MECHATRONICS
PROGETTO del CONTROLLO
di MACCHINE AUTOMATICHE
per l’IMPACCHETTAMENTO
(MOTION CONTROL for
PACKAGING MACHINES)
Davide Borghi
Mechatronics
The Course
Course characteristics: multi-discipline contents
Course Goal: “speak the same language” and be able to design the machine “as a
whole” (not mechanics and motors separately).
Course Limitations: no time to go deeply in each subject, so I will try to give you
the tools and hints to investigate further; not everybody is interested to deepen
every subject, so don’t worry if sometimes you miss some parts…
Mechatronics
Index
Mechatronics in the
Packaging World
Mechatronics on packaging machines
…bits of history
Where is the Performance Limit? (motor =>
electronics => mechanics)
Multiaxes systems (e.g.: A3-Flex, DIMC, PT)
Programming Interface: RS-Logix5000
IEC1131-3 Application Program Example
Brushless Motors
Electric Motor’s Choice (kinematic chain,
torque characteristics, field weakening deflussaggio)
Stator Re-Winding (riavvolgim. motore)
Brushless motors technology
Resolvers and Encoders
Linear Motors
Torque Motors
(1/2)
PID Control
PID Theory
Serial (Rockwell Kinetix) and Parallel (Danaher SAM)
PID
Digital PID & Feed Forward
Vibrations Analysis
Control-Motor-Load relationships
Bandwidth
PID – bandwidth relationships
Vibration measurements
Sizing
Planetary gearboxes versus direct-drive
Servo-System Design
EMC hints
Trouble Shooting of a rig solution (in fase di prima
verifica)
Packaging Machines Motion Architecture
Mechatronics
Index
(2/2)
Drives
AC brushless drive
DC brushless drive
Resolver to Digital Converter
Regenerative breaking (Recupero in rete)
Control Strategies
Clark&Park Transforms
IPxx Protection
Servo System TroubleShooting on the field
THE END
Mechatronics
Bibliography
1.
Luciano Bonometti: “Convertitori di Potenza e Servomotori Brushless”,
Editoriale Delfino, Milano, 1996
2.
Hughes: "Electric Motors and Drives", 1993, Heinemann, 348pp., codice RS: 912076
3.
CYMEX: Cyber Motion Explorer, CD-ROM, Alpha getriebebau GmbH [email protected]
4.
“THE MOTION BOOK” version 4.0, Rockwell Automation/Allen-Bradley – 2004
www.ab.com/motion
5.
“DSP Solution for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor”, Texas Instruments
6.
Ashish Tewari, “Modern Control Design With MATLAB and SIMULINK”
7.
Dean C. Karnopp, Donald L. Margolis, Ronald C. Rosenberg
“System Dynamics : Modeling and Simulation of Mechatronic Systems”
8.
D.M. Auslander, J.R. Ridgely, J.D. Ringgenberg, David M. Auslander
“Control Software for Mechanical Systems: Object Oreiented Design in a Real Time World”
9.
Gabriele Canini, Cesare Fantuzzi “Controllo del moto per macchine automatiche”, Pitagora
Editrice, Bologna 2003
10.
Claudio Melchiorri “Traiettorie per azionamenti elettrici”, Progetto Leonardo, Bologna 2000
11.
“Tecniche di misura digitale lineare e angolare”, Heidenhain
12.
“Intelligent Control Systems Using Soft-Computing Methodologies”,
Ali Zilouchian, Mo Jamshidi, CRC Press
Mechatronics
Bibliography: internet links
13.
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18.
19.
20.
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28.
29.
30.
31.
Bosch internet site: http://app10.bosch.de//en/default.htm
Danaher Motion internet site: http://www.danaher.com/
Elau internet site: http://www.elau.de/english/framesets/frhomenic.htm
HDD internet site: http://www.hdd.se/
Kollmorgen internet site: http://www.kollmorgen.de/, http://www.kollmorgen.com/
Mektron – Pacific Scientific internet site: http://www.mektroninc.com/pacsci.html
Pacific Scientific internet site: http://www.industry.net/c/mn/017k3
Parker internet site: http://www.parker-emd.com/uk/
Rexroth – Indramat internet site: http://www.indramat.com/
Texas Instruments internet sites: http://www.ti.com/,
http://www.ti.com/sc/momentum/dm2sa2x6t4,
B&R internet site: http://www.br-automation.com/welcome.htm
Baldor internet site: http://www.baldor.com/
Festo internet sites: http://www.festo.com/, http://www.festo.com/food/eng/index.htm
GE-Fanuc internet site: http://www.gefanuc.com/index.asp
HydraForce Hydraulic Cartridge Valves internet site: http://www.hydraforce.com/
Rockwell Automation internet site: http://www.automation.rockwell.com/
SERCOS related links: http://www.sercos.com/links.htm
Siemens Machine Control Systems – Packaging internet site:
