Developing a Four-Year
Comprehensive Program for
Spanish Heritage Learners
Graciella Nápoles & Kari Jaeckel
Evanston Township High School
Evanston, Illinois
Presentation Agenda
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
Demographics & Background
Information
Rationale for SHL Program
Evolution of SHL Program at ETHS
Curriculum Development
Curricular Content
Current Projects
Evanston Township High School
 Four-year, comprehensive high school
 Located in Evanston, Illinois, a Chicago
suburb along the Lake Michigan Shore
 Serves the city of Evanston and a portion of
the neighboring village of Skokie
 Total district population of approximately
78,000
 Community offers ethnic, economic, racial,
and cultural diversity that is reflected in the
student body
Evanston Township High School
District 202
Demographic Information
Demographic Information
2007-2008
2.90%
3.10%
10.70%
36.30%
White
47%
Black
Hispanic
Asian
Multiracial
Student Achievement at ETHS
4 performance levels (Prairie State Achievement Examination – Grade 11)
1 – Academic Warning 2 – Below Standards 3 – Meets Standards 4 – Exceeds Standards
(Based on PSAE Results – April 2007)
Reading Scores
1
2
3
4
White
Students
1.0%
10.6%
40.7%
47.7%
Hispanic
Students
12.5%
60.4%
22.9%
4.2%
Demographic Information
Students We Service
 10.7% of population at ETHS or students are
Latino (2007-2008)
 5 years ago this was 7.5%
 124 students enrolled in SHL courses in 20072008
 Regular, Honors and AP levels in SHL classes
 Enrollment of Latino students in 5 AP Spanish
Literature course is steadily increasing
 54 Latino students have taken both the AP
Spanish Language and Literature exams since
1997-1998; all but one received passing scores
(3,4, or 5)
Demographic Information
Students We Service, continued
Enrollment of Latino student in 5 AP Spanish Literature class
School year
07-08
# Latino students
Class enrollment
38
04-05
5
*also 9 in 4 AP
10
*also 4 in 4 AP
14
*also 9 in 4 AP
3
03-04
06-07
3 or higher on AP exam
45
100% Lang
93% Lit
39
100%
83%
29
100%
93%
5
29
100%
86%
02-03
10
24
100%
91%
01-02
7
28
100%
96%
00-01
5
20
100%
100%
99-00
0
12
05-06
--
--
Identification and Placement
of SHL Students
 Articulation with Middle Schools
 Collaboration with Counselors
 Placement Process: speaking, oral
reading fluency, writing sample,
teacher checklist
Creating a Spanish for Heritage
Learners Program
1. Identify Heritage Language Learners
 Students raised in homes where nonEnglish languages are spoken
 Students who speak and/or understand
the heritage language
 Students who are to some degree
bilingual in English and the heritage
language
Creating a Spanish for Heritage
Learners Program, continued
2. Needs of Heritage Language
Speakers
 Opportunities to develop greater
bilingual communication range
 Opportunities to use heritage language
to connect with other disciplines and
acquire new info
 Opportunities to develop insight into the
nature of their heritage language and
culture
Creating a Spanish for Heritage
Learners Program, continued
3. Instructional Options for Heritage
Speakers
 Transfer of Literacy Skills
 Focus on reading & writing
 Editing written language
 Teaching strategies designed to
monitor the use of non-standard
register
Creating a Spanish for Heritage
Learners Program, continued
4. Language Maintenance
 Issues of identity and language
 Reading culturally-relevant texts
Rationale for Spanish for Heritage
Learners Courses at ETHS
 Goal: To provide academically challenging
and relevant courses to educate Latino
students in Spanish, increasing their
language and literacy skills in their home
language
 Academically equip students for future
careers, higher education, and AP
Language and Literature courses in Spanish
Rationale for Spanish for Heritage
Learners Courses at ETHS, continued
 Courses contribute to ETHS goals as
well as World-Class Instructional
Design and Assessment (WIDA)
goals:
 Provide opportunities for all students to
perform at their fullest potential
 Provide equitable educational
opportunities for Latino students
Developing a Four-Year Sequence of
Spanish for Heritage Learners Courses
 Characteristics of a Level 1 SHL Student:
 Often more English-dominant
 Sometimes at a loss for vocabulary;
switches back and forth between Spanish
and English in informal conversations
 Can read and understand intermediate-level
readings, but writing in Spanish, like
speaking experience, has been limited to
informal use of language at home and with
bilingual friends
 Often struggles academically
 Literacy skills in English may also be low
Developing a Four-Year Sequence of Spanish
for Heritage Learners Courses, continued
 Characteristics of a Level 2 SHL Student:
 May be more dominant in English than in
Spanish for academic purposes, and have
little or no schooling in Spanish, or…
 May be a native speaker of Spanish with
limited formal schooling in Spanish
 Lacks academic and literary vocabulary in
Spanish
 Can read and understand intermediate-level
readings, but writing in Spanish, like
speaking experience, is still limited
 Often struggles academically
 Literacy skills in English may also be low
Developing a Four-Year Sequence of Spanish
for Heritage Learners Courses, continued

