned
at schools in Seoul. The same will happen in Gyeonggi
Province this year, and other provinces may follow suit.
Korean teachers have taken to the rod as a method of
discipline for as long as anyone can remember. This age-old
method was put in question after a series of incidents where
some teachers used excessive force on students. The ban
provoked mixed reactions from teachers on the ground. Those
for the ban argue that students do not have to be physically
punished to learn a lesson. Those against it say that the ban
will only further undermine teachers’ authority in
classrooms. Ever since spankings were outlawed, there have
been cases of disruptive students making the headlines. Many
teachers have been complaining that it’s impossible to
maintain order in the absence of corporal punishment.
Many are calling for alternatives teachers can resort to.
한국의 영어 교육
The English-learning craze in Korea shows no
signs of stopping anytime soon. Students start
their English studies from as early as kindergarten,
lasting all the way into college. Many parents will
sacrifice other expenses to send their children to
private language institutes. In 2009 alone, roughly
7 trillion won (or $7 billion) was spent on private
English education in Korea. Adults aren’t exempt
from the English fever either. Those fresh out of
college continue to study English for better career
prospects. Many in their 40’s, 50’s and 60’s study the
language just for the fun of it.
교실 청소
Korean students all chip in to do their part to keep their
classrooms spic and span. From elementary school all the
way up to high school, students clean up their own
classrooms. The entire class is split into groups and
the workload is then divvied up. Normally the groups
go around cleaning in turns, unless some students are
assigned to clean as their punishment. First the desk
and chairs are shoved into the back corner of the
classroom. This makes it easier to sweep and mop the
floors. The windows and window frames require
maintenance as well. There are students designated for
the restrooms and hallways, too. Aside from that, there
are two students picked to be the “joobun” every week.
Their responsibility is to clean the blackboards and keep
the classroom nice and clean at all times.
체육대회와 신체검사
Korean schools typically have a sports day in the fall. The
entire school is split up into two teams: the blue team
and the white team. There is excitement in the air as
students compete to win points for their team. There are
a number of events that take place such as soccer,
basketball, volleyball, kickball, dodge ball, Korean
wrestling, and tug of war. When all is said and done,
the side with more points wins the competition. On a
slightly related note, another day is set aside for
students to be tested on their basic athletic abilities.
Students are tested on their ability to run, jump, throw,
and how many pull-ups or sit-ups they can do. There’s
also a day designated for school physicals. On that day,
students get their height, weight, eyesight, and other
physical traits measured.
Korean
Holidays
새해 일출
Koreans like to celebrate New Year’s Day by
catching the first sunrise of the year. People flock
to coastal areas or mountains, trying to secure a
good spot to watch the sunrise in the morning.
Jung-dong-jin on the East coast is a good example
that gets packed with locals and tourists. While
witnessing the sun make its anticipated rise, Koreans
make wishes for the coming year. A common wish
is the health and prosperity for friends and family.
Some also make more specific resolutions for
themselves. Koreans look at these New Year’s Day
trips as a chance to reflect on the past as well as
welcome the future.
추석
One of the biggest family holidays in Korea is
Chuseok. It’s equivalent to the Thanksgiving Day
holiday that’s observed by Western countries. It
typically lasts for three days sometime during the
month of September or October. There is no exact
set date for Chuseok because it follows the lunar
calendar. During Chuseok, people visit their
hometowns to gather with their entire extended
family. People also visit the graves of deceased
ancestors to pay their respects - a custom known
as Seong-mo in Korean. Plus, people engage in an
age-old ritual called Charye during which food is
prepared for the dead and traditional bows are
performed. There’s a full moon on the evening of
Chuseok, which we then make wishes on.
어린이날
May 5th, Children’s Day, is an eagerly awaited
holiday for children all around Korea. Parents
usually plan the day around their children. They
take them on special outings to popular places
like parks, zoos or amusement parks. However, if
you are a parent, you should beware. There are
always traffic jams and large crowds near these
places, and you might find yourself stuck in a car
or a line with cranky kids. Nowadays many parents
also take their children to see plays or musicals
specially designed for children. Children also receive
gifts from their parents or grandparents such as toys
or money. All in all, it’s a special day for children,
and almost everyone has special Children’s Day
memories from their childhood.
