Gupta Empire Gupta Empire n After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, India remained primarily Buddhist for 500 years. n Under the rule of Candra Gupta I, India became unified and prosperous again. • Gupta rulers spread Hinduism in their empire through the building of temples and the promotion of Hindu writings and rituals. • Widespread religious tolerance was encouraged for Buddhists and Jainists. II. n Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta (no relation), oversaw a great flowering of Indian civilization and Hindu culture A. Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire 1. power base along the Ganges 2. “Great King of Kings” in 320ad 3. son, Samudra Gupta took over in 335ad 4. Samudra Gupta was warlike, ruled for 40 years Time Line n 320 BC Candragupta Maurya becomes the first Mauryan emperor. n 301 BC Candragupta Maurya relinquishes the throne to become a Jainist monk. n 270 BC Asoka becomes the second Mauryan emperor. n n 261 BC Asoka’s empire gains great power, and he leaves to become a Buddhist. AD 375 Candra Gupta I invades and conquers northern India and brings Hinduism, prosperity, and a strict caste system back into popular culture. Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I r. 320 – 335 CE “Great King of Kings” Chandra Gupta II r. 375 - 415 CE Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world! Hindu revival. Huns invade – 450 CE GUPTA EMPIRE – 320 CE • Produced no rulers who were as influential as Chandragupta Maurya or Asoka, but Gupta rulers had a greater impact on Indian society • Expanded influence through negotiation and intermarriage (instead of warfare) • Leaders claimed that gods wanted them to rule • Hinduism was valued over Buddhism • Created India’s “golden age” • Spread uniform law codes • Sponsored government service projects • Patrons of art and education The Gupta Empire is Established n Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire – Chandra Gupta marries into kingship in north India in A.D. 320 – Starts Gupta Empire— India’s second empire; flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture (see next slide) – His son Samudra Gupta expands empire with conquest The Gupta Empire India remained divided into small kingdoms for about 400 years. Then around AD 320, the Gupta dynasty took over northern India. Under the Gupta, northern India was reunited, Indian society prospered, and the religion of Hinduism grew in popularity. Rise of Gupta Empire • Like Mauryan, Gupta dynasty rose to power in region of Magadha • Founder was Chandra Gupta I • From base in Magadha, Chandra conquered neighboring lands, brought much of northern India under Gupta control India under Gupta Rule • Gupta rule less centralized • Divided main part of empire into units • Royal officials governed each unit • Governed through local rulers in distant conquered areas • Local rulers had to pay tribute Gupta power expanded under the heirs of Chandra Gupta I, and the empire reached its height under Chandra Gupta II. The Gupta Empire is Established n Daily Life in India – Majority of Indians are farmers; entire family raises crops together – Families are patriarchal—headed by the eldest male – Farmers have to contribute work to government and pay heavy taxes – Some Tamil families are matriarchal—led by mother rather than father Daily Life in India 1. lived in small villages 2. majority of the people were farmers 3. northern India were families patriarchal 4. droughts, irrigation, taxes on water, and crops 5. southern India--- matriarchal Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c. He was following the path of the Buddha. He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor. Main Idea 2: Gupta rulers promoted Hinduism in their empire. A New Hindu Empire • The Gupta dynasty took over India around AD 320. • Under the Guptas, India was again united and it prospered. • Hinduism became India’s dominant religion. However, the Gupta rulers also supported the religious beliefs of Buddhism and Jainism. Gupta Society • Gupta society reached its high point around 375, during the rule of Candra Gupta II. • The empire had a strong economy, its people prospered, and fine works of art and literature were created. • The Gupta kings believed in the strict social order of the Hindu caste system and women’s roles were limited. The Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta II, ruled from AD 375 to 415 Further expanded empire, strengthened economy Reign was period of prosperity, cultural achievement Chinese Buddhist monk, Faxian, traveled to India Described empire as rich, prosperous, and punishments fair Candra Gupta II Growth Under Candra Gupta II, the Gupta Empire reached the height of its power. It spread across northern India and prospered. Economy and Culture The economy boomed, allowing citizens the time and money to create great works of art and literature. The Caste System It was believed that keeping citizens under strict caste rule would stabilize the empire. Social Ramifications Women in the caste system were not seen as equals and had few basic rights. Life in Gupta