Climate Change
An Inconvenient Gov Docs Challenge
(November 6, 2009 for DANJ)
My Contact Info
Mary Kearns-Kaplan, MLS
New Jersey State Library
Manager, branch library, the Information
Resource Center, New Jersey Department
of Environmental Protection
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 609-984-2249; Fax: 609-292-3298
URL: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/irc
Disclaimer
• My views do not represent the official views of
the NJ State Library or the NJ Department of
Environmental Protection.
• I am not here to offer opinion, but to point to
selected, publically-available information
resources on this topic.
• I am here on my own leave time and not on state
time.
• I have too many slides!
Whatever your opinion is on Climate
Change, it’s
All Hot, Hot, Hot to Me!
My Goal for Today
• To point out some very current government
documents on climate change. These are
SELECTED resources. This is not by any
means a research guide.
• I will not cover various nonprofit
organizations or other nongovernmental
interest groups that have an interest in
climate change.
One Definition of Climate Change
“A significant and persistent change in the mean
state of the climate or its variability. Climate change
occurs in response to changes in some aspect of
Earth’s environment: these include regular changes
in Earth’s orbit about the sun, re-arrangement of
continents through plate tectonic motions, or
anthropogenic modification of the atmosphere.”
Source: “Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of
Climate Science,” U.S. Global Change Research Program:
Climate Change is a Large Issue
• Majority of the sciences and engineering
disciplines are involved.
• Social sciences are interested.
• Business/Industry has a stake.
• Involves citizens, scientists, politicians, public policy
experts, and advocates.
• Every sector of the economy affected.
• All aspects of our lives touched: arts,
environment, jobs, health, politics, national security,
religion, etc.
Several Hot Topics
• Biodiversity loss and shift in habitats.
• Black Carbon, other contributors to global warming.
• Carbon sequestration (e.g. artificial carbon capture &
storage, biological sequestration).
• Market mechanisms to control GHGs (cap-andtrade, carbon taxes, carbon offsets, etc).
• Melting of glaciers and sea ice.
• National Security Risks.
• Ocean Acidification and increased water temps.
• Renewable/Alternative Energy/Energy Efficiency (e.g.
biofuels, green buildings, solar, wind, etc)
• Sea Level Rise
Background for Non-Scientists
• “Understanding and Responding to
Climate Change,” National Academy of
Sciences, 2008.
• “Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles
of Climate Sciences,” United States
Global Change Research Program, 2009.
• “A Paleoperspective on Global Warming”
from NOAA’s NCDC Paleoclimatology
program.
Background for Scientists
• US Global Change Research Program
has issued numerous reports and
assessments. This 2009 report
summarizes majority of their research:
“Global Climate Change Impacts in the
United States.” Key Findings.
Background for Scientists
• The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC): http://www.ipcc.ch
• Most recent IPCC assessment is the “Fourth
Assessment Report on Climate Change (AR4)”
that consists of 4 volumes in six languages:
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science
Basis.
o Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and
Vulnerability.
o Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate
Change.
o
o
Background for Scientists
•The United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) released in September the “Climate
Change Science Compendium 2009.” It is a
review of new scientific research published since
the close of the 4th IPCC assessment.
Key U.S. Legislation
• H.R. 2454: “The American Clean Energy and Security Act.” Aka
“Waxman-Markey Bill,” ACES Act, HR 2998. Passed the U.S.
House on 6/26/09 by a vote of 219 to 212. It is now being
debated in the Senate.
• S. 1733, “The Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act”
was introduced by US Sens Kerry and Boxer on Sept 30 2009.
Aka “Boxer-Kerry bill.”
• Both bills include a cap-and-trade program to reduce
greenhouse gases with slightly different targets.
• The Congressional Research Service has produced numerous
reports for Congress on climate change. You will find these
reports on the CRS/Climate Change web site hosted by the
National Council for Science and the Environment.
Key US Gov Agencies
• Here are just a selected few. Nearly every
U.S. government agency is involved in this
issue in some way. There are numerous
joint research efforts/centers/institutes
between universities, government agencies
and the private sector.