성년의 날
There’s a day in Korea that recognizes people who
are turning 20 that year. It is called Coming-ofAge Day and falls on the third Monday of May. 20
is the age that one is considered to be a legal
adult in Korea. This year, Coming-of-Age Day
happens to fall on May 16th. Those who have turned
20 or will be turning 20 this year can expect many
gifts on this day. Friends and family members will
buy gifts symbolic or useful for one who becomes
an adult. Many stores offer special gifts for those
celebrating their adulthood on that day. Some
common gifts for women are roses or perfume.
Meanwhile, there is currently a pending bill that
will change the official adult age to 19 from 2013.
Korean
Food
한식 식사
There are three basic components for a typical
Korean meal. There’s first your bowl of rice, one
of Korea’s staple foods. You then have your bowl of
soup, which can be made from meat, fish, or
vegetables. The soup base is usually made from
soybean paste, red pepper paste, or soy sauce. You
then have a colorful array of side dishes called
banchan. The most common side dish is of course,
kimchee. Kimchee comes in all different shapes and
sizes, made from different ingredients. One thing to
note is that Korean meals aren’t divided into
courses like some Western meals. For dessert,
rather than cakes and pies, Koreans finish off their
meals with fruits or a dessert drink, such as shikhae or soo-jung-ga.
좌식 식사 문화
Unlike eating at tables with chairs in the West, Koreans
often sit cross-legged on the floor when they eat. The
food is served on low tables. At restaurants that serve
their food this way, customers are required to remove
their shoes. These days, more restaurants are giving
customers the choice of floor seating or Western-style
seating. There’s also some that offer the best of both
worlds: floor seating with a slight ditch underneath the
table so that you can hang your legs over the edge
comfortably. When it comes to floor-sitting, women
wearing skirts may struggle a bit due to the
possibility of flashing other diners. However, an apron
or large napkin draped over their laps can fix the
problem. Foreigners who are new to the concept of
sitting Indian-style while eating may find it
uncomfortable.
음식 배달
Korea’s food delivery system is second to none. You
can order pretty much anything under the sun and
have it delivered right to your door. We’re talking Korean,
Chinese, Japanese food, pig trotters, pizza, and even fast
food. Believe it or not, even McDonald’s delivers
hamburgers door-to-door in some locations in Seoul.
You name it, they will deliver it! You simply call the
restaurant or delivery service, place your order, and wait
for your food to arrive. Because Korea’s not really a
tipping culture, you don’t necessarily have to tip the
delivery person. The delivery time for most foods is less
than 30 minutes. Most delivery people use scooters to
zip around through even the busiest of streets. While,
some restaurants use disposable dishware, others use
reusable ones to deliver their food. If it’s the latter, you
simply place your finished dishes outside your door.
김치
Korean families typically get together to make
kimchi sometime in November. The making of
kimchi at this time of year is called ‘kimjang’. The
kimchi you make during ‘kimjang’ would last for
the whole winter. Making kimchi is quite a labor
intensive job. There’s a lot of work involved, so it
is normally done in a group. First of all, Chinese
cabbages are soaked in saltwater for a while. Then,
the filling for the kimchi is made. Radishes are shred
up and mixed with garlic, ginger, red pepper powder
and other ingredients. After that, the filling is
spread into every cabbage leaf individually so that
the flavor can be absorbed. ‘Kimjang’ is a traditional
custom of the Korean kimchi culture.
