Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt Egyptian Society The PHAROAH was at the top of the social hierarchy. Next to him, the most powerful officers were the VIZIERS and HIGH PRIESTS, the executive heads of the bureaucracy, and religion. Next were the ROYAL OVERSEERS (administrators) who ensured that the 42 DISTRICT GOVERNORS carried out the pharaoh's orders. At the bottom were the SCRIBES, ARTISANS, FARMERS, & LABORERS. ROYAL PALACES, were CITIES IN THEMSELVES, included separate residences, a temple and a workers’ village. The HOMES OF THE WEALTHY were larger and more luxurious. SPACIOUS reception and living rooms opened onto a CENTRAL GARDEN COURTYARD with a fish pond and flowering plants. Each bedroom had a PRIVATE BATHROOM, and the walls, columns and ceilings were painted with BEAUTIFUL DESIGNS inspired by nature. A villa from the city of Amarna CRAFTWORKERS lived in one- or two-storey FLATROOFED DWELLINGS made of mud bricks. The walls and roof would have been covered with plaster and painted. Inside, there was a RECEPTION ROOM, a LIVING ROOM, BEDROOMS and a CELLAR in which food and beverages were stored. Food was prepared in an Ancient Egyptian Housing Middle Class Homes Peasant Homes Social Roles Role of Women • Well treated and had considerable legal rights compared to other civilizations • Same legal rights as men (land, property, divorce) • Women could be economically independent • Primary role was in domestic life • Common title for a married women in ancient Egypt was “nebet per” meaning “the lady of the house” • Bear and raise children Role of Men • Head of the family • Men could have numerous wives but economically men had only 1 wife • Labourers, craftsmen • Jobs were hereditary Jobs • Labour required for construction projects and was mostly filled by poor, serfs • Stability of Egypt thrived as skilled trades were passed from father to son • Children always learned the trade from parents; seldom could choose occupation Scenes of Ancient Egyptian Daily Life Making Ancient Egyptian Beer Making Ancient Egyptian Wine An Egyptian Woman’s “MustHaves” Mirror Perfume Whigs Egyptian Nobility Egyptian Priestly Class Egyptian Scribe Papyrus Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant Hieroglyphics Champollion & the Rosetta Stone Rosetta Stone What is the Rosetta Stone? • The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek). It was carved in 196 BCE. Why is it in three different scripts? • The Rosetta Stone is written in three scripts (hieroglyphs for religious documents; demoticcommon script of Egypt; Greek- language of the rulers of Egypt at that time) • The Rosetta Stone was written in all three scripts so that the priests, government officials and rulers of Egypt could read what it said. When was the Rosetta Stone found? • The Rosetta Stone was found in 1799 by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in Egypt (in a small village in Delta called Rosetta (Rashid) What does the Rosetta Stone say? • The Rosetta Stone is a text written by a group of priests in Egypt to honour the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh had done that were good for the priests and the people of Egypt. Hieroglyphic “Cartouche” Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols • History of Writing: 1) pictograms (sun= sun) 2) ideograms (sun = sun, daylight, warmth, light) 3) phonograms: symbols that suggest a particular sound; related ideas and also sound (Sun = sun, son, Sunday) • Each hieroglyph found in pyramids and tombs often symbolized more than one consonant. Not only that, but actual Egyptian hieroglyphs were a combination of sound-signs, pictograms, and ideograms. No wonder it was so hard to decode them! • New Kingdom= 700 hieroglyphs in common usage, while rest were phonograms • 100 were strictly visual, while rest were phonograms • Eventually scribes adapted hieroglyphic symbols • By 700 BCE, script was refined to the demotic (or popular script) was used for secular matters such as letters, accounts and record keeping Education • Original purpose of schools was to train priests • Subjects taught – Reading & writing – Math – Religious ceremonies & rituals • Eventually temple schools provided more general education • Usually schools attended only by the wealthy • Girls did not attend school – Taught domestic skills at home • Students took notes on scraps of pottery - Papyrus was expensive & only used by advanced students • Strict discipline Education • Contributed to stability and continuity of Egypt • All children, regardless of social class, received some education • Followed a moral and ethical guide “Instructions in Wisdom” • Goal for education was to ensure youth exhibited self control and good manners • At 14, young boys followed fathers in jobs, and girls learned from mothers in the household • Children of priests were schooled