EOCT Study Guide EOCT AT A GLANCE • All questions are multiple choice • Each section of the American Literature EOCT contains 40 questions; there are 2 sections with a total of 80 questions combined • Each EOCT has two sections and students are given 60 minutes per section • A student’s EOCT score is averaged as 15% of his/her final grade Preparing for the EOCT • Know your study skills habits • Practice good time management skills by setting realistic goals, studying for reasonable amounts of time, establishing a routine and studying the most challenging things first. • Be organized- establish a study area with minimal distractions and gather materials in advance. • Actively participate while studying, it makes the information stick with you. Create sample test questions, ask yourself questions or rewrite the information. Test-taking Strategies • Start now- don’t wait until the last minute to prepare for the test. • Prepare a little each day by practicing the skills that will be measured by the EOCT. • Determine what skills you need to master and focus on those skills. The day before the EOCT • Review the general test-taking strategies • Get a good night’s sleep- most people need at least 8 hours • Don’t drastically alter your routine- if you go to bed too early, you might lie in bed and focus on the test. • Relax! The morning of the EOCT • Eat a good breakfast! Peanut butter, meat and eggs are good choices. • Dress in layers to make certain you will not be too hot or cold during the test. • Arrive on time for the test. You do not want to be rushed and anxious. TOP TEN EOCT STRATEGIES • • • • • • • Focus on the test Budget your time Take a quick break if you feel tired Use positive self-talk Mark in your test booklet Read the entire question and answers Use what you know TOP TEN (Cont.) • Use content specific strategies to answer the questions • Think logically • Check your answers- go back and check your work when you are finished! Content Domains on EOCT 1. Reading and American Literature 2. Reading Across the Curriculum/Listening, Speaking and Viewing 3. Writing 4. Conventions Studying the Content Domains • Reading passages: Domains 1 and 2 will be based on informational and literary passages. • Informational passages (nonfiction) will share knowledge and convey messages. Examples include letters, biographical accounts, etc. • Literary passages (fiction) will tell a story or express an idea. Examples include short stories, novels, poetry, etc. Content Doman 1: Reading and American Literature EOCT Review – 11th Grade Standard 1 “Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and characteristics of American fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama and provide evidence from the work to support understanding.” Passages • You will be presented with a selection from the following types of passages: – – – – – – – – Essay Official documents Biography/Autobiography Expository (informational) Narrative (fiction/nonfiction) Speech Poem Drama Literary Devices: Terms to KNOW • • • • • • • • Alliteration Flashback Foreshadowing Hyperbole Irony Metaphor (regular/extended) Onomatopoeia Paradox Literary Devices: Terms to KNOW • • • • • • • • Personification Pun Refrain Repetition Simile Symbol Tone Understatement Fiction: Terms to KNOW • Chronological – story is arranged in order of time from beginning to end • Epistolary Novel – novel written in the form of letters, journals, diary entries, letters etc. • Frame Narrative – a story told within in a story • In medias res – Latin for “in the middle of things” – the novel begins with a significant moment, this style uses flashbacks to fill in the details Influences on American Literature • You will be asked to relate American Literature to the following: – Historical setting – Other works of fiction or nonfiction – Greek/Roman myths – roots of literature Sample Question • What quote by Henry David Thoreau BEST reflects transcendentalist ideals? A. It is never too late to give up your prejudices. B. Beware of all enterprises that require new clothes. C. On tops of mountains, as everywhere to hopeful souls, it is always morning. D. Read the best books first, or you may not have a chance to read them at all. Answer • C. On tops of mountains, as everywhere to hopeful souls, it is always morning. • Explanation – Transcendentalists believed in the unity of all things, the innate goodness of humans, and the divinity found in nature. Sample Question • Which statement BEST describes a main difference between journals and diaries? A. A journal is more likely than a diary to be published. B. A journal mostly contains secret thoughts and feelings. C. A diary mostly records a specific event or period of time. D. A diary is more formal and carefully written than a journal. Answer • A. A journal is more likely than a diary to be published. • Explanation: The other answers confuse the two genres. “A” is the only choice