By the 6th Grade Computer Class
Slides 2-7 (Government)
by Clara
In Egyptian Government the pharaoh is the
highest of all. The people of Egypt
considered the pharaoh to be a half-man,
half-god. He (or sometimes she) owned all
of Egypt and everything in it, including the
people, animals, land and the tools, even
the Nile River. The citizens gave the
pharaoh portions of their crops in taxes.
Workers donated their labor, and artists
created art for the pharaoh. This made
the pharaoh an extremely wealthy person.
The government built storehouses to hold
grain that was given as tax payment.
During times of severe draught the
pharaoh would give some of this grain to
the hungry Egyptians.
The pharaoh could tell anybody what to do,
and they would have to listen to him (or her).
This was called monarchy. The pharaoh
would pick rich people and assign them to
different estates. These rich people would
tell other people what to do for the
pharaoh, and they would have to do
whatever the pharaoh told them.
Monarchy : supreme
power or sovereignty
held by a single person.
Egyptian Royal Dynasties
The pharaoh was usually succeeded by
his oldest son. The son was trained
throughout his life to take over the
role of pharaoh after his father's
death. Sometimes rivalries and secret
plots caused a change in this
succession. Egypt had thirty royal
dynasties ruling for more than three
thousand years due to this.
The Government’s Role
The pharaoh chose one or two viziers, or
prime ministers, to help him. The pharaoh's
most important role was to serve as a
lawmaker and warrior. The pharaoh had
thousands of government workers to help
him. They made sure the laws were carried
out. They kept records of crops. The
government also trained troops and carried
on wars. Soldiers, policemen, and custom
officers kept track of who came in and out
of the country. They used trained dogs to
capture thieves, runaway slaves, or people
trying to leave the country without paying
The Pharaoh’s Attire
Pharaohs wore fake beards and tails. The
false beards were usually blue. No one knows
why the pharaoh wore the beard. The tail
was to remind the people that the pharaoh
had magical powers, animal powers. The
pharaoh also carried a shepherd's staff and
a flail or whip. The staff represented a
shepherd's protection and the flail reminded
the Egyptians that they'd better do what the
king wanted. The pharaoh never let his hair
be seen. He wore a crown for ceremonies
and a headdress called a nemes for everyday
Slides 8-10 (King Tut)
by Cole
Who was King Tut?
•The 12th ruler in Egypt's 18th Dynasty.
•Most likely the son of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV
•Married to his probable half-sister Ankhesenamun, the
daughter of Akhneten and the famous Queen Nefertiti.
•Died when he was about 18, having ruled for nine years, and
so is often called the Boy King.
•Tut's death is something of a mystery; x-rays taken in 1968
seemed to indicate that he may have been killed by a blow to
his head, but 21st-century scientific analysis suggested he may
have died after breaking a leg, possibly from infection to the
Tut’s Ornaments
 One of them is the vulture
and cobra collar. The collar
was cut from a single sheet of
gold that was found on the
king’s body
 Another one is King Tut’s
crown. It was made of pure
gold with inlays of glass and
semiprecious stones
Slides 11-16 (People)
by Coledon
Marriage in Egypt
• Women in Egypt were
expected to get married
between the ages of 12-15.
• Marriage in Egypt was
regulated by custom rather
than by the law.
• Men and women drew up
property contracts at the time
of marriage in the event of
death or divorce.
• Then the woman traveled
home with her new husband.
• Both men and women in
Egypt wore tunics which
were sewn to fit them.
• These tunics were like a
long T-shirt which
reached to the knees [for
men] or to the ankles [for
• The men and women
never covered their
• Egyptians also wore
• The people of Egypt
weren't very welleducated unless they
had money.
• Some of the people
would send their sons
to Scribe School
where they would
learn how to read and
Egyptian Homes
• The people of Egypt
lived in little huts built
with bricks made out
of mud.
• There was usually a
big room with a place
to cook and other
areas to sleep.
• Animals were kept
outside by the
The Social Pyramid
•People usually married within their social
group and continued in the same job as
their parents.
