Climate Change An Inconvenient Gov Docs Challenge (November 6, 2009 for DANJ) My Contact Info Mary Kearns-Kaplan, MLS New Jersey State Library Manager, branch library, the Information Resource Center, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Email: [email protected] Phone: 609-984-2249; Fax: 609-292-3298 URL: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/irc Disclaimer • My views do not represent the official views of the NJ State Library or the NJ Department of Environmental Protection. • I am not here to offer opinion, but to point to selected, publically-available information resources on this topic. • I am here on my own leave time and not on state time. • I have too many slides! Whatever your opinion is on Climate Change, it’s All Hot, Hot, Hot to Me! My Goal for Today • To point out some very current government documents on climate change. These are SELECTED resources. This is not by any means a research guide. • I will not cover various nonprofit organizations or other nongovernmental interest groups that have an interest in climate change. One Definition of Climate Change “A significant and persistent change in the mean state of the climate or its variability. Climate change occurs in response to changes in some aspect of Earth’s environment: these include regular changes in Earth’s orbit about the sun, re-arrangement of continents through plate tectonic motions, or anthropogenic modification of the atmosphere.” Source: “Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science,” U.S. Global Change Research Program: Climate Change is a Large Issue • Majority of the sciences and engineering disciplines are involved. • Social sciences are interested. • Business/Industry has a stake. • Involves citizens, scientists, politicians, public policy experts, and advocates. • Every sector of the economy affected. • All aspects of our lives touched: arts, environment, jobs, health, politics, national security, religion, etc. Several Hot Topics • Biodiversity loss and shift in habitats. • Black Carbon, other contributors to global warming. • Carbon sequestration (e.g. artificial carbon capture & storage, biological sequestration). • Market mechanisms to control GHGs (cap-andtrade, carbon taxes, carbon offsets, etc). • Melting of glaciers and sea ice. • National Security Risks. • Ocean Acidification and increased water temps. • Renewable/Alternative Energy/Energy Efficiency (e.g. biofuels, green buildings, solar, wind, etc) • Sea Level Rise Background for Non-Scientists • “Understanding and Responding to Climate Change,” National Academy of Sciences, 2008. • “Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences,” United States Global Change Research Program, 2009. • “A Paleoperspective on Global Warming” from NOAA’s NCDC Paleoclimatology program. Background for Scientists • US Global Change Research Program has issued numerous reports and assessments. This 2009 report summarizes majority of their research: “Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States.” Key Findings. Background for Scientists • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): http://www.ipcc.ch • Most recent IPCC assessment is the “Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change (AR4)” that consists of 4 volumes in six languages: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. o Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. o Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. o o Background for Scientists •The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released in September the “Climate Change Science Compendium 2009.” It is a review of new scientific research published since the close of the 4th IPCC assessment. Key U.S. Legislation • H.R. 2454: “The American Clean Energy and Security Act.” Aka “Waxman-Markey Bill,” ACES Act, HR 2998. Passed the U.S. House on 6/26/09 by a vote of 219 to 212. It is now being debated in the Senate. • S. 1733, “The Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act” was introduced by US Sens Kerry and Boxer on Sept 30 2009. Aka “Boxer-Kerry bill.” • Both bills include a cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gases with slightly different targets. • The Congressional Research Service has produced numerous reports for Congress on climate change. You will find these reports on the CRS/Climate Change web site hosted by the National Council for Science and the Environment. Key US Gov Agencies • Here are just a selected few. Nearly every U.S. government agency is involved in this issue in some way. There are numerous joint research efforts/centers/institutes between universities, government agencies and the private sector. U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) • US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) • USGCRP established in 1990: Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-606, 11/16/90). • Thirteen US departments & agencies participate in USGCRP. They constitute the Subcommittee on Global Change Research of the Cmte on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council of the Office of the President. KEY USGCRP Reports • Global Change Research Act of 1990 mandates an assessment every 4 years of global change impacts on U.S. • USGCRP published in 2009, “Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States,” a synthesis of science to date. Northeast region report. • Earlier USGCRP assessments are online. • “Our Changing Planet,” an annual USGCRP report to Congress. National Research Council • National Research Council (NRC) . • NRC's Division of Earth & Life Studies does most of the policy work on climate and energy. • Current project of the Academies: "America's Climate Choices." Reports coming 2009. Held a summit March 30-31, 2009. More NRC Info • Key 2009/2008 NRC reports on climate change: • “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of • • • • • Energy Production and Use.