Products and Services
Based on
Marketing: An Introduction,
6th edition by Philip Kotler &
Gary Armstrong
1
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product

2
Something that can be offered to a market for
attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that
might satisfy a want or a need.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product
3
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Three levels of product
4
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Core, Actual and Augmented
Product

5
Customers perceive the Sony camcorder as a
complex bundle of tangible and intangible
features and services that deliver a core benefit
- A convenient, high-quality way to capture
important moments.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Classifications
6

Consumer Products

Industrial Products
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Consumer Products

7
Products bought by final consumers for
personal consumption
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Consumer Products
8
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Industrial Products

9
Products bought by individuals and
organizations for further processing or for use
in conducting business.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Industrial Products



10
Materials and parts
Capital items
Supplies and services.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Individual Product Decisions
In dividu al P rodu ct D ecision s
P rod u ct A ttrib u tes
11
October 3, 2015
B ran d in g
P ackag in g
L ab elin g
P rod u ct-S u p p ort services
Product and Services Strategies
Product Attributes



12
Product Quality
Product Features
Product Design
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Quality
Two dimensions:
 Performance
 Conformance
–
In performance terms:
Rolls-Royce is better than Ford
Rolex is better than Timex
–
In conformance terms:
Rolls-Royce quality is as consistent as Ford quality
Rolex quality is as consistent as Timex quality
13
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Quality for Motorola

“Quality means the world to us”
TQM - Total quality management
Improve customer value

14
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Features


Stripped down
Added features
Feature value to customer
vs.
Feature cost to the company
15
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Style and Design


16
Style + Performance
Bose, B&O, Braun
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand


17
A name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or
combination of these, intended to identify the
goods or services of one seller or group of
sellers and differentiate them from those of its
competitors
Nike, Philips
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Powerful Brand Names
18
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Branding
B ran d in g
B ran d E q u ity
B ran d N am e S election
M an u factu rer's
19
October 3, 2015
B ran d S p on sor
P rivate
L icen sin g
C o - B ran d in g
Product and Services Strategies
20
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Equity


21
The value of a brand based on the extent to
which it has high brand loyalty, name
awareness, perceived quality, strong brand
associations, and other assets such as patents,
trademarks and channel relationships.
IBM $17 bn, Coca-cola $39 bn
Marlboro$39 bn, Kodak $12 bn
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Name Selection
Brand Name should:
 Suggest something about the product benefits
and qualities: Duracell
 Be easy to pronounce, recognize, and
remember: TIDE
 Be distinctive: Kodak, Shell
22
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Name Selection
Brand Name should:
 ‘work’ in languages used in target markets
 Be ‘registerable’
23
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Owner (or Sponsor)


24
Manufacturer’ Brand
Brand created and owned by the producer of a product
or a service.
Ex: IBM, Kellogg
Manufactures have to pay Slotting fees
Private Brand or (middleman, distributor or store brand)
Brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or
service.
Ex: Continente, Pingo Doce
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Licensing

25
October 3, 2015
Looney Tunes
generates more than $1
bn annually
Product and Services Strategies
Co- Branding

26
The practice of using established brand names
belonging to different companies on the same
product
Philips & Whirlpool,
Credit card issued by Ordem dos Engenheiros
& American Express
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Strategy
B ran d S trateg y
L in e E xten sion
27
October 3, 2015
B ran d E xten sion
M u ltib ran d s
N ew B ran d
Product and Services Strategies
Line Extension

28
Using a successful brand name to introduce
additional items in a given product category
under the same brand name
Classic vs. Diet Coke
Danone vs. Corpos Danone
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Brand Extensions

29
Using a successful brand name to launch a
new or modified product in a new category.
Honda motorbikes, cars, and outboard engines
(for boats)
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Multibrands

30
A strategy under which a seller develops two or
more brands in the same product category:
Philips & Ariston
Toyota & Lexus
VW & Skoda
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
New brands

31
The same manufacturer but different brands for
different products:
Philips & Signaal (for defense)
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Packaging

Includes design and production of:
–
–
–
32
Primary container
Secondary container
Shipping container
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Packaging

Packaging supports sales by:
–
–
–
33
Attracting buyer’s attention
Promoting the product
Describing the product
(legal requirements)
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Packaging concept
or strategy
Packaging strategy states:
 What the package should be, or
 What the package should do for the product.
Decisions must be made on specific aspects,
including size, shape, materials, color, text and
brand name.
Must be consistent with the product advertising,
pricing and distribution.
34
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Labeling




35
Identifies brand:
Sunkist oranges
Identifies grade
Describes benefits
Uses attractive graphics
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Labeling
Checklist for essential information:
 Unit price
 Use-by date
 Nutritional value
 Low fat, light, high fiber
Often regulated by law
36
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product-Support Services

Services that augment actual products
More and more companies use product-support services
as a major tool in gaining competitive advantage.
An active customer service department creates
customer satisfaction and loyalty and helps the
company find ways to distinguish itself from
competitors.
37
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product-Support Services
Whirlpool, Procter& Gamble use 1-800 numbers
Cadillac holds regular focus-group interviews with
owners.
38
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product-Support Services

39
Estimate the cost and the benefit of productsupport services
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Line Decisions

40
A group of products that are closely related
because they function in a similar manner, are
sold to the same customer groups and
marketed through the same type of outlets, or
fall within given price ranges.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Line Length

Number of items in the product line.
Companies looking for high market share and
growth usually carry longer lines.
Companies looking for short-term profit
generally carry shorter lines of selected items.
41
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Increasing Product Line Length
42

Stretching. Downward or upward
Xerox stretched downwards with the small
copier.

Filling.
Solar-powered Sony Walkman line
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Mix Decisions

43
The set of all product lines and items that a
particular seller offers for sale to buyers.
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Mix Selected From P&G
44
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Mix Decisions
45

Line Width
Number of different product lines

Line length
Total number of items that the company carries
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Product Mix Decisions
46

Line consistency
How closely related the various product lines
are in end use, production requirements,
distribution channels, etc.

Line depth
Number of versions of each product. Example:
Crest comes in three sizes and two
formulations
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
47
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
48
October 3, 2015
Product and Services Strategies
Descargar

Document