•The pharaoh was at the top of a social
pyramid that looked something like this:
The World’s Largest River
Slides 17-21 (The Nile)
by Hailey
The Nile River is the largest river in the
world, stretching north for approximately
4,000 miles from East Africa to the
Three rivers flowed into the Nile from the South,
serving as its sources: The Blue Nile, The White
Nile, and the Arabia.
Southern Egypt, thus being upstream, is
called Upper Egypt, and the Northern
Egypt, being downstream and the Delta,
is called Lower Egypt.
The Nile supplied a constant influx of fish which
were cultivated year round. In addition to fish,
water fowl and cattle were also kept by the
Egyptians. Flocks of geese were raised from the
earliest times and supplied eggs, meat and fat.
The Nile River flowed from South to North at an
average speed of about four knots during
inundation season. The water level was an
average of about 25-33 feet deep and navigation
was fast. That made a river voyage from Thebes
North to Memphis lasting approximately two
weeks. The Nile was the country’s main
highway, carrying both goods and people.
Truly, the Nile is the heart of the ancient and
modern land of Egypt!
The Egyptians had a number
system using 7 different
symbols. 1 is shown by a single
stroke. 10 is shown by a
drawing of a hobble for cattle.
100 is represented by a coil of
rope. 1,000 is a drawing of a
lotus plant. 10,000 is
represented by a finger and
100,000 by a tadpole or frog.
1,000,000 is the figure of a god
with arms raised above his
Slides 22-24 (Math)
by Jacob
The Number System
The Egyptians used a grouping
system for numbering called
“Hieroglyphics”. They had
symbols for 1-1,000,000.
Instead of writing 2/5, they wrote 1/3 + 1/15.
For 2/7, they wrote 1/4 + 1/28. Some of the
fractions were very complicated. For 2/29, they wrote
1/24 + 1/58 + 1/174 + 1/232 !
How do we know about Egyptian fractions? The
written record goes all the way back to 1650 B.C. The
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus contains a table of
Egyptian fractions copied from another papyrus 200
years older. We know they used this system for over
2,000 years!
Egyptian Food
The Egyptians made wheat
into bread and into soup and
porridge. They also added
hops to make the barley into
beer. In fact, some people
think the real reason that the
Egyptians first began growing
grain was to make beer. This is
an Egyptian model of beer jars
which the Egyptians made to
put in your grave when you
died so you would have beer in
the next world.
Slides 25-26 (Food)
By Kimberly
For dessert, the Egyptians
liked to eat dates. This is a
picture of some real Egyptian
dates which were put into
somebody's grave for them to
eat in the next world. They
were preserved in the dry
climate for three thousand
years until archaeologists dug
them up again.
Geography of Egypt
Egypt is located in
the northern part of
Africa. To the north
of Egypt is the
Mediterranean Sea
and to the east of
Egypt is the Red
Slides 27-30 (Geography)
By Kimberly
Geography of Egypt
The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being
divided into two types of land, the 'black land' and the
'red land'.
Black Land
Red Land
Black Land
The 'black land' was the
fertile land on the banks
of the Nile. The ancient
Egyptians used this
land for growing their
crops. This was the
only land in ancient
Egypt that could be
farmed because a layer
of rich, black soil was
deposited there every
year after the Nile
Black Land
Red Land
The 'red land' was the
desert that protected
Egypt on two sides.
These deserts
separated ancient
Egypt from
neighboring countries
and invading armies.
They also provided
the ancient Egyptians
with a source for
metals and semiprecious stones.
Red Land
– For 3000 years the Ancient
Egyptian people practiced an
art form and style that is
almost immediately
recognizable. For 3000 years
there was no change in
Egyptian style.
These are some examples of
Egyptian Art.
Egyptian Games & Activities
The games people played in ancient Egypt
were very similar to some games people still
play today. They played games with pieces like
checkers, mancala, or senet. They played with
knucklebones, like jacks, and they played
games with dice too.
Slides 34-37 (Games)
by Maria
More Egyptian Games
Pictured here are some of the
other toys that the children of
Egypt played with. The oldest
toys made in Egypt were toy
wooden boats. From the same
period baked clay animals and
rattles have been discovered.