“ (2009). “Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate” (2009). “Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change” (2009). “America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation.” 2009. “Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use, and CO2 Emissions – Special Report 298.” 2009. “Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation” (2008). U.S Congressional Budget Office • The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has published several budget analyses and briefs on climate change legislation. Several key for 2009: • Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States,” May 2009. Pub No. 3044. • Cost estimate of H.R. 2998, the “American Clean Energy and Security Act.” 6/26/09. Aka H.R. 2454. • “How Regulatory Standards can Affect a Cap-and-Trade Program for Greenhouse Gases,“ 9/16/09. • “The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-Gas Emissions,” Sept 2009. 10/14/09 Senate testimony. • More CBO climate change publications are online. U.S General Accounting Office (USGAO) Selected recent GAO climate change reports: • November 2008: "International Climate Change Programs: Lessons Learned from the European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme and the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism." November 2008. GAO-09-151. • June 2009: "Aviation and Climate Change: Aircraft Emissions Expected to Grow, but Technological and Operational Government Policies Can Help Control Emissions." GAO-09554. • July 2009: "Climate Change Trade Measures: Estimating Industry Effects." GAO-09-875T. • July 2009: "Climate Change Trade Measures: Considerations for U.S. Policy Makers." GAO-09-724R. • August 2009: "Preliminary Observations on Options for Distributing Emissions Allowances and Revenue under a Capand-Trade Program." GAO-09-950T. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) • On April 2, 2007 U.S. Supreme Court ruled that greenhouse gases could be regulated as air pollutants under the Clean Air Act (Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 U.S. 497 (2007). NJ was a party. • In response, on April 24, 2009, EPA issued a proposed endangerment finding rule for 6 greenhouse gases and a cause or contribute finding for these gases emitted from motor vehicles and MV engines (see 74 FR 18886). Tech doc. • On May 19 2009, President Obama announced a national fuel efficiency policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy for all new cars and trucks, model years 2012-16. USEPA (cont'd) • On Sept 15 2009, EPA and the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a rule to reduce greenhouse gas vehicle emissions and improve fuel economy for certain model year cars and trucks (74 FR 49453, Sept 28, 2009; also see EPA-420-F-09-047). • On Sept 22 2009, EPA finalized rule for mandatory GHG reporting from large emitters. First reporting requirement in the US. (74 FR 56259, Oct 30, 2009) • On Sept 30 2009, EPA proposed a rule to require permits from from large emitters of GHGs in the US. These are the first proposed GHG permitting regs. (no FR citation yet as of 10/30, but related rule at 74 FR 55291, Oct 27, 2009) USEPA (cont'd) • USEPA Economic Analyses of S 1733 and HR 2454. • US EPA Climate Change web site. • EPA web site on New Jersey climate change regulatory activities. • EPA, in collaboration with NOAA and USGS, published “Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level Rise: A Focus on the MidAtlantic Region.” Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1, U.S. Global Change Science Program. • EPA publishes annually, "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks,“ a report that meets US reporting requests under the UNFCCC. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) • NOAA's Climate Program Office and Climate Research web site will link you to the many climate observational, research, and modeling programs that NOAA supervises. A few recent reports, fact sheets: • Arctic Report Card: 2009. • Ocean Acidification Fact Sheet. 