that correctly describes a main difference between journals and diaries. Because they are less private, journals are more likely to be shared with others. Poetry: Terms to KNOW • Rhyme – – – – – End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Slant Rhyme Consonance Assonance • Rhyme Scheme – Fixed form – Free form – Blank verse Poetry: Terms to KNOW • Subject matter Narrative – tells a story Ballad – narrative poem, folk origin, intended to be sung Lyric – expresses a person’s thoughts or feelings Figurative Language: Terms to KNOW These types of figurative language are often found in poetry, but can be found in many genres of literature. • Allusion • Conceit • Metonymy • Synecdoche Drama: Terms to KNOW • • • • • • • • • • • Tragedy Comedy Political drama Modern drams Theatre of the Absurd Dramatic conventions Fourth Wall Expressionism Minimalism Dramatic Irony Stage directions Standard 2 “Identifies, analyzes, and applies knowledge of theme in a work of American Literature and provides evidence from the work to support understanding.” Terms and Idea to KNOW • Terms – Main idea – Theme – Universal theme • Big Ideas – American individualism – American dream – Cultural diversity – Tolerance Native American Period, pre-1620-1840 Based on oral tradition of songs and stories Focuses on: 1) The natural world 2) The sacred world 3) Importance of land and place Colonial Period, 1620-1750 Focuses on Lives of Puritans 1) Moral and religious attitudes 2) Historical events 3) Daily life 4) Political unrest 1) 2) 3) 4) Major Authors William Bradford Anne Bradstreet Jonathan Edwards Benjamin Franklin Revolutionary Period, 17501815 Focuses on: 1) Intellect 2) Age of Reason/Enlighten ment 3) Justification of the American Revolution 4) Nationalism 5) Patriotism 1) 2) 3) Major Authors Thomas Paine Benjamin Franklin Thomas Franklin Romanticism and Transcendentalism, 18001855 Focuses on: 1) Reason and rational thought 1) Individualism 2) Nature 3) Imagination 4) Emotions Major Authors: 1) Washington Irving 2) Nathaniel Hawthorne 3) Edgar Allen Poe 4) Walt Whitman 5) Ralph Waldo Emerson 6) Henry David Thoreau Realism, 1850-1900 1) 2) 3) Focuses on: Realities of life Human frailty Regional cultures 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Major Authors: Mark Twain Ambrose Pierce Emily Dickinson Stephen Crane Willa Cather Naturalism, 1880-1940 Focuses on: 1) Viewing life as a set of natural laws to be discovered 2) Characters studied by their relations to their surroundings (luck, heredity, environment) 1) 2) 3) 4) Major Authors: Jack London Theodore Dreiser James T. Farrell Frank Norris Modern Period, 1900-1950 Focuses on: 1) Disillusionment with old ways 2) Themes of alienation 3) Experiments with new techniques 4) Irony, symbolism, understatement 5) Harlem Renaissance Major authors: 1) F. Scott Fitzgerald 2) T.S. Eliot 3) Ernest Hemingway 4) Langston Hughes 5) Zora Neale Hurston Possible Questions on Literary Periods Which detail from the passage informs the reader of the time period? The poem is characteristic of which period in American Literature Which characteristics of the Modern Period are found both in the story and the poem? Identifying Style Devices Example of style device: Tone—overall sense of author’s attitude toward the subject matter What are the tones in the following excerpts? The woman trudged through the heavy snow, struggling against the wind, her face shielded by a thick gray scarf. She kept her face down, her eyelids nearly closed, dark slits in a pale white face. Her shoulders sagged as if laden with a heavy burden, yet her arms were empty. The woman danced across the snow, her feet barely leaving prints, her arms lifted upward, embracing the wind. She flung back her head and tossed her red hat into the air, lifting her face into the driving snow and allowing the snowflakes to caress her skin. Identifying New Vocabulary Questions for this standard will ask you to understand and acquire new vocabulary terms that are appropriate fro high school students. Identifying New Vocabulary, cont’d. Be familiar with the following terms: Idioms: phrases or expressions peculiar to a particular language Example: A person who looks like the cat who swallowed a canary is satisfied with something that has happened. She has not literally swallowed a canary. Identifying New Vocabulary, cont’d. Cognates: words that have the same origin or are related in some way to words in other languages Example of Cognates: Night—English Noche—Spanish Nuit—French Identifying New Vocabulary, cont’d. Denotation—dictionary definition of a word Connotation—meaning or idea associated with a word Examples of denotation and connotation: Laugh and giggle have similar denotations; however, the word giggle has youthful connotations. We associate “giggle” with children and not adults. Content Domain II Vocabulary Your answers to the questions will help show how well you can perform