Egyptian Leisure and
The ancient Egyptians had great
lives and although they built a
magnificent civilization by hard work
they never forgot leisure and
recreation. The ancient Egyptians
had games to play as adults and
children. Mostly board games were
available but also toys were made
for the little children.
The Game of Senet
• Popular Ancient Egyptian board game mostly played by adults
• Played mainly by wealthy adults
• The game symbolized the struggle of good against evil. The evil forces
tried to stop you from reaching the Kingdom of the god Osiris.
• One of these games was found in the tomb of Hesy along with painting of
it and how to play.
• The rules of this game were very complex. It consisted of a board with 30
holes, 3 rows and 10 columns. Most of the games used 7 pawns, sticks or
knucklebones for each of the two players but some only had 5.
• During the New Kingdom, the game of Senet had acquired a religious and
magical meaning which symbolized the passage of the deceased through the
other world with his resurrection dependant upon his/her ability to win the
Slides 38-41 (tombs)
by Nick
Why Did the Egyptians Use
 They thought the
pyramids would protect
the mummified pharaohs.
 They also made a sphinx,
an animal with the body of
a lion and the head of a
king or a god, to protect
The Great Pyramid
 The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid ever built. It is made
from about 2.3 million stone blocks, weighing an average of
2.5 to 15 tons each. It is estimated that the workers would
have had to set a block every two and a half minutes.
 The pyramid has three burial chambers. The first is
underground, carved into bedrock. The second, above ground
chamber was called the queen's chamber by early explorers.
We now know it was never intended to house one of Khufu's
wives but perhaps a sacred statue of the king himself. The
third is the king's chamber, which held a red granite
sarcophagus placed almost exactly at the center of the
 The king's chamber is accessed through the 26-foot-high
Grand Gallery, which was sealed off from thieves by sliding
granite blocking systems.
What is in the tombs?
If you were to walk into
an Egyptian tomb, you
would see all sorts of
gold, bronze, and silver
artifacts and a big
golden coffin in the
middle of the room.
Just imagine seeing all
of the riches and
Egyptian Gods
and Goddesses
Slides 42-44 (Gods and Goddesses)
by Rose
Sun god
of war
The Egyptians mainly based their Gods and
Goddesses on protection, nature and everyday
tasks. For instance, if they wanted a very
sunny day, they would pray to Aten, one of the
sun Gods. They would do the same thing to Nun
for good boating days.
• The Egyptians’ Gods and Goddesses were
very important to them.
• They believed that they were the cause of
every good thing in their lives.
• They believed that Ra, the sun god, was
the most powerful god ever.
Trade in Ancient Egypt
Slides 45-47 (Trade)
By Taylor
About Trade In Ancient Egypt
 They traded
Egyptian Trade Sites
Ancient Egyptian trade
Egyptian Trade Sites
Egyptian Mummies
Slides 48-51 (Mummies)
by Willie
• The earliest Egyptians buried their dead in
pits. The heat and dryness of the sand
dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating life
like and natural ‘mummies’.
Over many centuries, the ancient
Egyptians developed a method of
preserving bodies so they would remain
life like. The process included
embalming the bodes & wrapping them
in strips of linen.
Ancient Egyptian writing uses more than 2,000
hieroglyphic characters. Each hieroglyph
represents a common object in ancient Egypt.
Hieroglyphs could represent the sound of the
object or they could represent an idea
associated with the object.
Slides 51-53 (Hieroglyphics)
by Kristy
Rosetta Stone
 This stone helped us unlock
the secrets of the Egyptian
 The Rosetta Stone had
writing on it in two
languages, Egyptian and
Greek, using three scripts,
Hieroglyphic, Demotic
Egyptian and Greek.
Because Greek was well
known, the stone was the
key to deciphering the
These are some hieroglyphic
 Fort:
 Animal:
 Kristy:
Trades in Ancient Egypt
• Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually well trained
and skilled.
• They were often well-respected in the community and
had a comfortable lifestyle.
• Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing
depended on the quality of his skills and experience.