김밥
One of the most convenient and delicious snacks in
Korea is kimbab. Kimbab can be best described as
Korean-style rolls. A kimbab roll is made from
spreading rice onto a sheet of dried seaweed. You
then place various ingredients such as thinly sliced
fried eggs, carrots, ham, cucumbers, and yellow
pickled radish neatly on top. A bamboo mat is used
to roll the kimbab into a nice round shape. The
finishing touch would be some sesame oil lightly
brushed on the surface. You can then cut the
kimbab into bite-sized rolls to make it ready to
serve! If you want a more savory flavor, you can add
other ingredients such as beef, tuna, kimchi, or even
cheese. Kimbab is a great on-the-go meal when
you are going for an outing.
잡채
Japchae is one of Korea’s more representative party
dishes. You’re almost guaranteed to run into japchae
at a Korean house party. It’s popular among foreigners
too because it’s not spicy. It’s basically a combination of
glass noodles, veggies, mushrooms, and thinly sliced
beef all stir-fried in sesame oil. The Chinese character
for “잡(雜)” means “mix” while “채(菜)” means
“vegetables”. Although japchae is technically a side
dish, it sometimes can be passed off as a main dish as
well. Chinese restaurants serve japchae over rice as a
main dish. Although japchae is full of flavor, it’s not as
difficult to make as one would expect. There are slight
variations of japchae including those that have seafood
in it. The beauty about japchae is that you can be a bit
creative when you make it.
주도
The Korean culture is very big on drinking. There are
unspoken rules one should follow when drinking in Korea.
One of the most important rules is to refrain from
pouring your own drink or allowing someone else to
pour theirs. The second you see an empty glass, you
should immediately offer to refill it. Now this is where
another rule comes into play. Use both hands to pour a
drink for someone who’s older than you or who you’re
not that close with. This is also the case when you’re
receiving a drink from such a person. The only time this
rule doesn’t apply is when you’re with your close friend
or when you’re significantly older than the other person.
In extremely formal situations, you may even want to
turn your head away from the table when drinking.
Last but not least, Koreans are known to make a lot of
toasts when they drink.
소주
I would say that the ultimate, most representative
drink in Korea is soju. Soju is a clear alcoholic drink
made from sweet potatoes. You could drink soju all
night long, and it would still be cheaper than one bottle
of hard liquor. It’s about 1,000 won in stores and maybe
3,000 to 4,000 won at bars or restaurants. Its alcohol
content is somewhere between roughly 17 to 25
degrees. So, it’s weaker than whisky, but definitely
stronger than beer. Soju is drunk icy cold in shot
glasses and goes well with many Korean dishes.
People’s favorite is the combo of soju and samgyeopsal,
or Korean-style grilled bacon. If it’s too strong for your
taste, you can order flavored cocktail soju, which goes
down a lot more easy. Some common flavors of cocktail
soju are lemon, grape, apple, and pineapple.
해장
I’ve seen many Westerners drinking coffee or having
something greasy to deal with hangovers. Korea has its
own list of hangover remedies. First off, there are little
tonic bottles sold in stores that you can take before
drinking to ease the aftereffects. If those don’t do the
trick, there are also drinks to knock down the next
morning to help sober up. Other age-old remedies are
having Korean-style stews or soups. The most typical one
is haejanggook. Haejanggook literally means “hangover
relief soup” and helps to soothe your stomach after
drinking. They come in various forms including the likes
of spicy pork rib stew, blood pudding soup, bean sprout
soup, and dried Pollack soup. I usually dump a bowl of
rice into the soup, which is served in a piping hot clay
bowl.
Korean
Places
한국의 지리적 위치
Korea is a peninsula in eastern Asia. North and South
Korea is separated by the armistice line at the 38th
parallel. A strip of land between the two countries
serves as a buffer zone. It is called the demilitarized
zone, or DMZ. It is one of the most heavily militarized
borders in the world. Even the surrounding oceans are
claimed by each country, divided by the Northern Limit
Line. Speaking of oceans, there are three seas that touch
Korea. To the west is the Yellow Sea, to the east is the
East Sea, and the East China Sea is down south. Because
these oceans are shared with the neighboring countries
of China and Japan, there are territorial disputes over
some of the islands in them. A case in point is the
Dokdo Islets, which Korea and Japan both claim
ownership over. Korea is also known for its mountains
that cover 70 percent of the peninsula.