Characteristics of a Level 3 SHL Student:









Maybe fully bilingual in spoken language
May have some formal schooling in Spanish, but prefers to speak
English, or …
May be a native speaker of Spanish and an ELL, and have extended
formal schooling in Spanish
Comprehends nearly all spoken Spanish, informal and formal,
academic and personal
Rich vocabulary development in Spanish if student is more Spanishdominant and has more schooling in Spanish; developing Spanish
vocabulary if schooling was primarily in English
Can read and understand most readings that use contemporary
language and more concrete themes and topics; is developing
comprehension and confidence with abstract and symbolic language
in Spanish
Writing in Spanish lacks development, often mimics spoken
language
Often struggles academically
Literacy skills in English may be low
Developing a Four-Year Sequence of Spanish
for Heritage Learners Courses, continued
 Characteristics of a Level 4 SHL Student:








Has experience in academic Spanish
Can communicate in speaking and writing completely in
Spanish, though may still code switch or use English in
public/school settings
Comprehends nearly all spoken Spanish, informal and
formal, academic and personal
Rich vocabulary development in Spanish if student is more
Spanish-dominant and has more schooling in Spanish,
developing Spanish vocabulary if schooling was primarily in
English
Can read and understand most readings, and is developing
confidence with abstract and symbolic language in Spanish
Writing in Spanish shows development, though common
spelling, grammar and punctuation errors are still evident
Often struggles academically
Literacy skills in English may be low
General Strategies for Teaching
Spanish Heritage Learners
 Holistic language arts approach, taking into
account students’ backgrounds and cultures
 Guide students in identifying what it means
to be Latino
 Foster positive attitudes through enabling
students to gain a better understanding of
their heritage language
 Use of a variety of materials – culturallyrelevant readings (short stories and other
selections), history and geography, current
events articles and films
Sample Unit: Level 1 Spanish For
Heritage Learners
Myths & Legends of Latin America
OVERARCHING UNDERSTANDINGS



Students will understand what storytelling is and how its role
has changed.
Students will understand what legends and myths are.
Students will understand the differences between legends and
myths from various Hispanic cultures and other places around
the world.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS



What is storytelling and how has its role changed?
What are legends and myths?
What are similarities and differences between legends and
myths around the world, including the various Hispanic
cultures?
Sample Unit: Level 1 Spanish For
Heritage Learners, continued
Myths & Legends of Latin America
DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS






Participation in daily group and class discussions
Quizzes on individual readings
Dictations
Journal writing
Daily homework
Quizzes on sound-symbol correspondence
DESCRIPTION OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS

Paragraph summary of myth or legend

Guided expository writing using specific transition words

Unit exam
THINGS STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO

Comprehend text at a beginning/intermediate level

Understand correct sentence structure

Begin expository writing

Use correct punctuation and capitalization

Use pre-reading strategies: vocabulary, text-scanning, predictions

Use graphic organizers to help with comprehension and comparison of texts
Sample Unit: Level 1 Spanish For
Heritage Learners, continued
Myths & Legends of Latin America
OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN

Reading Selections:

Myths and Legends of Latin America:
“La llorona”
“La Virgen de Guadalupe”
“Los tres consejos”
“La comadre Sebastiana”
“Los novios”
“Guanina”
“La creación (hace mucho tiempo)”

Vocabulary Development:

Reading Related

Language Mechanics:

Review of capitalization and punctuation

Dictations

Phonetics:

Sound-symbol correspondence (review)
Sample Unit: Level 1 Spanish For
Heritage Learners, continued
Myths & Legends of Latin America
OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN, continued
 Language Structure
 Review of sentence structure
 Writing Development
 Continue journal writing
 Introduction to expository writing
 Short paragraphs and transition words
 Paragraph summary of legend or myth
 Comparison/Contrast of two legends or myths
 Film
 “Macario”
Sample Unit: Level 4/4AP Spanish
For Heritage Learners, continued
Literatura Fantástica: Chac Mool
OVERARCHING UNDERSTANDINGS
 Students will understand the characteristics of literatura
fantástica.
 Students will have an understanding of Fuentes’ short stories.
 Students will have a better understanding of contemporary
Mexican society.
 Students will have a better understanding of Aztec mythology
and symbols.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
 What is literatura fantástica?
 What are the features of Fuentes’ short stories?
 What are the characteristics of contemporary Mexican society
and how are they reflected in Mexican literature?
 What is the importance of Aztec myths and symbols?
Sample Unit: Level 4/4AP Spanish
For Heritage Learners, continued
Literatura Fantástica: Chac Mool
DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
 Written assessments
 Group assessments
DESCRIPTION OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS

Summary of the short story

Descriptive piece modeled after the style of the work cuento
arqueológico

Unit exam
THINGS STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO

Read and comprehend unit selections

Identify elements of Aztec myths and recognize their influence in
contemporary Mexico

Apply knowledge of writing concepts (description and summary)

Identify characteristics of literatura fantástica
Sample Unit: Level 4/4AP Spanish
For Heritage Learners, continued
Literatura Fantástica: Chac Mool
OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN
 Reading Selections:
 “Chac Mool”

Vocabulary Development:
 Reading Related
 Definition of genre of literatura fantástica

Cultural Enrichment:
 Review of Aztec mythology
 Contemporary Mexico

Writing Development:
 Cuento Aqueológico
Texts and Materials
Levels 1 & 2:
 Nuevas Vistas, Curso Uno
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston)
 Nuevas Vistas, Curso Dos
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston)
 Sendas Literarias (Pearson Prentice Hall)
 Other short stories from a variety of sources
Levels 3 & 4:
 Manual de ortografía y gramática para hispanos (Pearson
Prentice Hall)
 Cinco maestros (Coleman, ed.)
 Literary works from a variety of sources
Current Projects
 Developing reading and writing strategies for
all SHL classes

Through work in Professional Learning Community
 Technology integration
 Visual and audio prompts for designated
topics and themes to enable students to
employ registers of language in a variety of
settings both aurally and orally (using the
Language Laboratory).
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 1)
El trabajo en el campo
by Rose del Castillo Guilbault
Before reading (sample questions):
1. ¿Conoces a alguien que trabaja en el campo?
2. ¿Qué tipo de vida lleva la gente en el campo?
3. ¿En dónde en los EE.UU. hay muchos trabajadores
agrícolas de origen mexicano?
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 1)
El trabajo en el campo
by Rose del Castillo Guilbault
While reading (sample questions):
1. ¿Cómo se sentía la narradora la primera vez que trabajó en el
campo?
2. ¿Por qué el jefe de los campesinos no quería contratar a la familia?
3. ¿Qué comprendió la niña con respecto al trabajo agrícola de la
familia mexicana?
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 1)
El trabajo en el campo
by Rose del Castillo Guilbault
After reading (sample questions)
Multiple choice questions
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 4)
Cartas de amor traicionado
by Isabel Allende
Before reading (sample questions):
1. Si quisieras impresionar a una persona que no te conoce
muy bien, ¿qué tipo de cosas le escribirías en una carta
o mensaje electrónico?
2. ¿Es posible enamorarse a través de la escritura?
3. ¿Qué te sugiere el título de este cuento?
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 4)
Cartas de amor traicionado
by Isabel Allende
While reading (sample questions):
1.
¿Qué había puesto Analía en una caja de sombreros
durante un año?
2.
¿Qué hacía Luis cuando ella le mencionaba las cartas?
3.
¿Qué motivos tenía la persona que escribió las cartas?
Current Projects, continued
Reading Strategies (sample from Level 4)
Cartas de amor traicionado
by Isabel Allende
After reading (sample questions)
Multiple choice questions
Current Projects, continued
Writing Strategies
 Cloze text activities taken from inclass readings
 Guided essays representing a variety
of genres
Current Projects, continued
Technology Integration
 Listening activities including speakers from
a variety of Spanish-speaking countries in
different contexts
 Video clips on a variety of topics with
discussion prompts to follow
 Internet research and PowerPoint
presentations
Resources
Azulejo. Colbert, Colbert, Kanter, Maura & Sugano
eds, Wayside Publishing. 2002.
La ensenanza del español a hispanohablantes:
Praxis y teoría. M. Cecilia Colombi and Francisco
X. Alarcon eds, Houghton Mifflin Co. 1997.
“Teacher Preparation and the Heritage Language
Learner: What Teachers Need to Know.”
Guadalupe Valdez, Stanford University. 2000.
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Developing a Four-Year Comprehensive Program for …