Jewelry Makers
• The ancient Egyptians made many different
types of jewelry. Craftsmen created necklaces,
bracelets, collars, earrings and more from gold,
stones and glass.
• The work in a jewelry workshop was often
divided among many people. For instance, to
make a necklace, one person would make the
beads, another would drill the holes in the
beads, and a third would thread them onto
papyrus string.
Many types of precious stones were used in
jewelry. To make beads, artisans broke
stones and rolled them between other
stones to shape them. A bow drill was used
to drill a hole through the beads, which were
then rolled in a recessed receptacle
containing an abrasive to define their shape.
Skilled Artisans
Skilled artisans were considered superior to
common laborers. They learned their art
from a master who ensured stylistic beautiful
objects they created for the living and the
dead. Women worked in weaving, perfume
making, baking and needlework. Few
creations were signed, and exceptional
ability was rewarded through increased
social status.
Carpenter’s Workshop
• Some craftsmen worked in workshops
making furniture.
• The furniture that was made in these
workshops was usually for wealthy people
or the pharaoh.
Skilled carpenters made a wide range of
products, from roofing beams to furniture
and statues. Their tools included saws,
axes, chisels, adzes, wooden mallets, stone
polishers and bow drills. Wood was hard to
find in Egypt, so it was imported from
countries like Lebanon.
Stonemasons and Sculptors
Sculptors had to work to very
strict stylistic rules. The masons
first shaped and smoothed the
stones using stone hammers.
Draftsmen outlined images on
the stone before a team of
sculptors began carving them
with copper chisels. A fine
powder was used to polish the
stone before the images were
The Ancient Egyptians produced many
monumental and life-size stone statues of
pharaohs, nobles, gods and goddesses.
Stone vessels were made by shaping the
stone and smoothing its outside with
materials like quartz sand. A crank-shaped
drill was used to hollow out the inside.
The brickmaker had one of the more menial
occupations in ancient Egypt. To make
bricks, Nile mud was mixed with sand, straw
and water, slapped into wooden molds and
then slapped out onto the ground to dry in
the sun. Bricks were used in ancient Egypt
for building everything from peasants'
homes to the pharaoh's palaces.
The Farmers
• The people of ancient Egypt grew everything they
needed to eat.
• The pharaoh got the rich peasants to do the farm work on
the rich lands.
• Egyptians grew crops such as wheat, barley, vegetables,
figs, melons, pomegranates and vines. They also grew
flax which was made into linen.
• Farmers planted fruit trees and vines along the paths, to
give shade as well as fruit.
• The Egyptians grew their crops along the banks of the
River Nile on the rich black soil, or kemet which was left
behind after the yearly floods. They used the fertile soil to
grow their fields of wheat and barley.
Farming Tools
Ancient Egyptians had simple farming tools
such as winnowing scoops, hoes, rakes,
flint-bladed sickles and ploughs. They had
both hand ploughs and ones pulled by oxen.
The ploughs were used to turn the soil.
Reservoirs and Irrigation Canals
Once the floods quit and the
fields dried, the plants would die.
The mud that the Nile left behind
needed lots of watering. The
ancient Egyptians tried to trap as
much flood water as possible, so
they did not have to constantly
get water from the river. They
built mud-brick reservoirs to
trap and hold the water. They
also had a network of irrigation
canals that filled with water
during the flood and were refilled
from the reservoirs.
A Shaduf
To lift the water from the
canal they used a shaduf.
A shaduf is a large pole
balanced on a crossbeam,
a rope and bucket on one
end and a heavy counter
weight at the other. By
pulling the rope it lowered
the bucket into the canal.
The farmer then raised the
bucket of water by pulling
down on the weight. He
then swung the pole
around and emptied the
bucket onto the field.
• Scribes were the few Egyptians
who knew how to read and write.
Being a scribe was an extremely
difficult job because in total, there
were hundreds of different
hieroglyphs to remember.
• A scribe's job was highly regarded
in Ancient Egypt. Although highly
regarded, it took as long as twelve
years to train as a scribe.
• Only boys went to school to learn
to be scribes.