비무장 지대
The border between North and South Korea is one
of the most heavily militarized in the world. The
demilitarized zone, or the DMZ, is a strip of land
between North and South Korea that serves as a
buffer zone between the two countries. The area
between the fences on each side is off limits to
humans. The area is very dangerous as it is still
covered with landmines. With no humans around,
though, it has become a haven for wildlife. As a
matter of fact, there are plans to keep it as a
nature reserve even after reunification. Foreign
tourists are come to the DMZ to get guided tours.
The DMZ was also the site for one of Korea’s most
successful movies, JSA.
서울의 고궁
Amidst the hustle and bustle of city life, remarkably wellpreserved pieces of history lie in the heart of Seoul. The
“Five Grand Palaces” were built by the kings of the Joseon
Dynasty and offer the perfect getaway from modernity. The
five palaces are Gyeongbok Palace, Deoksu Palace, Changdeok
Palace, Changgyung Palace and Kyung-hee Palace. Gyeongbok
Palace used to be the main palace during the Joseon Dynasty
and is often considered the grandest palace of them all. It
covers a lot of ground and boasts a beautiful pavilion.
Deoksu Palace is especially known for its stone-wall road,
statue of King Sejong the Great, and beautiful architecture
that has a touch of Western influence. Meanwhile,
Changdeok Palace is arguably the nicest, reportedly having
been many of the kings’ favorite palace. Its architecture
blends perfectly with its surroundings and the secret garden
of biwon is definitely a must-see.
세종로
Sejongno is the busiest boulevard in Seoul. Its downtown
location and importance in history make it Seoul’s most
prominent street. It is surrounded by important buildings.
The government complex, Sejong Culture Center, American
Embassy, Kyobo bookstore, and the Donga Ilbo Newspaper
buildings are all on Sejongno. Most important of all, at the
far end of the boulevard is Gyeongbok Palace, which was
where the royals used to live in the Chosun Dynasty. A
famous Sejongno landmark is the statue of the Korean
general Yi Sun-shin, who bravely fought against the Japanese
invasion in history. Recently, a statue of King Sejong the
Great was erected at Gwanghwamun square, which is also
on Sejongno. Sejongno is also where millions of Seoulites
poured out onto the streets to cheer for the Korean national
team in the 2002 World Cup.
인사동
Sejongno is the busiest boulevard in Seoul. Its downtown
location and importance in history make it Seoul’s most
prominent street. It is surrounded by important buildings.
The government complex, Sejong Culture Center, American
Embassy, Kyobo bookstore, and the Donga Ilbo Newspaper
buildings are all on Sejongno. Most important of all, at the
far end of the boulevard is Gyeongbok Palace, which was
where the royals used to live in the Chosun Dynasty. A
famous Sejongno landmark is the statue of the Korean
general Yi Sun-shin, who bravely fought against the Japanese
invasion in history. Recently, a statue of King Sejong the
Great was erected at Gwanghwamun square, which is also
on Sejongno. Sejongno is also where millions of Seoulites
poured out onto the streets to cheer for the Korean national
team in the 2002 World Cup.
과천시
First established as a municipal city in 1986, Gwacheon is
located on the outskirts of Seoul in Gyeonggi province. In
fact, it’s so close to Seoul that it uses the same telephone
area code 02. Gwacheon is most famous for its major
governmental administrative center. The city is set against
the backdrop of the majestic Gwanak and Cheonggye
mountains. It is also home to many landmarks such as The
National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul Land, Seoul
Grand Park, The National Gwacheon Science Museum, and the
Gwacheon Horserace Park. Especially during the spring
season, the Seoul Grand Park is a must-visit location filled with
beautiful cherry blossoms. For these reasons and more,
Gwacheon is often noted as one of the best places to live
in the country.
