Using Your ELDA Results to Serve
English Language Learners
Composite Proficiency
Levels
Iowa ELDA
ELDA Level 1-Pre-functional
TESOL Level: Starting
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Official Name: Preproduction
Other Names:
–
–
–
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Variety of Language:
–
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3
Pre-speech
Silent Period
Non English Proficient (NEP) – Beginner
Fluency – (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
[BICS])
Timeline (relative): 2 weeks to 2 months
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 1-Pre-functional
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Characteristics typical of a student at ELDA
Level 1:
–
–
–
–
4
Beginning to understand short utterances
Beginning to use gestures and simple words to
communicate
Beginning to understand simple printed material
Beginning to develop communicative writing skills
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies
@ ELDA Level 1
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5
Use commands to teach receptive language (TPR).
Require physical response to check comprehension.
Ask students to show/draw answers to questions.
Ask “yes/no” questions.
Use manipulatives and props.
Show/write key words after oral presentation.
Engage student in higher-order thinking skills (H.O.T.S.).
Focus on the student’s message rather than on grammar, syntax, or
pronunciation.
Simplify language, paraphrase often and make sure directions are
understood.
Increase wait time; do not force reticent students to speak.
Provide age-appropriate and interesting supplementary reading materials
with strong picture support that relate to the cultural backgrounds of
students.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Assessment Strategies
@ ELDA Level 1
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6
Accept non-verbal responses such as
sequencing pictures, drawing, and matching.
Allow extra time.
Test orally (rather than using a written test).
Vary the weighting of grade components as
appropriate (e.g., give more credit for content
learning than grammatical competence).
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 2-Beginning
TESOL Level: Emerging
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Official Name: Early Production
Other Names:
–
–
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Variety of Language:
–
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7
Telegraphic Stage
Limited English Proficient (LEP) – Emergent
Fluency – (Basic Interpersonal Communication
Skills [BICS])
Timeline (relative): 2 to 4 months
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 2-Beginning
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Characteristics typical of a student at ELDA Level 2:
–
–
–
–
8
Understand simple statements, directions, and questions
Use appropriate strategies to initiate and respond to simple
conversation
Understand the general message of basic reading
passages
Compose short informative passages on familiar topics
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies
@ ELDA Level 2
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9
Continue to expand receptive language (TPR).
Encourage all attempts to respond.
Ask students questions that require one/two words to answer: Who?
What? Where? When? Which one?
Use concrete objects.
Display print to support oral presentation.
Engage student in higher-order thinking skills (H.O.T.S.).
Focus on the student’s message rather than on grammar, syntax, or
pronunciation.
Simplify language, paraphrase often and make sure directions are
understood.
Increase wait time; do not force reticent students to speak.
Provide age-appropriate and interesting supplementary reading materials
with strong picture support that relate to the cultural backgrounds of
students
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Assessment Strategies
@ ELDA Level 2
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10
Accept non-verbal responses such as
sequencing pictures, drawing, and matching.
Allow extra time.
Test orally (rather than using a written test).
Vary the weighting of grade components as
appropriate (e.g., give more credit for content
learning than grammatical competence).
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 3-Intermediate
TESOL Level: Developing
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Official Name: Speech Emergence
Other Names:
–
–
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Variety of Language
–
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11
Simple-Sentence Stage
Limited English Proficient (LEP) – Intermediate
Fluency – (Basic Interpersonal Communication
Skills [BICS])
Timeline (relative): 1 to 3 years
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 3-Intermediate
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Characteristics typical of a student at ELDA
Level 3:
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–
–
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12
Understand standard speech delivered in school
and social settings
Communicate orally with some hesitation
Understand descriptive material within familiar
contexts and some complex narratives
Write simple texts and short reports
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies
@ ELDA Level 3
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13
Expand receptive language through comprehensible input.
Engage student in producing language such as describing, re-telling,
comparing, contrasting, defining, summarizing, reporting.
Ask application questions: What do you do when? How do you
react when?
Incorporate more writing
Engage student in higher-order thinking skills (H.O.T.S.).
Focus on the student’s message rather than on grammar, syntax, or
pronunciation.
Simplify language, paraphrase often and make sure directions are
understood.