on the following standards: • Acquire new vocabulary in each content area and use it correctly • Establish a context for information acquired by reading across subject areas • Evaluate the messages and effects of mass media Read the following selection and try to figure out what the word truncated means. Everyone could tell it had once been a huge tree. The roots at its base were as large as a grown person. When the tree died, someone had used a chainsaw to cut away most of the tree. All that was left was a truncated stump of wood. The stump made a picnic table that could seat eight people around it comfortably As it is used in this Paragraph , the word truncated most nearly means A modified B added C shortened D replaced STRATEGY BOX – Use the Words Around It When you are faced with an unknown word, go back to the passage. Start reading two sentences before the word appears, and continue reading for two sentences afterwards. If that doesn’t give you enough clues, look elsewhere in the passage. By reading the context in which the word appears, you may be able to make an educated guess How a word is used in a sentence can also determine its meaning. If the context of the word changes, the meaning of the word can also change. This change can be very basic, such as a word being used as a noun in one sentence and a verb in the next. Set as a noun: That is a lovely set of dinner plates. Set as a verb: Please set the books down on the table. However, a change in meaning can be subtler. Look at the word shrieked in the next two sentences, and notice how the meaning of the word changes slightly. Sentence 1: “There’s a monster in the house!” the woman shrieked. Sentence 2: “I just won 65 million dollars!” the woman shrieked. In the first sentence, the woman shrieks out of fear. In the second sentence, the shriek is one of extreme excitement and happiness. The context of the sentence has determined whether the shriek is good or bad. Items written for this standard will ask you to relate common human experiences to a given text. For example, a sample passage might be an excerpt from Sandra Cisneros’ The Houseo n Mango Street, which describes the coming of age of Esperanza, a young Hispanic girl trying to find her place in the Chicago neighborhood in which she lives. The passage might describe the incident when Esperanza tries to eat in the same eatery as the children who go to her school but who don’t live in her poor neighborhood. She discovers that she is not welcomed there and this makes her feel ashamed. A reader need not be a young Hispanic girl growing up in the barrios of Chicago to identify with Esperanza’s feelings of hurt. Which life experience would MOST improve a reader’s ability to identify with the main character in the passage? A discrimination B misfortune C failure D disappointment A reader who has experienced any sort of discrimination could identify with the character in this story .Choice A is correct. It is the life experience most closely related to this excerpt. STRATEGY BOX Empathize Good readers usually try to understand the characters better by empathizing, or identifying with their thoughts and feelings. Empathizing with the characters helps stories come alive, and it gives readers more insight into the motivations of the characters and how they influence each other Context is also helpful in identifying the meaning of words that are being used indifferent subjects. For example, in science class the word revolution refers to a planet’s complete turn around the Sun. In social studies class, a revolution is a complete upheaval in government or society. The context of the passage will help you decide which meaning is appropriate in the passage. STRATEGY BOX Plug It In To answer questions for this standard, look at the answer choices. Does one seem the most likely? Try “plugging” it in the sentence to replace the word in the question. Does the word from the answer choice make sense in the sentence? If so, it is probably the correct answer. If not, try plugging in another answer choice. What is Mass Media? Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and Web sites are all different channels through which Americans can receive information. Taken together, all these different modes of communication— television, radio, newsprint, etc.— are often referred to as mass media. Common Modes of Rhetoric 1. Narration. Narrative writing tells a story. This story can be true (like a firsthand account in a magazine article) or completely made up (a short story with talking dragons). Narrative writing usually has a story with a plot, a climax, and a resolution of events in the story. 2. Description As its name suggests, descriptive writing uses language to describe a person, place, or thing. Descriptive writing is often filled with colorful, precise language, since the goal of good descriptive writing is to make a person, place, or thing come alive in the mind of a reader. A character sketch—a picture of a person captured in words—is one example of descriptive writing. 