한강 다리
The Han River runs through Seoul from the East to
the West, and flows into the Yellow Sea. The Han River
is about 514 kilometers long, and spans more than a
kilometer at its widest point. Currently, twenty-seven
bridges intersect the Han River, allowing buses, cars,
bicycles and people to cross. Subway lines 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
and 7 also cross the river via the bridges. The western
most bridge is called the Ilsan Bridge, and the eastern
most bridge is the Paldang Bridge. Seongsu Bridge
became infamous when it collapsed in October of 1994
due to poor construction, killing 32 people. It was rebuilt
in August of 1997. Banpo Bridge is well-known as the
only double-deck bridge. The bridges that cross the
Han River create a magnificent view at night as they
are lit up with beautiful lights.
숭례문(남대문)
Sungnyemun was originally completed in 1398 as the
southern gate of the city walls that once surrounded
Seoul. This well-known landmark was designated as
Korea’s National Treasure No. 1 in 1962. However, it
was burnt down by an arsonist in February of 2008.
Koreans everywhere watched helplessly for hours as
the structure was completely burned down. Two years
after its destruction, the reconstruction of Sungnyemun
began this past February. The gate will be restored as
close to its original form as possible. The walls on both
sides of the gate will also be extended. The restoration
work will be conducted using traditional construction
methods and tools. The workers will also be wearing
traditional Korean hanbok. The restoration is set to be
completed by 2012.
Korean
Economy
한국의 경제 성장
Korea has been known to be one of the world’s fastest
growing economies during the past few decades. It’s no
understatement to say that Korea’s economy went from
nothing to a force to be reckoned with internationally.
After the Korean War in the 50s, the country was left in
ruins. However, in the following six decades, many Korean
brands such as Samsung, Hyundai, and LG have become
household names all around the world. That’s not to say that
there were a couple of serious hiccups along the way. For
example, Korea had to ask for help from the IMF during the
Asian financial crisis in 1997. Korea’s economy posted a
minus growth of 6.9% in 1998. However, the country
bounced right back up to grow 9.5% in 1999 and 8.5% in
2000. More recently, in the aftermath of the global recession
that hit 2008, Korea recovered relatively quickly. Korea’s GDP
posted a 6.1% growth in 2010 and is projected to grow 4.6%
in 2011.
IT 강국
Korea has been leading the pack when it comes to
the global IT industry. The technological
advancements made by our domestic IT companies
are quite outstanding. One big reason Korea has
become a global IT powerhouse is that Koreans
are very tech-savvy. Many Koreans are truly early
adopters. Korea’s cell phone usage is a good sign of
the nation’s IT growth. Having a cell phone in
Korea is considered a given. Smart phones are fast
on that track to becoming just as popular. We can’t
forget that Korea also has the fastest Internet
connection in the world. The nation’s high-speed
Internet penetration rate is also the world’s
highest. That’s probably why there are so many
bloggers and social networking site users.
한국 화폐
Korea’s official monetary unit is the won. There are coins
for 10, 50, 100, and 500 won denominations. For larger
denominations, there are bills for 1,000, 5,000, 10,000,
and most recently, 50,000 won. Each note can be
differentiated by its color and design. The 1,000 won
note is blue with a picture of the well-known
Confucian scholar, Lee Hwang. Another Confucian
scholar, Lee Yulgok, is printed on the orange 5,000 won
bill. One of the greatest kings of all, King Sejong the
Great, is printed on the green 10,000 won banknote.
In June of 2009, the 50,000 won banknote was
introduced, featuring Lee Yulgok’s mother, Shin Saimdang.
Shin Saimdang was the first woman to be printed on
Korean currency. She was a prominent writer,
calligrapher, and artist during the Joseon Dynasty.
자동차 산업
Korea’s automotive industry currently ranks fifth in
the world in terms of production. That’s quite an
astonishing ranking for a relatively small country that has
made cars for a little over three decades. It’s also
remarkable that Korean auto companies are faring very
well when major car companies around the world have
been struggling in recent years. In the past, Korean
auto brands used to be typically considered the small
fish in the big pond up against major Japanese,
American, and European brands. However, as of late,
people have been taking notice of the improving
quality of Korean cars. There are five domestic auto
companies: Hyundai Motors, Kia Motors, GM Daewoo,
Ssangyong Motors, and Renault Samsung Motors. These
companies do more than just assemble cars. They are
one of main engines of the Korean economy.