India Social structure Legal codes • Most people in ancient India belonged to specific caste • Legal codes also defined people’s roles • Castes determined jobs, interaction with others • Laws of Manu, compiled between 200 BC, AD 200 • Number grew, developed rules • Defined proper behavior Gender • Also shaped Indian society • Men had more rights than women • Patriarchal society, similar to China Laws of Manu • Female child subject to father, female youth to husband • Men expected to treat women with respect • Abused women could leave Gupta Empire Government n n n n Chandragupta relied on Kautilya’s Arthasastara: teaches how to hold vast empire together Bureaucratic government, four provinces headed by prince, local districts, officials assess tax and enforce the law Farmers exempt from military service, protected by army Building of roads and conditions on roads (shade trees, rest houses, wells, watering places) Chandragupta maintained order through a well-organized bureaucracy. Royal officials supervised the building of roads and harbors to benefit trade. Other officials collected taxes and managed state-owned factories and shipyards. People sought justice in royal courts. 17 Chandragupta’s rule was effective but harsh. A brutal secret police force reported on corruption, crime, and dissent—that is, ideas that opposed those of the government. Fearful of his many enemies, Chandragupta had specially trained women warriors guard 18 his palace. The Gupta Empire is Established n Height of the Gupta Empire – Chandra Gupta II rules from A.D. 375-415 – He defeats the Shakas and adds western coast to empire – Gupta Empire sees flourishing of arts, religion, and science – After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire declines BRAHMANICAL RENAISSANCE n n The Guptas who ruled in northern India from third century onwards were ardent followers of Vedic religion and rituals. Does it mean that only the Vedic gods were reified in this period? n OR ASCENDENCE OF SHRAMANIC TRADITIONS n The best Buddhist and Jaina art was produced during this time Main Idea 1: Indian artists created great works of religious art. The Indians of the Mauryan and Gupta periods created great works of art, many of which were religious in nature. Many of their artistic endeavors illustrated either Hindu or Buddhist teachings. Hindu and Buddhist temples were built throughout India. Buddhist and Hindu Temples during the Mauryan and Gupta Periods Hindu Temples • During the Mauryan period, temples were small, stone structures with one or two rooms and flat roofs. • During the Gupta period, the temples were more complex, with huge towers and intricate carvings. Buddhist Temples • Some Buddhists carved entire temples out of mountainsides. • The temples at Ajanta and Ellora are two of the most famous of this type of Buddhist temple. • Another type of Buddhist temple was the stupa. Painting and Sculpture The Gupta period saw the creation of countless works of art. Most Indian paintings of the Gupta period are clear and colorful. Many of the finest paintings of ancient India are found in Hindu and Buddhist temples. Indian sculptors created intricately carved columns, statues of kings and the Buddha for Buddhist cave temples, and impressive statues of the Hindu gods for the Hindu temples. Main Idea 2: Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period. Religious Epics • During the Mauryan and Gupta period, many works of Sanskrit literature were created. • The greatest of these Sanskrit writings are two religious epics: the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Other Works • Writers in the Gupta period also created plays, poetry, and other types of literature. • Kalidasa was a famous writer during this time. • Indian writers produced a book of stories called the Panchatantra. This collection of moral stories spread throughout the world. A Gupta Golden Age Like the Han period in China, the Gupta period was a golden age of cultural and scientific achievements. Sanskrit Literature • Many great works created during Gupta period • One of greatest writers, Kalidasa – Poet, playwright Panchatantra • Another popular work of period • Five Books, collection of stories meant to teach lessons • “The good and bad of given schemes – Wrote plays for royal court Wise thought must first reveal – Sakuntala, most famous The stupid heron saw his chicks – Play combines myth, humor, court life, lyric poetry Provide a mongoose meal.” • Warning to think before acting Achievements of Indian Culture n Literature and the Performing Arts – Kalidasa—poet and dramatist, one of India’s greatest writers – His skillful and emotionally stirring plays are still popular – Madurai writing accademies create literature; 2,000 Tamil poems survive – Drama and dance troupes gain popularity and travel widely Religious Art: Temples • Both Hindu and Buddhist temples began flourishing under Gupta rule. • Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu temples became complex towers covered with intricate carvings. • Buddhist temples were large and impressive, some carved out of mountainsides. • Buddhist