• The scribes used a kind of paper
called papyrus, which was made
from reeds otherwise known as
the papyrus plant.
Chariot Making
The chariot paved its way into the
Egyptian culture around 1500 B.C.
The Egyptian chariot was unique in
that it was constructed to be
handsome and light in weight. This
was probably due to a lack of wood
along the Nile River.
The Egyptians designed the chariot with the human standing directly
over the axle of the chariot. By accomplishing this there was less
stress put on the horse(s) because the rider’s weight was distributed
to the chariot rather than to the horse.
Garment Making
• Women were in charge of textile manufacturing and garment making.
Every garment from the decorative dresses of queens and the elaborate,
pleated kilts of the pharaohs to the simpler kilts and aprons of the
common people were handmade by woman. The process of making
garments was extensive even for the simplest of garment.
• Most Egyptians wore garments made from linen. This type of fabric is
light, airy, and allows freedom of movement, which were important
characteristics because of the hot and sometimes humid climate of Egypt.
• The tools involved in garment making included knives (or scissors) and
needles, both of these needed to be molded, shaped or carved. With
these tools and linen, garments were fashioned to suit the needs of the
people based on climate and the social status.
Glass Making
Glass making began as a result of the process of
firing clay pots. The sand and slag used in
making clay pots melted together to make glass.
Early examples of glass were in the form of
beads. It was found that when metal oxides were
added to the glass nuggets, various colors
resulted. There is also early evidence for glass
Papyrus Making
Papyrus was very important to the ancient Egyptians. Once the technology
of papyrus making was developed, its method of production was kept secret
allowing the Egyptians to have a monopoly on it. The first use of papyrus
paper is believed to have been 4000 BC.
The raw material of papyrus paper comes from the plant Cyperus papyrus.
This plant grew along the banks of the Nile and provided the Egyptians with
the necessary raw materials. No substitution for papyrus paper could be
found that was as durable and lightweight until the development of pulped
paper by the Arabs. The way of making pulp paper was far easier to
produce but not as durable. This not only led to a decline in papyrus paper
making, but also to a decline in the papyrus plant cultivation. Eventually, the
papyrus plant disappeared from the area of the Nile, where it was once the
lifeblood for ancient Egypt.
Papyrus making was not revived until around 1969. An Egyptian scientist
named Dr. Hassan Ragab reintroduced the papyrus plant to Egypt and
started a papyrus plantation near Cairo. He also had to research the
method of production. Because the exact methods for making papyrus
paper was such a secret, the ancient Egyptians left no written records as to
the manufacturing process. Dr. Ragab finally figured out how it was done,
and now papyrus making is back in Egypt after a very long absence.
Method of Papyrus Paper Making
• The stalks of the papyrus plant are harvested.
• Next the green skin of the stalk is removed and the inner pith is
taken out and cut into long strips. The strips are then pounded and
soaked in water for 3 days until pliable.
• The strips are then cut to the length desired and laid horizontally on
a cotton sheet overlapping about 1 millimeter. Other strips are laid
vertically over the horizontal strips resulting in the criss-cross pattern
in papyrus paper. Another cotton sheet is placed on top.
• The sheet is put in a press and squeezed together, with the cotton
sheets being replaced until all the moisture is removed.
• Finally, all the strips are pressed together forming a single sheet of
papyrus paper.
Ancient Egyptian Quarrying
• Limestone blocks for the outer casing of buildings were quarried on
the east bank of the Nile.
– Some of the men employed here painted their names on the giant
stones that they cut.
• Limestone was quarried one of two ways
– Obtained from the surface rock
• Easier, but not as high quality
– Obtained by tunneling
• Tools Used for Quarrying
– Saws and chisels which were capable of cutting any kind of limestone
– wedges
• How did they move the huge rocks?
– Most likely they used manpower to pull the rock up onto large barges
that would take it close to where it was needed.
– Then it would be pulled inch by inch onto a large sled-like contraption
that would be pulled. Large amounts of water were poured on the
ground in front of the sled in order to ensure that there was less friction.
The pictures and information included in this PowerPoint were taken
from these websites.
The End!!
Thanks for watching!

Slide 1