철강 산업
One of the major locomotives of the Korean economy
is the steel industry. In some ways, it can be
considered the backbone of the booming shipbuilding
and automobile industries in Korea. Without steel, how
can ships be built and cars be manufactured? To meet
the needs of these other industries, the government built
the POSCO steel mill in the 1970s. There are currently
two steel mills belonging to the company located in
Pohang and Gwangyang. The steel giant played a role
in the gradual growth of Korea’s steel industry. Korea
was ranked sixth in the global steel industry as of
2009. Zoning in on the big players of the industry, as of
2010, POSCO is the fourth largest steel producer in the
world. In 2010 alone, Korea’s total steel production grew
to 52.5 million tons.
조선업계
One of the driving forces of the Korean economy is
the shipbuilding industry. Korea is home to seven out
of the top ten shipbuilding companies in the world.
These companies have helped Korea become a
shipbuilding powerhouse. The industry really started to
expand in the early 90s when shipyards tripled their
shipbuilding capacities. Korea eventually attained
leadership of the market in the late 90s. The country’s
success was achieved through government subsidies,
highly advanced technology and the strong work ethics
of the labor force. Korea’s shipbuilding yards are also
noted to be highly productive and efficient.
Unfortunately, there is strong competition coming from
countries like China. Regardless, Korea’s still one of the
top players in the shipbuilding industry.
디스플레이 패널 산업
One of the main engines of the Korean economy is
the display panel industry. Display panels are used in
so many of our everyday devices. Your cell phone,
computer screen, PDA, TV, laptop, and tablet PC all
require display panels. In this digital and electronics era,
demand is higher than ever. Korea is not just a major
player in this industry, but the number one
manufacturer of LCDs (liquid crystal displays) and PDPs
(plasma display panels) in the world. It’s not like Korea
has hit its peak either. Experts forecast that the panel
parts industry is expected to grow to $130 billion by
2017. The Korean-produced OLEDs (organic lightemitting diodes), which are installed in cell phones and
other portable devices, are also expected to blow up
even more than now. The government hopes that the
country will control 45% of market share by 2017.
Korean
Weather
삼복더위
There are three days called sambok that mark the dog
days of summer in Korea. Sambok is in accordance
with the lunar calendar, so the dates are slightly
different every year. We have the first dog day, chobok,
the second called joongbok, and the third called malbok.
There are ten days between each dog day for a total of
20 days of scorching heat. Koreans take a very unique
approach to cooling off on these days. Rather than
enjoying something cold and refreshing, it’s customary
to eat piping hot foods. Koreans believe that the best
way to beat the heat is to “fight fire with fire”.
Basically, if the inside of your body feels hot, than the
outside will feel a bit cooler. A popular dish that Koreans
eat on sambok is samgyetang. It is the Korean version
of chicken soup filled with nutrients great for
restoring vitality.
장마철
The monsoon season, called jang-ma, brings lots of
rain to Korea in the summer. The rainy season hits
Korea during the months of June and July. In fact,
Korea gets more than half of its annual
precipitation during this time. What happens is a
wet weather front forms from the collision of the
North Pacific Air Mass down south with the Okhotsk
High up north. The air from the south is warm and
moist, while the air from the north is cooler. The
severity of precipitation varies depending on the
strengths of the cool and warm air masses. Heavy
rainfall is often accompanied by thunder and
lightning. The areas typically hit hardest are the
southern coastal belts. Korea must brace itself for
potential damage from typhoons during this time.
EBS FM Radio
<입이 트이는 영어>
월~토 7:00 ~ 7:20 AM
이현석
동시통역사, EBS 방송 진행자
유학 대비 영어 특강
Presenting Korean Culture and History in English
중앙공무원교육원(과천)
[email protected]
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