stupas were built to house sacred objects from the life of the Buddha. They were covered with detailed carvings. Sanskrit Literature Mahabharata Ramayana • One of the world’s longest literary works • The story of a god, Vishnu, who has taken human form • The story of two Indian families struggling for control of a kingdom • Written long after the Mahabharata; contains models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and the ideal mate (Sita) • Many long passages of Hindu beliefs and practices Sanskrit Literature Other Works n Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named Kalidasa to write plays for the royal court. • The Panchatantra, a book of stories intended to teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was translated into many languages. Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala. During the reign of Chandra Gupta II. Bhartrhari 5c India court poet and philosopher. Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried, The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable, A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity. Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth--When he lacks it, a man is a brute. Art and Architecture Religious • Much of art, architecture of Gupta period religious • Magnificent Hindu, Buddhist temples built across India • Hindu temples: huge towers, covered with carvings Buddhist temples • Included stupas, temples with domed roofs • Built to house sacred items from life of Buddha • Like Hindu temples, covered with detailed carvings Most spectacular architecture • Temples, monuments carved out of rock and cliff faces • Most famous, cave temples at Ajanta and Ellora • Intricately carved columns; include halls, rooms, windows Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Art and Architecture Great works of art • Paintings of the time often portray beautiful, graceful Indians wearing fine jewelry, stylish clothing • Many of finest paintings found in Buddhist and Hindu temples Temple paintings • Hindu artists decorated walls, entrances with devas, aspects of Brahman • Buddhists covered plaster walls, ceilings with scenes from life of Buddha • Some of finest examples of Buddhist art found in Ajanta cave temples Statues • Made for temples • Buddhist temples, statues of Buddha, kings • Hindu temples, statues of Siva, Vishnu, other devas Religious Art: Paintings and Sculpture • Great artists were commissioned by rich and powerful members of society. • Paintings offered a perspective on the daily life and religious belief of the ancient Indians; many of these paintings could be found on the walls of temples. • Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and entire temples in the likenesses of the Buddha and Hindu gods. Main Idea 3: The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences. Metalworking • Pioneers of metallurgy, the science of working with metals • Knew processes for mixing metals to produce alloys, mixtures of two or more metals • Metalworkers made their strongest products out of iron. Mathematics • The most skilled mathematicians of their day • Hindu-Arabic numerals were created by Indian scholars and brought to Europe by Arabs. • The first people to create the zero Other Sciences • Began writing medical textbooks as early as the AD 100s • Doctors knew about disease prevention and used inoculation. • Doctors could perform surgery. • Interested in astronomy, the study of stars and planets Indians developed the concept of negative numbers, calculated square roots and a table of sines, and computed the value of pi to a greater degree of accuracy than the Greeks Indian steel was better than any produced elsewhere The Indians were the first to produce cotton cloth, calico, and cashmere Science and Technology Metallurgy • • • • • Ancient Indians pioneers of science of working with metals Indian iron valued for hardness, purity Gupta metalworkers built famous Iron Pillar, near Delhi Iron Pillar is resistant to rust Still being studied by scholars today Mathematics • Gupta scholars most advanced mathematicians of their day • Developed modern math system • First to use concept, symbol of zero • Hindu-Arabic numerals; created by Indians, brought to Europe by Arabs Medical Science • Ancient Indians quite advanced • Made medicines from plants • Knew how to inject small amounts of viruses to protect against disease • Doctors could perform surgery, repair broken bones, treat wounds Science and Technology Astronomy n Indians identified seven planets in solar system n Could predict eclipses of sun, moon n Aryabhata, one of most famous Indian astronomers – Correctly argued that Earth rotates on axis, revolves around sun – Knew Earth was sphere, calculated circumference with remarkable accuracy Achievements of Indian Culture n Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine – Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy – Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that the world is round. – Mathematicians develop the idea of zero and decimal system – Doctors write medical guides and make advances in surgery