more formally • Literacy was stressed for government jobs • Education respected for creating a well rounded individual Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship 1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 What number is this? legal traditions • Law was governed by religious principle of Ma’at • GODDESS MA’AT represented truth, righteousness and justice= balance and order • Laws were applied equally to all classes specifically protected the family (children and wives) • Punishments could be quite severe- act as a deterent or disgrace the guilty (Examples: minor crimes had 100 lashed; rapist were castrated; corrupt officials had their hands amputated; crimes that resulted in a death sentence could have choice= devoured by a crocodile, suicide, burning alive) Religion • The Egyptians were deeply religious people • religious roots were in the worship of nature deities – their first gods were in animal forms • Those responsible for creation were the most important gods (Atum is the creator God) • They later developed national gods around the Middle Kingdom (Amon- local god of Thebes; gods of Dead: Osiris, Anubis, Horus and Thoth) • Religion was instrumental to stability of Egypt (life, social structure, education, laws, rule of Pharaoh, economy, death, afterlife) Atum Egyptian Gods & Goddesses: “The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus Gods and Goddesses Creation Story GEB NUT TEFNUT ATUM NUT MA’AT SHU HORUS ANUBIS Website: Gods and Goddesses ATUM ISIS Entering a Temple Life and Death • Life and death was measured in accordance to Ma’at: the goddess and symbol of equilibrium of the universe and the king had to rule according to her principles Death viewed as a new beginning • Afterlife common to all, regardless of social status (preparation varied as well as goods stored in tombs) • 2 Common Principles: MA’AT -symbol of the equilibrium of the universe 1) body preservation in a lifelike form 2) the deceased must have items necessary for life in the afterworld • Personal belongings were usually placed in the tomb to make the Ka more at home and to assist the dead in their journey into the afterlife. • Text was read from the 'Book of the Dead' which was a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for the use of the deceased in the afterlife. Mummification • Mummification focused on Egyptian belief of the importance of preserving the body • Afterlife would be spent enjoying best of life experiences • Body covered with natron and dried for up to 70 days • Body wrapped in linen coated with resins and oils • Middle Kingdom became customary to place a mask over the face • Removal of organs (lungs, stomach, intestines, liver) in Canopic Jars were closed with stoppers fashioned in the shape of four heads -- human, baboon, falcon, and jackal - representing the four protective spirits called the Four Sons of Horus. • brain was sucked out of the cranial cavity and thrown away because the Egyptian's thought it was useless. Preparations for the Underworld ANUBIS weighs the dead person’s heart against a feather. Priests protected your KA, or soulspirit Materials Used in Mummification 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Linen Sawdust Lichen Beeswax Resin 6. Natron 7. Onion 8. Nile Mud 9. Linen Pads 10. Frankinsense Preparation for the Afterlife Egyptian Mummies Seti I 1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E. Journey to the Underworld The dead travel on the “Solar Bark.” A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb. Anubis Horus Osiris This scene depicts what occurs after a person has died, according to the ancient Egyptians. • panel of 14 judges • Ka (soul /spiritual duplicate), ba (personality) ankh (form mummy took in afterlife / the key of life) • Weighing of the heart vs Ma’at • Judgment of scale • record of the outcome Egyptian Book of the Dead Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s Servants in the Afterlife Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara “Bent” Pyramid of King Sneferu Giza Pyramid Complex Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu Pyramids were part of a FUNERARY COMPLEX. The complex includes a PROCESSIONAL CAUSEWAY that links a FUNERARY TEMPLE to the pyramid, SOLAR BARQUES buried on the four sides of the pyramid, and MASTABAS and smaller pyramids where the family of the king and nobles were buried The Valley of the Kings Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922) Entrance to King “Tut’s” Tomb King Tutankhamon’s Death Mask 1336-1327 B. C. E. King Tutankhamon King Tutankhamun’s Tomb Treasures From Tut’s Tomb The Valley of the Queens 1473-1458 B. C. E. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Ankhenaton: First Monotheist? 1352-1336 B. C. E. The Ankh – The “Cross” of Life Queen Nefertiti Abu Simbel: Monument to Ramses II 1279-1213 B. C. E.