U.S. Global Change Research
Program (USGCRP)
• US Global Change Research Program
(USGCRP)
• USGCRP established in 1990: Global Change
Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-606,
11/16/90).
• Thirteen US departments & agencies participate
in USGCRP. They constitute the Subcommittee
on Global Change Research of the Cmte on
Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of
the National Science and Technology Council of
the Office of the President.
KEY USGCRP Reports
• Global Change Research Act of 1990
mandates an assessment every 4 years of
global change impacts on U.S.
• USGCRP published in 2009, “Global Climate
Change Impacts in the United States,” a
synthesis of science to date. Northeast region
report.
• Earlier USGCRP assessments are online.
• “Our Changing Planet,” an annual USGCRP
report to Congress.
National Research Council
• National Research Council (NRC) .
• NRC's Division of Earth & Life Studies does
most of the policy work on climate and energy.
• Current project of the Academies: "America's
Climate Choices." Reports coming 2009. Held a
summit March 30-31, 2009.
More NRC Info
• Key 2009/2008 NRC reports on climate change:
• “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of
•
•
•
•
•
Energy Production and Use.“ (2009).
“Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate” (2009).
“Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the
Challenges of Climate Change” (2009).
“America’s Energy Future: Technology and
Transformation.” 2009.
“Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of
Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy
Use, and CO2 Emissions – Special Report 298.”
2009.
“Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S.
Transportation” (2008).
U.S Congressional Budget Office
• The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has published
several budget analyses and briefs on climate change
legislation. Several key for 2009:
• Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United
States,” May 2009. Pub No. 3044.
• Cost estimate of H.R. 2998, the “American Clean
Energy and Security Act.” 6/26/09. Aka H.R. 2454.
• “How Regulatory Standards can Affect a Cap-and-Trade
Program for Greenhouse Gases,“ 9/16/09.
• “The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce
Greenhouse-Gas Emissions,” Sept 2009. 10/14/09
Senate testimony.
• More CBO climate change publications are online.
U.S General Accounting Office
(USGAO)
Selected recent GAO climate change reports:
• November 2008: "International Climate Change Programs:
Lessons Learned from the European Union's Emissions
Trading Scheme and the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development
Mechanism." November 2008. GAO-09-151.
• June 2009: "Aviation and Climate Change: Aircraft Emissions
Expected to Grow, but Technological and Operational
Government Policies Can Help Control Emissions." GAO-09554.
• July 2009: "Climate Change Trade Measures: Estimating
Industry Effects." GAO-09-875T.
• July 2009: "Climate Change Trade Measures: Considerations
for U.S. Policy Makers." GAO-09-724R.
• August 2009: "Preliminary Observations on Options for
Distributing Emissions Allowances and Revenue under a Capand-Trade Program." GAO-09-950T.
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (USEPA)
• On April 2, 2007 U.S. Supreme Court ruled that greenhouse
gases could be regulated as air pollutants under the Clean Air
Act (Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 U.S. 497 (2007). NJ was a
party.
• In response, on April 24, 2009, EPA issued a proposed
endangerment finding rule for 6 greenhouse gases and a cause
or contribute finding for these gases emitted from motor
vehicles and MV engines (see 74 FR 18886). Tech doc.
• On May 19 2009, President Obama announced a national fuel
efficiency policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
improve fuel economy for all new cars and trucks, model years
2012-16.
USEPA (cont'd)
• On Sept 15 2009, EPA and the National Highway and
Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a rule
to reduce greenhouse gas vehicle emissions and improve fuel
economy for certain model year cars and trucks (74 FR 49453,
Sept 28, 2009; also see EPA-420-F-09-047).
• On Sept 22 2009, EPA finalized rule for mandatory GHG
reporting from large emitters. First reporting requirement in the
US. (74 FR 56259, Oct 30, 2009)
• On Sept 30 2009, EPA proposed a rule to require permits from
from large emitters of GHGs in the US. These are the first
proposed GHG permitting regs. (no FR citation yet as of 10/30,
but related rule at 74 FR 55291, Oct 27, 2009)
USEPA (cont'd)
• USEPA Economic Analyses of S 1733 and HR 2454.