http://www.aut.sea.siemens.com/machine/systems/packaging.html
Stegmann encoders: http://www.stegmann.de/english/html/produkte/index.html
Mechatronics
Why Automation?
The machine makes FAULTS that can be:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Detected
Measured
Corrected
Predicted
Man makes ERRORS that, not always, can be:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Detected
Measured
Corrected
Predicted
Mechatronics
Mechatronics: what’s in a name…
Mechanical system control is undergoing a revolution in which the primary determinant is becoming the control
software. This is enabled by developments in electronics and computer technology.
Mechatronics (Yaskawa Electric, 1970): “new kind of mechanical system where the electronics take the decision-making
function formerly performed by mechanical components…”
Mechatronics (now, 2004): …there has been a shift from electronics to software as primary decision-making software,
the definition thus becoming:
“The application of complex automatic decision-making to the operation of physical systems”.
Real time software differs from conventional software in that its results must not only be numerically and logically
correct: they must also be delivered at the correct time; it must embody the concept of duration.
Mechatronics
Parts of a mechatronic system
Other Components
Operator Interface
e.g. communication
i.e. human factors
Computation
i.e. SW + HW
Actuation
Feedback
i.e. energy conversion,
power modulation
i.e. energy conversion,
signal processing
Target System
Mixture of: mech., fluid., therm.,
chem., electrical
Mechatronics
General Control System
set
point
controller
actuator
PLANT
sensor
Mechatronics
Analog Controller
+
D
-
+
+
P
I
+
S
Digital Controller
clock
host
DSP
DAC
PID
DIGITAL
WORLD
PA
M
Load
ANALOG
WORLD
ADC
sensor
Mechatronics
ANALOG vs. DIGITAL Controllers
Cons
Pros
ANALOG
DIGITAL
Huge bandwidth (no sampling)
Resolution
Easy design
Diagnostics
Programmable (SW)
Not depending on environment
(temp., pressure, humidity, …)
Deterministic behaviour
Advanced Algorithms *
Memory
HMI
Time-dep. Performances
Temperature drift
HW design: no easy change
Trimmers
Quantization (discr. represent.)
Truncation (16x16=32bit)
Limit Cycles
Register Overflow
Sampling Rate
Mechatronics
*Examples of Advanced Algorithms
that can be implemented
on Digital Controllers:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Kalman Filters (optimal observer)
LQR – Linear Quadratic Regulator (optimal controller)
Adaptive Control
Possibility to handle non-linear systems
Fuzzy Logics
Neural Networks
DNA Computing
Time Sharing Multitasking
FFT – Fast Fourier Transform (time => frequency)
Debugging Functions
HMI – Human Machine Interface
Data Logging
Data Communications (Field Bus)
Sensorless Algorithms
Mechatronics
“Il Mondo del Packaging”
others…
Toys
Cigarettes
Tissues
Personal
Care
Beauty Care
Solid
Food
Semi-Solid
Food
Pastorized
Liquid Food
Aseptic
Liquid Food
BeveChocolate
rages
Pharmaceutical
Mechatronics
Raw Material
Supply
(e.g.: trees)
The Packaging Material
Converting
(e.g.: carton layers)
T h e
Fill
Food
Treatment
Cap
P a c k a g e
Label
Card
Board
Packing
Palletize
(e.g.: UHT, Past.)
The Product
Food Supply
(e.g.: cows)
Mechatronics
Mechatronics
Openings
Mechatronics
Filling Machine
animation
Mechatronics
Filling Machine (cont’d)
Mechatronics
Packaging Line
Mechatronics
Esempio di Packaging Line
Mechatronics
...at the customer site
Mechatronics
Distribution Equipment
Macchine automatiche situate dopo la
macchina riempitrice (filling machine)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Accumulators
Cap Applicators
Card-Board Packers
Film Wrappers
Handle Applicators
Straw Applicators
etc..
Mechatronics
Mechatronics on
Packaging Machines
Mechatronics
Packaging Line Monitoring System
modem
Automatic data logging
Data transfer - modem/diskette
Data analysis - off line software
An excellent tool to analyse and improve performance & quality
Mechatronics
3 Generations of Motion Control
 I Generation:
Fully ANALOG
 II Generation :
ANALOG and DIGITAL
 III Generation :
Fully DIGITAL and INTEGRATED with STANDARD IEC1131-3
programming languages
Mechatronics
Bits of history…
The Typewriter
Servo : Packaging Machines = Electronics : Typewriter