Provide age-appropriate and interesting supplementary reading
materials with strong picture support that relate to the cultural
backgrounds of students.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Assessment Strategies
@ ELDA Level 3
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14
Allow extra time.
Test orally (rather than using a written test).
Vary the weighting of grade components as
appropriate (e.g., give more credit for content
learning than grammatical competence).
Provide state-approved accommodations on
district assessments and standardized tests.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 4-Advanced
TESOL Level: Expanding
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Official Name: Intermediate Fluency
Other Names:
–
–
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Variety of Language:
–
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15
Bridging Stage
Limited English Proficient (LEP) – Advanced
Fluency (BICS) and some Proficiency (Cognitive Academic
Language Proficiency [CALP])
Timeline (relative): 3-10 years to approach peerappropriate proficiency
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 4-Advanced
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Characteristics typical of a student at ELDA Level 4:
–
–
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16
Identify the main ideas and relevant details of discussions
or presentations on a wide range of topics
Actively engage in most communicative situations familiar
or unfamiliar
Understand the context of most text in academic areas with
support
Write multi-paragraph essays, journal entries,
personal/business letters, and creative texts in an organized
fashion with some errors
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 5 – Full English Proficiency
TESOL Level: Bridging
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Official Name: Advanced Fluency
Other Names:
–
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Variety of Language:
–
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17
Fluent English Proficient (FEP)
Fluency in BICS and CALP
Timeline (relative): 3-10 years to approach
peer-appropriate proficiency
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
ELDA Level 5 – Full English Proficiency
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18
Characteristics typical of a student at ELDA Level 5:
– Understand and identify the main ideas and relevant
details of extended discussion or presentations on
familiar and unfamiliar topics
– Produce fluent and accurate language
– Use reading strategies the same as their native Englishspeaking peers to derive meaning from a wide range of
both social and academic texts
– Write fluently using language structures, technical
vocabulary, and appropriate writing conventions with
some circumlocutions
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies
@ ELDA Level 5
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19
Continue to develop cognitive academic language:
oral and written
Provide templates to scaffold language to
appropriate academic register
Continue to ask “why” questions soliciting opinion,
judgment, prediction, hypothesis, inference, creation.
Engage student in higher-order thinking skills
(H.O.T.S.).
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Assessment Strategies
@ ELDA Level 5
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20
Grade-level assessments without
accommodations.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies – All Levels
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21
Create a welcoming classroom environment including artifacts,
posters, alphabets, words, or pictures from the culture represented
by each student.
Teach students to the academic content standards set for all
students, remembering to incorporate daily language and content
objectives.
Connect students’ prior knowledge, interests, and life experiences to
instruction.
Bring the student’s home culture and language into the classroom,
providing multicultural and take-home books in the students’ first
languages.
Increase interaction through cooperative activities and mixed
grouping.
Encourage the development of literacy skills and proficiency in the
student’s first language in order to enhance English language
acquisition.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Teaching Strategies – All Levels
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22
Shorten and modify assignments as appropriate.
Use visual aids, pictures, clear and large print, realia, videos,
computer-assisted instruction, gestures, modeling, and graphic
organizers.
Demonstrate abstract concepts by first demonstrating
application (i.e., experiment, manipulatives).
Provide explicit vocabulary instruction for all ELLs.
Accompany oral directions with written directions for student
reference.
Provide peer or cross-age tutoring.
Post models, rubrics, and daily objectives for student reference.
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
Assessment Strategies – All Levels
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23
Grade students according to achievement of standards rather
than in comparison with other students’ performance.
Create performance-based assessments that enable students
to demonstrate knowledge without language mastery.
Utilize maps, models, journals, diagrams, collages, displays,
role-playing, art projects, and demonstrations as assessment
instruments.
Assess oral language development through students’ story
retelling, verbal summarizing, answering questions orally, and
teacher observation.
Provide state-approved accommodations on district
assessments and standardized tests. (See Guidelines for
Including ELLs in K-12 Assessments at
www.state.ia.us/educate /ecese/is/ell/documents. html)
IA DE. Guidelines for the Inclusion
of ELLs in K-12 Assessments.
(2007 rev.)
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Using ELDA Scores to Serve English Language Learners