• US EPA Climate Change web site.
• EPA web site on New Jersey climate change regulatory
activities.
• EPA, in collaboration with NOAA and USGS, published
“Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level Rise: A Focus on the MidAtlantic Region.” Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1, U.S.
Global Change Science Program.
• EPA publishes annually, "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas
Emissions and Sinks,“ a report that meets US reporting
requests under the UNFCCC.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
• NOAA's Climate Program Office and Climate
Research web site will link you to the many climate
observational, research, and modeling programs that
NOAA supervises. A few recent reports, fact sheets:
• Arctic Report Card: 2009.
• Ocean Acidification Fact Sheet. 2008.
• NOAA is creating a Climate Service that will be
capable of providing on-demand data and info.
• NOAA has 21Joint Research Institutes with university
scientists. Much of this work coordinated with NOAA’s
Earth System Research Lab (ESRL). ESRL pubs.
• NOAA’s central library catalog.
National Climatic Data Center
• NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center
(NCDC) has numerous climate data sets
and publications.
• NCDC’s Climate Data Directory.
• Online access is now free for most .gov,
.edu and .mil
• “State of the Climate” is published monthly
and annually. National and global info.
• NCDC’s global warming web site.
U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)
• USGS Office of Global Change.
• Recent USGS report on status of northwest
glaciers, “Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change
Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest
and Alaska, USA.” USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3046.
• “Climate Change and Water Resources
Management: A Federal Perspective,” USGS
Circular 1331, 2009.
• USGS Publications Warehouse.
NASA
• NASA’s Global Change Master Directory.
• Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) at
Columbia Univ is the Earth Sciences Division of
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. GISS
scientists publish in peer-reviewed lit. Here is an
index of GISS papers. Briefs on GISS research
are available. More info.
• NASA supports the National Snow and Ice Data
Center (NSIDC) at Univ. of Colorado – Boulder.
• Earth Observatory has satellite images.
USDOE
• US Dept of Energy (USDOE) climate change web site.
• The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes
annually, "Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United
States“ and “Energy Outlook.”
• The USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy (EERE) has 10 programs. Pubs.
• The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate
Research Facility (ACRF) unites climate security research
of 9 USDOE Labs (e.g. ORNL, NREL). ARM Pubs database.
• National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) collaborates with
many on research. Pubs database. Other USDOE Labs.
• USDOE is creating 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers
(EFRCs).
• USDOE and Environment Canada delivered to Pres Obama
and Prime Minister Harper the “U.S. – Canada Clean
Energy Dialogue.”
USDOI
• The US Department of the Interior (USDOI)
• US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has a climate
change web site . In Sept 2009, they issued a proposed
strategic plan, “Rising to the Challenge: Strategic Plan for
Responding to Accelerating Climate Change.”
• The National Park Service (NPS) is documenting impacts
of climate change on natural resources in our national
parks. See their “Climate Friendly Parks” info.
• The Mineral Management Service (MMS) manages offshore
energy leases through their Office of Energy and Minerals
Management. In July 2009, they issued “Guidelines for the
Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy
Framework.”
Some other US Gov Sites
• US Dept of Agriculture (USDA) Global Climate Change web
site. USDA analysis of agriculture effects from HR 2454.
• US Dept of Transportation (UDOT) Transportation and Climate
Change Clearinghouse.
• The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides research
funding on climate change to numerous kinds of recipients. For
example, NSF supports an important atmospheric research
center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
It is in, but not of, government. NCAR pubs web site. NSF has
an online report of climate change issues.
• Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) Climate Change and
Public Health web site.
US National Security Interests
• U.S. Senate Cmte on Env & Public Works held a hearing on
7/30/09 titled, “Climate Change and National Security.”
• The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Cmte had a hearing on
7/21/09 titled “Climate Change and Global Security.”
• The Jet Propulsion Lab of NASA published in 2003, “An Abrupt
Climate Change Scenario and its Implications for United States
National Security.