Mechanical

Electromechanical

Electric

Electronic
Word Processor

PC with impact Printer

PC with laser printer

PC with ink jet printer

Email

chronology
Mechatronics
Where is the performance limit?
First the limit was in the Motor due to the backlash in the key slot and/or other backlashes or
static/starting friction (that is the same thing since with applied current there’s no motion).
Then the limit became the Electronics
due to the low band-width.
Now the limit is the system Resonance Frequency due to elasticity and inertias.
1) limit the gains (bw =G/J)
2) Notch or Low Pass Filter
3) high stiffness (direct drive solution)
In 2) and 3) I can have high gains
(0.01” or 1nm accuracy)
high resolution
sincos encoder
Mechatronics
Multiaxes Systems
Industrywide
Interface
Industry Guideline
Compliant
Machine Interface
Motion
Network
Sensor
Network
Machine Controller
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
M
M
M
M
M
M
OEM Core
Competency
Mechatronics
Modular Software &
Software modeling
Machine
Machine supervisor
Machine controller
Module
Module
Module
Module supervisior
Module supervisior
Module
Module supervisior
Module supervisior
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Sub Module
Mechatronics
Modular Software & Software modeling (cont’d)
Packaging Line
Line Supervisor
Line Controller
Mechatronics
Multiaxes Systems
(cont’d)
animazione
Packaging Machine: 3-50 axes: toward 100 axes machines on the long run (Human Body: 150 axes,
i.e. 300 muscles with 2 muscles to give one complete degree of freedom)
Each motor has a:
• winding (power) cable
• feedback cable (encoder or resolver)
• PTC temperature sensor wirings and, if present, brake wirings
Each power cable is attached to a drive (one drive generally drives one motor).
Mechatronics
Multiaxes Systems
(cont’d)
The ideal partition line has to be found:
Controller,
Profile Generator
Field bus
Position,
Position,
Position,
Speed,
Position,
Speed,
Position,
Speed,
Current
Loop
Speed,
Current
Loop
Speed,
Current
Loop
Current
CurrentLoop
Loop
MM
MM
M
…for having the field bus
DC-bus
band-width as low as possible.
Solution: close every loop in the drive or integrate the electronics in the motor
(but I would have the DC bus running through the whole machine for having
breaking/acceleration actions balanced among all axes, as a mechanical shaft would
do).
Mechatronics
Programming Interface
With a field bus, the axis becomes only an object of the bus:
I can connect the PC
to any bus point for monitoring/accessing any bus device
Mechatronics
HW Architecture: example 1
4ms coarse
update rate
(7 axes)
125ms
pos. loop
Mechatronics
HW Architecture: example 2
4ms coarse update
125ms pos. loop
ControlLogix
MPL
Motors
RS Logix 5000
Kinetix 6000
Mechatronics
SW: IEC1131-3 General Approach
• LADDER for process logics with boolean and continuous environment