3. Persuasion Persuasive writing is designed to influence the reader’s thoughts in someway. Politicians use persuasive speeches to convince voters to cast their ballots for them. Editorials in local newspapers are written to convince readers that one particular viewpoint is better than the other. 4. Exposition Expository writing is used to provide information on a topic or to explain something. A common encyclopedia entry is a good example of expository writing. Types of Arguments Arguments= facts or assertions offered as proof that something is true •Argument by authority relies on statements from authority figures, experts, or professionals to convince you of something. •Argument by emotion appeals to your feelings. •Argument by logic is an appeal to reason and evidence to convince you of something. Match the following examples to the appropriate type of argument A. Relief organizations showing pictures of people in very unfortunate situations to move you to donate money to their organizations B. “People who have used our product have lost weight. You want to lose weight. If you buy this product, you will lose weight.” C. An advertisement claiming that three out of four dentists agree that this toothpaste is the best American Literature EOCT Review Content Domain III: Writing What does the EOCT cover? • Organize a writing sample • Demonstrate ability to convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources • Use research and technology to support writing • Use the writing process to develop, revise, and evaluate writing The Test • Apply knowledge about grammar, usage, and style to create an organized writing sample that: – Engages the reader – Maintains a coherent focus – Signals closure • Tested on a variety of passages – Letters, reports, essays, journals, and newspaper articles Finding the Main Idea • Thesis or Main idea – primary message of a piece of writing • Main idea can be found – In title – The thesis statement – The conclusion • Subordinate, or supporting ideas can be found – Topic sentence of each paragraph – Body paragraphs Every Paper Needs Evidence! • Evidence will support the main and subordinate ideas • Evidence might include – Ancedotes – Descriptions – Facts – Statistics EOCT Questions • Questions may look like these: – Which sentence does NOT fit with the main idea of the report? – Which sentence is the BEST thesis for this passage? Organization • Common ways to organize a passage include: – Chronological order – Cause and effect – Compare and contrast – Asking and answering questions • Writer’s choice in structure depends on the point they want to make. Nuts and Bolts of Effective Writing • Good writers use precise language – Use action verbs rather than passive voice • Active voice – subject of the sentence acts – Ex. – A man wearing jeans and a baseball cap robbed the bank and stole its money • Passive voice – subject of the sentence is acted upon buy the verb (look for “by”) – Ex. – Money was stolen from the bank by a man wearing jeans and a baseball hat. • Questions on the EOCT – Finding the best topic sentence, concluding sentence, identifying a sentence that is out of sequence, or one that is unrelated to the topic Choose the BEST Answer • You will come across answers that are close • KEEP READING!!! • You need to find the BEST Answer • Don’t mark your final answer until you have read ALL of the answer choices!!! Demonstrate ability to convey information and ideas from sources • You will be asked to choose the best sentences to: – Engage the audience, develop a controlling idea, summarize a passage, provide detailed information in style and tone • Passages will be – Informational reports, articles, or essays • Could be tested on rhetorical devices – Repetition, analogy Identify and Use Rhetorical Devices • Parallelism – repetition of similar parts of a sentence • Ex – “I came, I saw, I conquered.” • Repetition – Part of parallelism – may repeat words or phrases throughout a literary piece • Analogy – Like a simile, compares two items – Can be more extensive than a simile Use Research and Technology to Support Writing • Questions will test your ability to choose the best sources and methods for researching a topic • Steps in the Research Process – Deciding on a topic – not too broad or too narrow – Locate Primary and Secondary Sources • Primary Source – records of events by people who participated in or witnessed the events – Ex – English paper, author’s work, personal interviews, and news paper accounts • Secondary Source – records of events by people who did not participate – Ex – textbook, literary reviews, and criticisms – Paraphrasing Information – putting the information you read and writing it in your own words Plagiarism • Is taking someone else’s words or ideas and presenting them as your