• The U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
released a report in Nov 2008 titled, “Global Trends 2025: A
Transformed World.” It includes a chapter on climate risks.
• The CIA announced on 9/25/09 that it is opening “The Center
on Climate Change and National Security.”
Copenhagen Here We Come!
Velkommen!
United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change
• Next UNFCCC summit is December 7-18, 2009 in
Copenhagen.
• Have been several 2009 meetings in preparation for
this summit:
 Bonn: March 29-April 8
 Bonn: June 1-12
 Bonn: Aug 10-14
 New York City: Sept 22
 Bangkok: Sept 28-Oct 9
 Barcelona: Nov 2-6
• UNFCC national reports provide country profiles.
The Path to Copenhagen
• 1990: Beginning of UN General Assembly
negotiations to create the UNFCCC.
• 1992 (June): Rio Earth Summit. UNFCCC adopted.
• 1994 (March 21): UNFCCC in force.
• 1997 (Dec): Kyoto Protocol adopted to control GHGs
through 2012. History of UN articles.
• 2005 (Feb): Kyoto Protocol begins.
• 2007 (Dec): Bali Road Map and Action Plan outlines
map for new treaty by end of 2009.
• 2008 meetings in Bangkok, Bonn, Accra and
Poznan.
More UN Climate Change Work
• UN has an excellent online resource, the
"Gateway to the UN System's Work on Climate
Change."
• 36 UN agencies constitute the "UN Partners on
Climate Change.“
• Publications from all participating agencies are
collected in one site.
• UN also has an Online Inventory of UN System
Activities on Climate Change.
Key International Gov Agencies
• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Created in 1988 By UNEP & WMO to review current
info on climate change.
• IPCC pubs, data and assessments, meeting docs, and
speeches.
• Most current assessment is "Climate Change 2007,"
the 4th IPCC Assessment.
• IPCC shared Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 with Al Gore.
IPCC Acceptance Speech.
• The IPCC is currently outlining its scope of work for
the Fifth Assessment report.
United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP)
• UNEP's climate change web site.
• In Sept 2009, UNEP released "Climate Change Science
Compendium 2009." DEW/1182/NA. It is an overview of
global climate change science for the last 3 yrs.
• UNEP's Climate Change Strategy for 2010-2011.
DCP/1119/NA.
• Just issued “Blue Carbon: The Role of Healthy Oceans
in Binding Carbon,” “Towards Sustainable Production
and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels,” & Forest
Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. More
UNEP pubs.
UN’s World Meteorological
Organization (WMO)
• Main UN’s WMO web site. Recent activities:
• World Climate Conference - 3 just held in Geneva, Aug 31-Sept
4, 2009. At this conference, proposed a Global Framework for
Climate Services to coordinate international climate monitoring.
• Participates in the World Climate Research Programme.
Formed in 1979 at the first World Climate Conf.
• Publishes annually "WMO Statement on the Status of the
Global Climate." 2008 statement.
• Publishes "World Meteorological Bulletin." Vol 58 No 3 has a
history of intl climate efforts, "A History of Climate Activities."
• Also publishes "World Climate News.“ WMO Has a publications
catalogue.
Other International Gov
Agencies
• Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
(FAO). FAO has a climate change portal. Policy Brief for
Copenhagen: "Anchoring Agriculture within a Copenhagen
Agreement." Other FAO pubs.
• The World Bank has a climate change research program. It is
working with developing countries on a project, "The
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change.“ A few other 2009
WB reports: "Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: A Review of
the Scientific Evidence," 5/09; "World Development Report
2010: Development and Climate Change," 9/09; “Climate
Change and the World Bank Group. Phase I: An Evaluation of
World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms.” 9/09; Changes in
CO2 Emissions from Energy Use,” 10/09.
Other UN Agencies
• UN High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR)
released an Aug 2009 policy paper, "Climate
Change, Natural Disasters and Human
Displacement: a UNHCR Perspective." UNHCR
web site on climate change.
• The World Health Organization (WHO) released in
2009, "Protecting Health from Climate Change:
Global Research Priorities." WHO’s climate change
web site.