• SFC when pending from motion commands to be terminated
• ST when heavy bunch of code need to be written in a “linear” form
• FBD for continuous algorithms such as design PID
Mechatronics
Mechatronics
Motion
Application
Flow Chart
Mechatronics
Motion
Application
Flow Chart
DETAILED
Mechatronics
S ta rt
End
M a c h in e P o w e r O n
M a c h in e P o w e r O ff
D r iv e A c tiv e
D riv e E n a b le
Motion
Application
S ta rt
E n a b le o f th e d riv e r lo g ic p a rt
a n d p o w e r (c o n ta c to rs
b e tw e e n th re e p h a s e lin e a n d
d rive r)
D e n e rg iz e
D riv e e rro r
s o lv e d
D e n e rg iz e d o n e
D e -e n e rg ize th e m o to r a n d
O p e n th e tw o c o n ta c to rs
B e fo re a n d a fte r th e d riv e r
S a fe t y S to p
In th is s ta te a re e xe c u te a ll
th e p h a s e fo r a b e m m e rg e n c y
s to p
D riv e sta tu s O k
UML
(high-level)
A xis D e n e rg iz e
Id le
M o to r M o v in g
T h is s ta te d e s c rib e a w a itin g
p h a s e fo r th e m o to r d riv e
D is a b le o f th e p o w e r in th e d rive
T h is is a m a c ro s ta te th a t c o lle c t a ll th e m o v in g p h a s e s o f th e m o to rs
D riv e e rro r O R
A xis D e n e rg iz e
E n e rg is e
E n a b le p o w e r fo r th e d riv e r
a n d th e c o n ta c to rs b e tw e e n
th e d riv e r a n d th e a xis .
S yn ch r
o n iz e
Hom e
S e a rc h in g
E n e rg ize
S y n c h ro n iz e
done
Home done
H o m e re q u e s t
R eady
To Run
M o to r S ta rt
Run
P ro d u c tio n
P ro d u c tio n p h a s e .
S to p A xe s
E n e rg ize D o n e
Home Done
S to p D o n e
C o n d itio n to
S e rv o
E n e rg iz e d
S a fe ty S to p
s ta rt fo r th e
S to p P ro d .
In th is s ta te a re e xe c u te d
a ll th e p ro ce d u re fo r a
n o rm a l s to p o r e n d
p ro d u c tio n
s ta te
S to p D o n e
“ O th e r
R o u tin e (s )”
E .g . v o lu m e c h a n g e o r
M a c h in e slo w
in c h in g
S to p
S to p “ O th e r
R o u tin e (s )”
Mechatronics
SFC
Application
Main
(example 1)
Mechatronics
A3-Flex Rockwell SW Architecture (example 1)
Periodic Task
Very high priority
ST
ErrorST
Detection
SFC
Error
Manager
Error Handler
ST
Single Instructions
Periodic or Cont. Task
Low priority
Periodic Task
High priority
ST
SFC
SFC Main
SFC
Home Search.,
ON-OFF servos,
ST
PLC Logics
Motion Control
SFC resets
run-stop prod.,
mainten.-service routines
SFC
SFC
SingleST
Instructions
Group of move.s
Single move.s
JSRs
Ladder
Single Instructions
Mechatronics
“Flat” Implementation: example 2
Mechatronics
Structured Text Code Sample
ST (not IEC1131-3) Language
Mechatronics
IEC1131-3 Code Sample
video
IEC1131-3 Languages:
ST, SFC, Ladder, FBD
Mechatronics
The approach has been:
Profiles
calculation
UML
design
Mech. Design
SFC+ST implementation
for motion
LADDER
Implementation
for PLC
Manufacturing
Debugging
Assembly
Mechatronics
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