2008. • NOAA is creating a Climate Service that will be capable of providing on-demand data and info. • NOAA has 21Joint Research Institutes with university scientists. Much of this work coordinated with NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL). ESRL pubs. • NOAA’s central library catalog. National Climatic Data Center • NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has numerous climate data sets and publications. • NCDC’s Climate Data Directory. • Online access is now free for most .gov, .edu and .mil • “State of the Climate” is published monthly and annually. National and global info. • NCDC’s global warming web site. U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) • USGS Office of Global Change. • Recent USGS report on status of northwest glaciers, “Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA.” USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3046. • “Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective,” USGS Circular 1331, 2009. • USGS Publications Warehouse. NASA • NASA’s Global Change Master Directory. • Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) at Columbia Univ is the Earth Sciences Division of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. GISS scientists publish in peer-reviewed lit. Here is an index of GISS papers. Briefs on GISS research are available. More info. • NASA supports the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at Univ. of Colorado – Boulder. • Earth Observatory has satellite images. USDOE • US Dept of Energy (USDOE) climate change web site. • The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes annually, "Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States“ and “Energy Outlook.” • The USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has 10 programs. Pubs. • The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) unites climate security research of 9 USDOE Labs (e.g. ORNL, NREL). ARM Pubs database. • National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) collaborates with many on research. Pubs database. Other USDOE Labs. • USDOE is creating 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs). • USDOE and Environment Canada delivered to Pres Obama and Prime Minister Harper the “U.S. – Canada Clean Energy Dialogue.” USDOI • The US Department of the Interior (USDOI) • US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has a climate change web site . In Sept 2009, they issued a proposed strategic plan, “Rising to the Challenge: Strategic Plan for Responding to Accelerating Climate Change.” • The National Park Service (NPS) is documenting impacts of climate change on natural resources in our national parks. See their “Climate Friendly Parks” info. • The Mineral Management Service (MMS) manages offshore energy leases through their Office of Energy and Minerals Management. In July 2009, they issued “Guidelines for the Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy Framework.” Some other US Gov Sites • US Dept of Agriculture (USDA) Global Climate Change web site. USDA analysis of agriculture effects from HR 2454. • US Dept of Transportation (UDOT) Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse. • The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides research funding on climate change to numerous kinds of recipients. For example, NSF supports an important atmospheric research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). It is in, but not of, government. NCAR pubs web site. NSF has an online report of climate change issues. • Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) Climate Change and Public Health web site. US National Security Interests • U.S. Senate Cmte on Env & Public Works held a hearing on 7/30/09 titled, “Climate Change and National Security.” • The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Cmte had a hearing on 7/21/09 titled “Climate Change and Global Security.” • The Jet Propulsion Lab of NASA published in 2003, “An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and its Implications for United States National Security. • The U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) released a report in Nov 2008 titled, “Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World.” It includes a chapter on climate risks. • The CIA announced on 9/25/09 that it is opening “The Center on Climate Change and National Security.” Copenhagen Here We Come! Velkommen! United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change • Next UNFCCC summit is December 7-18, 2009 in Copenhagen. • Have been several 2009 meetings in preparation for this summit: Bonn: March 29-April 8 Bonn: June 1-12 Bonn: Aug 10-14 New York City: Sept 22 Bangkok: Sept 28-Oct 9 Barcelona: Nov 2-6 • UNFCC national reports provide country profiles. The Path to Copenhagen • 1990: Beginning of UN General Assembly negotiations to create the UNFCCC. • 1992 (June): Rio Earth Summit. UNFCCC adopted. • 1994 (March 21): UNFCCC in force. • 1997 (Dec): Kyoto Protocol adopted to control GHGs through 2012. History of UN articles. • 2005 (Feb): Kyoto Protocol begins. • 2007 (Dec): Bali Road Map and Action Plan outlines map for new treaty by end of 2009. • 2008 meetings in Bangkok, Bonn, Accra and Poznan. More UN Climate Change Work • UN has an excellent online resource, the "Gateway to the UN System's Work on Climate Change." • 36 UN agencies constitute the "UN Partners on Climate Change.“ • Publications from all participating agencies are collected in one site. • UN also has an Online Inventory of UN System Activities on Climate Change. Key International Gov Agencies • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Created in 1988 By UNEP & WMO to review current info on climate change. • IPCC pubs, data and assessments, meeting docs, and speeches. • Most current assessment is "Climate Change 2007," the 4th IPCC Assessment. • IPCC shared Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 with Al Gore. IPCC Acceptance Speech. • The IPCC is currently outlining its scope of work for the Fifth Assessment report. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) • UNEP's climate change web site. • In Sept 2009, UNEP released "Climate Change Science Compendium 2009." DEW/1182/NA. It is an overview of global climate change science for the last 3 yrs. • UNEP's Climate Change Strategy for 2010-2011. DCP/1119/NA. • Just issued “Blue Carbon: The Role of Healthy Oceans in Binding Carbon,” “Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels,” & Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. More UNEP pubs. UN’s World Meteorological Organization (WMO) • Main UN’s WMO web site. Recent activities: • World Climate Conference - 3 just held in Geneva, Aug 31-Sept 4, 2009. At this conference, proposed a Global Framework for Climate Services to coordinate international climate monitoring. • Participates in the World Climate Research Programme. Formed in 1979 at the first World Climate Conf. • Publishes annually "WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate." 2008 statement. • Publishes "World Meteorological Bulletin." Vol 58 No 3 has a history of intl climate efforts, "A History of Climate Activities." • Also publishes "World Climate News.“ WMO Has a publications catalogue. Other International Gov Agencies • Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAO has a climate change portal. Policy Brief for Copenhagen: "Anchoring Agriculture within a Copenhagen Agreement." Other FAO pubs. • The World Bank has a climate change research program. It is working with developing countries on a project, "The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change.“ A few other 2009 WB reports: "Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: A Review of the Scientific Evidence," 5/09; "World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change," 9/09; “Climate Change and the World Bank Group. Phase I: An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms.” 9/09; Changes in CO2 Emissions from Energy Use,” 10/09. Other UN Agencies • UN High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) released an Aug 2009 policy paper, "Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement: a UNHCR Perspective." UNHCR web site on climate change. • The World Health Organization (WHO) released in 2009, "Protecting Health from Climate Change: Global Research Priorities." WHO’s climate change web site. Intergovernmental Orgs • The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), a multilateral quasigovernmental org has a climate change web site. OECD just released “The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012.” September 2009. • International Energy Agency (IEA) released an excerpt from its "World Energy Outlook 2009" report for the UN climate summit in NYC in Sept. Full release is expected this month. IEA’s climate change web site. Intergovernmental Orgs • AOSIS: Alliance of Small Island States. "AOSIS Declaration on Climate Change 2009" was released before the Sept 22 NYC Summit on Climate Change. • The Arctic Council . Tromsø Declaration signed 4/09. • International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. Looking at impacts from CO2 on oceans. • Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty is the governing body of all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. US is a member. Treaty documents database. Scientific Cmte on Antarctic Researh (SCAR) provides advice to the Secretariat. SCAR pubs. International GHG EmissionsTrading • European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) Started in 2005 before Kyoto. Directive 2003/87/EC of the EU Commission. Multi-national emissions trading scheme to reduce GHGs. Largest continent-wide program to date. • Kyoto Protocol. Adopted in Kyoto on 12/11/1997; effective 2/16/2005. Flexible mechanisms for GHG reductions. Emissions trading is one of them. US signed Kyoto, but never ratified. All Roads Lead Back to NJ What's Happening in New Jersey? • State of NJ's Global Warming web site. • Gov Corzine signed Executive Order 54 on 2/13/07 establishing GHG reduction targets for NJ: o Stabilize NJ GHG levels at 1990 levels by 2020; o Reduce GHG levels to 80% below 2006 levels by 2050. o Orders NJDEP, BPU, NJDOT, NJDCA to collaborate to meet these goals. • In response to this Executive Order, NJ's Global Warming Response Act (P.L. 2007, c.112) was written and signed into law on 7/6/07. Draft recommendations for public comment released December 15 2008. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) • NJ participates with 9 other northeastern and midAtlantic states in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). • RGGI is first US mandatory, cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide (CO2) reductions. Uses carbon offsets too. • Goal is to reduce by 10% CO2 emissions from power plants by 2019. • Participating states sell emissions allowances in scheduled auctions and then invest in consumer benefit programs in their states. First auction was Nov 2008; 6th auction is Dec 2, 2009. • NJ's RGGI program is described. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) -cont'd • Regs for NJ's CO2 Budget Trading Program are at N.J.A.C 7:27C. • Global Warming Solutions Fund (P.L. 2007, c.304) designates how auction proceeds distributed in NJ. • NJDEP and NJ Board of Public Utilities (BPU) are lead state agencies in RGGI. • NJDEP's Office of Planning and Sustainable Communities implements the Local Government Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program. Grant program for municipalities for GHG reduction/energy efficiency efforts. Offshore Renewable Energy • In 2006, a State of New Jersey Blue Ribbon Panel on Development of Wind Turbine Facilities in Coastal Waters issued a final report to Governor Corzine. This report was prepared in response to Executive Order 12 from Acting Governor Codey. The report recommended baseline biological/ecological studies. These were initiated in 2008 and an interim report for January December 2008 was released. • In April 2009, the USDOI announced exploratory offshore wind leases for NJ and DE. Other NJ Initiatives • NJ's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program. Rules adopted 2006. (N.J.A.C. 7:27-29). Implemented by NJDEP. Establishes cleaner emissions standards for vehicles sold in NJ. NJ is one of 13 states to adopt California's Low Emission Vehicles program. For consumers, NJDEP has a clean vehicle guide. • NJ's Clean Energy Program. Managed by the NJ Board of Public Utilities . Offers renewable energy and efficiency incentives for residents, businesses, and municipalities. • Other NJ programs. Several NJ Gov Docs • Stanley A, Miller KG. (2004 Sept 15). • "Holocene Sea Level Rise in New Jersey: An Interim Report. " Submitted to Division of Science, Research, and Technology, NJDEP. • Research Project Summary: Solecki WD, Rosenzwieg C, et al. (2004 April). "Urban Heat Island and Climate Change: An Assessment of Interacting and Possible Adaptations in the Camden, New Jersey Region." NJDEP. • "Climate Change in New Jersey: Trends in Temperature and Sea Level." 2006. NJDEP. • More NJ Gov Docs • 2009 Brochure titled, "Climate Change and New Jersey." • "New Jersey Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Reference Case Projections: 1990-2020." November 2008. NJDEP. • Columbia Univ prepared for NJDEP the following report, "The Potential Role of Biofuels in New Jersey to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Electricity Generation." May 2008. • Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton prepared for NJDEP, "The Garden State in the Greenhouse: Climate Change Mitigation and Coastal Adaptation Strategies for New Jersey." January 2007. Selected Journals • • • • • • • • • • Applied Energy Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Bulletin of the American Meteorological Association Climate Policy Climatic Change Ecological Applications Energy Policy Environmental Science and Technology Geophysical Research Letters. Global Biogeochemical Cycles • Global Change Biology • Global Environmental Change • Global Planetary Change • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology • Journal of Climate • Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres • Nature • PNAS • Science • Solar Energy Selected Dialog Databases • • • • • • • • • Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (File 44) Biosis (File 5) CAB Abstracts (File 50) Econlit (File 139) Ei Compendex (File 8) Energy Science and Technology (File 103) GeoArchive (File 58) GeoBase (File 292) Inside Conferences (File 65) • Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts (File 29) • NTIS (File 6) • Oceanic Abstracts (File 28) • Science (File 370) • SciSearch (File 34) Free, Online Databases • • • • • • • AGRICOLA AGRIS USDOE Information Bridge PubMed TreeSearch (USFS) TRIS UN Databases doi:10.1038/climate.2009.102 Selected Further Reading • Cambridge Systematics, Inc. (2009). Moving Cooler: Surface Transportation and Climate Change. Washington, DC: The Urban Land Institute. • Engelman R, et al. (2009). State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. Washington, DC: The WorldWatch Institute. • Ewing R, et al. (2008). Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Washington DC: The Urban Land Institute. • Hulme M, et al (2 Oct 2009). Must-reads for Copenhagen. Nature Reports Climate Change. doi: 10.1038/climate.2009.102. • Molina M, et al. (2009. In-Press). Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902568106. • Stern N. (2007). The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. NY: Cambridge University Press. Photo Credits • Iceberg: Matterhorn Iceberg near Elephant Island, Antarctica, courtesy of NOAA Photo Library. • Forest Fire: courtesy of Moab Fire District, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior. • Jet: (E-3 Sentry), courtesy of US Air Force • Copenhagen: Amager Torv Square, Photop by Cees van Roeden, Courtesy of Visit Copenhagen. • NJ Turnpike 50th Anniversary logo courtesy of the NJ Turnpike Authority. Some Inspiration “What after all has maintained the human race on this old globe, despite all the calamities of nature and all the tragic failings of mankind, if not the faith in new possibilities and the courage to advocate them? “ Jane Addams (1860-1935) Social Worker 1931 Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize Questions?