Intergovernmental Orgs
• The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and
Development (OECD), a multilateral quasigovernmental org has a climate change web site.
OECD just released “The Economics of Climate
Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global
Action beyond 2012.” September 2009.
• International Energy Agency (IEA) released an
excerpt from its "World Energy Outlook 2009" report
for the UN climate summit in NYC in Sept. Full release
is expected this month. IEA’s climate change web
site.
Intergovernmental Orgs
• AOSIS: Alliance of Small Island States. "AOSIS
Declaration on Climate Change 2009" was released
before the Sept 22 NYC Summit on Climate Change.
• The Arctic Council . Tromsø Declaration signed 4/09.
• International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project of
the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of
UNESCO. Looking at impacts from CO2 on oceans.
• Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty is the governing
body of all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. US is a
member. Treaty documents database. Scientific Cmte
on Antarctic Researh (SCAR) provides advice to the
Secretariat. SCAR pubs.
International GHG
EmissionsTrading
• European Union Emissions Trading System (EU
ETS) Started in 2005 before Kyoto. Directive
2003/87/EC of the EU Commission. Multi-national
emissions trading scheme to reduce GHGs. Largest
continent-wide program to date.
• Kyoto Protocol. Adopted in Kyoto on 12/11/1997;
effective 2/16/2005. Flexible mechanisms for GHG
reductions. Emissions trading is one of them.
US signed Kyoto, but never ratified.
All Roads Lead Back to NJ
What's Happening in New
Jersey?
• State of NJ's Global Warming web site.
• Gov Corzine signed Executive Order 54 on 2/13/07
establishing GHG reduction targets for NJ:
o Stabilize NJ GHG levels at 1990 levels by 2020;
o Reduce GHG levels to 80% below 2006 levels by
2050.
o Orders NJDEP, BPU, NJDOT, NJDCA to collaborate
to meet these goals.
• In response to this Executive Order, NJ's Global
Warming Response Act (P.L. 2007, c.112) was written
and signed into law on 7/6/07. Draft recommendations
for public comment released December 15 2008.
Regional Greenhouse Gas
Initiative (RGGI)
• NJ participates with 9 other northeastern and midAtlantic states in the Regional Greenhouse Gas
Initiative (RGGI).
• RGGI is first US mandatory, cap-and-trade program
for carbon dioxide (CO2) reductions. Uses carbon
offsets too.
• Goal is to reduce by 10% CO2 emissions from
power plants by 2019.
• Participating states sell emissions allowances in
scheduled auctions and then invest in consumer
benefit programs in their states. First auction was
Nov 2008; 6th auction is Dec 2, 2009.
• NJ's RGGI program is described.
Regional Greenhouse Gas
Initiative (RGGI) -cont'd
• Regs for NJ's CO2 Budget Trading Program are at
N.J.A.C 7:27C.
• Global Warming Solutions Fund (P.L. 2007, c.304)
designates how auction proceeds distributed in NJ.
• NJDEP and NJ Board of Public Utilities (BPU) are
lead state agencies in RGGI.
• NJDEP's Office of Planning and Sustainable
Communities implements the Local Government
Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program. Grant
program for municipalities for GHG reduction/energy
efficiency efforts.
Offshore Renewable Energy
• In 2006, a State of New Jersey Blue Ribbon Panel on
Development of Wind Turbine Facilities in Coastal
Waters issued a final report to Governor Corzine. This
report was prepared in response to Executive Order 12
from Acting Governor Codey. The report recommended
baseline biological/ecological studies. These were
initiated in 2008 and an interim report for January December 2008 was released.
• In April 2009, the USDOI announced exploratory
offshore wind leases for NJ and DE.
Other NJ Initiatives
• NJ's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program. Rules
adopted 2006. (N.J.A.C. 7:27-29). Implemented by
NJDEP. Establishes cleaner emissions standards for
vehicles sold in NJ. NJ is one of 13 states to adopt
California's Low Emission Vehicles program. For
consumers, NJDEP has a clean vehicle guide.
• NJ's Clean Energy Program. Managed by the NJ
Board of Public Utilities . Offers renewable energy
and efficiency incentives for residents, businesses,
and municipalities.