Scientific Advances Metalworking Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created tools and weapons by mixing iron and other metals together. Mathematics The Indians invented the concept of zero and developed a sophisticated number system, the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Medicine Using plants and minerals, Indian doctors made advances in medicinal science. They were among the first to practice inoculation and perform surgery. Astronomy Indian astronomers knew of seven about the nine planets in the solar system and could predict eclipses of the sun and moon. Contributions n Many advances in science, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics came out of India. This is a depiction of an ancient Indian book that predicts eclipses of the sun and moon. Contributions India had many advances in medicine. One doctor from Ancient India wrote a book on how he rebuilt noses through plastic surgery. He no doubt needed to do this often since having one’s nose cut off was one of the punishments for committing a crime. Contributions n This is a sample of elaborate mathematical calculations taken from an Indian text around 600 BC. An Indian named Brahmagupta is credited with inventing the idea of “0”(zero). This changed greatly how mathematics could be used. Contributions n Ancient India is also credited with inventing the magnetic compass. Indians sailed the Indian Ocean in boats the were guided by a metal “fish” floating in oil. The fish pointed north, acting as a compass for the boats. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE ANCIENT INDIAN EMPIRE •Literature • Vedas • Ramayana • Bhagavad Gita •Architecture Stupa • Used pillars, stupas, and rock chambers for religious purposes •Science and mathematics • Created the number system that we still use today • Charted the movements of the stars • First to use algebra • Introduced the concept of zero and the decimal system 500 healing plants identified 1000 diseases classified Printed medicinal guides Plastic Surgery Gupta Achievement s Kalidasa Literature Medicine Inoculations Gupta India C-sections performed Decimal System Mathematics Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Solar Calendar Astronomy The earth is round International Trade Routes during the Guptas Extensive Trade: 4c spices gold & ivory The Spread of Indian Trade n India’s Valuable Resources – India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood Life in Gupta India Growth of Trade • Indian civilization flourished during Gupta empire • Trade increased, economy strengthened, cities prospered • Overland routes like the Silk Roads linked India to other markets • Indian merchants traded ivory, cashmere, cotton, spices for Chinese silk, Roman ceramics Sea Trade • Gupta, Tamil kingdoms in southern India traded actively by sea • Indian sailors used seasonal winds to reach foreign markets across Arabian Sea • Sea trade also between India and Southeast Asia • Played key role in cultural diffusion of Indian culture The Spread of Indian Trade n India’s Valuable Resources – India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood n Overland Trade, East and West – Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and Europe – Indians build trading posts to take advantage of the Silk Roads The Spread of Indian Trade n Sea Trade, East and West – Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea – Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia The Spread of Indian Trade n Effects of Indian Trade – Increased trade leads to rise in banking – Bankers lend money to merchants, careful of degree of risk – Increased trade spreads Indian culture to other places – Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism to other lands Indian influence •Indian Ocean was the most active linkage point among cultures •India did not attempt political domination • Dealt with regional kingdoms •Indian religion and art traveled widely • Buddhism spread to SE Asia • Hinduism converted upper classes, especially in Indonesia •India serves as an early example of a major civilization expanding its influence well beyond its own regions • Classical period in India lasted longer than in China or Rome The Gupta Empire Support of Hinduism • Buddhism prospered, spread during period between Mauryan, Gupta empires • Hinduism lost popularity during this period • Under Guptas, Hinduism became main religion • Rulers supported building Hindu temples, promoted revival of writings • Buddhism began to lose influence during this period End of Gupta Rule Weakened Empire • Began to weaken, late 400s • Problems disrupted trade • Loose Gupta control allowed some parts of empire to break away • Gupta military efforts to defend empire drained treasury • Central Asian nomads, White Huns, began invading India • Gupta rule ended, 550 • Again India divided into small, regional kingdoms The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them. After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c. QUESTION: Is the best literature and art written as the civilization is on the rise, at its height, or in its decline?