own. • Questions related to this topic might ask you to select the correct way to quote material from sources Organizing and Recording Information • Recording information on note cards is a great way to keep information organized • Anecdotal scripting – term for recording the events in a literary work – List or timeline of the events • Annotated Bibliography – – – – Brief summary of the work – include thesis & main idea Evaluation of the work – authors background knowledge Intended audience – for whom is the book written? Evaluation of usefulness – will it help with your research? • Other systems of organization – Outlines, mindmaps, charts, and graphs Identifying and Analyzing Sources • Questions will ask about appropriate sources for research and tests your ability to choose the best written or electronic source to use in researching a topic • Reference Materials – informative, nonfiction resources, like a dictionary, or electronic source (ie Galileo) • Helpful to know the parts of a book and the function of each part Documenting Your Sources • Cite the source when you use information from another source • Bibliography contains all the works you consulted during your research • Works Cited only documents the works you have specifically referenced in your paper Use the writing process to develop, revise, and evaluate writing • Questions will focus on recognizing the best revisions to poor writing • Asked to rewrite awkwardly worded sentences, misplaced modifiers, and errors in sentence structure • Steps in the writing process – – – – – Prewriting – gathering ideas, organizing thoughts Drafting – creating the rough draft Revising and Editing – making improvements Proofreading – polishing the paper Publishing – sharing your finished paper Trust Yourself • Don’t be afraid to trust your ear and make an educated guess • You can often “hear” a problem even if you can’t explain exactly what is wrong with the sentence Ability to Revise for Audiences and Purposes • Understanding who the intended audience is will help you understand the purpose of the writing • Understanding your audience also helps you use appropriate language – Choose between formal and informal language – Formal is grammatically precise, contains longer sentences – Informal not always grammatically accurate, may use slang words or phrases Who is your Audience? • Consider the situation and audience • The goal is to match the formality or the situation and audience with the formality of the writing • Good writers adjust vocabulary, style, and tone to fit their intended audiences • Questions will ask you to determine appropriate language for a particular audience Study Ideas for the EOCT! • Be able to recognize good writing and understand the importance of audience and purpose • Practice researching a topic • Find a variety of reference materials, review and compare their contents Content Domain IV Conventions Test Question will do the following • Test your ability to demonstrate understanding and control of the rules of the English language. • test your ability to apply conventions of Standard American English to formal manuscript requirements. Demonstrate understanding of Standard American English • Topics you can expect to see – Main and subordinate clauses – Gerund, participle, and infinitive phrases – Punctuation marks – Verb tense consistency and agreement – Proper placement of modifiers – Precise word choice – Spelling – Parallel structure A closer look at Phrases • Gerund phrase: combines a gerund with the object of the gerund or other modifiers. A gerund is a verb uses as a noun, with an –ing ending. • Participle phrase: includes a participle and the object of the participle. A participle is a form of a verb but does not act as a verb – it acts as an adjective, often ends in –ing or –ed. • Infinitive phrase: Includes an infinitive and any modifiers or complements. An infinitive is always a verb with to in front of it. It can serve as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Example – why are the wrong answers wrong? What is the correct way to write the following sentence: A. Teresa studied for an hour, outlined her paper, and then had taking a break. B. Teresa studied for an hour, outlined her paper, and then takes a break. C. Teresa studied for an hour, outlined her paper, and then took a break. D. Teresa studied for an hour, outlined her paper, and then will take a break. Parallelism • The previous question also tested parallelism. • Parallelism states that objects linked together have to be similar in tense and number. • So studied, outlined and taking are not parallel – taking should be took – because all three verbs should be past tense. Apply conventions of Standard American English to Formal manuscript requirements • This section will focus on how well you know formatting requirements for manuscripts. • These questions may ask about things like pagination, spacing, and margins.