• Other NJ programs.
Several NJ Gov Docs
• Stanley A, Miller KG. (2004 Sept 15).
• "Holocene Sea Level Rise in New Jersey: An Interim
Report. " Submitted to Division of Science,
Research, and Technology, NJDEP.
• Research Project Summary: Solecki WD,
Rosenzwieg C, et al. (2004 April). "Urban Heat
Island and Climate Change: An Assessment of
Interacting and Possible Adaptations in the Camden,
New Jersey Region." NJDEP.
• "Climate Change in New Jersey: Trends in
Temperature and Sea Level." 2006. NJDEP.
•
More NJ Gov Docs
• 2009 Brochure titled, "Climate Change and New
Jersey."
• "New Jersey Greenhouse Gas Inventory and
Reference Case Projections: 1990-2020." November
2008. NJDEP.
• Columbia Univ prepared for NJDEP the following
report, "The Potential Role of Biofuels in New Jersey
to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Electricity
Generation." May 2008.
• Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton prepared for
NJDEP, "The Garden State in the Greenhouse:
Climate Change Mitigation and Coastal Adaptation
Strategies for New Jersey." January 2007.
Selected Journals
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Applied Energy
Atmospheric Chemistry and
Physics
Bulletin of the American
Meteorological Association
Climate Policy
Climatic Change
Ecological Applications
Energy Policy
Environmental Science and
Technology
Geophysical Research Letters.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
• Global Change Biology
• Global Environmental
Change
• Global Planetary Change
• Journal of Applied
Meteorology and Climatology
• Journal of Climate
• Journal of Geophysical
Research - Atmospheres
• Nature
• PNAS
• Science
• Solar Energy
Selected Dialog Databases
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•
•
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•
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Aquatic Sciences and
Fisheries Abstracts (File
44)
Biosis (File 5)
CAB Abstracts (File 50)
Econlit (File 139)
Ei Compendex (File 8)
Energy Science and
Technology (File 103)
GeoArchive (File 58)
GeoBase (File 292)
Inside Conferences (File
65)
• Meteorological and
Geoastrophysical
Abstracts (File 29)
• NTIS (File 6)
• Oceanic Abstracts (File
28)
• Science (File 370)
• SciSearch (File 34)
Free, Online Databases
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•
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AGRICOLA
AGRIS
USDOE Information Bridge
PubMed
TreeSearch (USFS)
TRIS
UN Databases
doi:10.1038/climate.2009.102
Selected Further Reading
• Cambridge Systematics, Inc. (2009). Moving Cooler: Surface
Transportation and Climate Change. Washington, DC: The Urban Land
Institute.
• Engelman R, et al. (2009). State of the World 2009: Into a Warming
World. Washington, DC: The WorldWatch Institute.
• Ewing R, et al. (2008). Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban
Development and Climate Change. Washington DC: The Urban Land
Institute.
• Hulme M, et al (2 Oct 2009). Must-reads for Copenhagen. Nature
Reports Climate Change. doi: 10.1038/climate.2009.102.
• Molina M, et al. (2009. In-Press). Reducing abrupt climate change risk
using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement
cuts in CO2 emissions. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902568106.
• Stern N. (2007). The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review.
NY: Cambridge University Press.
Photo Credits
• Iceberg: Matterhorn Iceberg near Elephant Island,
Antarctica, courtesy of NOAA Photo Library.
• Forest Fire: courtesy of Moab Fire District, Bureau of
Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior.
• Jet: (E-3 Sentry), courtesy of US Air Force
• Copenhagen: Amager Torv Square, Photop by Cees
van Roeden, Courtesy of Visit Copenhagen.
• NJ Turnpike 50th Anniversary logo courtesy of the NJ
Turnpike Authority.
Some Inspiration
“What after all has maintained the human race on
this old globe, despite all the calamities of nature
and all the tragic failings of mankind, if not the
faith in new possibilities and the courage to
advocate them? “
Jane Addams (1860-1935)
Social Worker
1931 Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
Questions?
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