Seminole Indians:
An Unconquered Tribe
Presented By: Shawna Soller (Editor), Denise Martinez (Researcher), Randall Smith
(Timeline Compiler) and Maggie Russell (Leader).
Table of Contents
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Title Page – Slide 1
Table of Contents – Slide 2
Time Line – Slide 3
General History – Slides 4 – 5
Global Impact – Slide 6
Famous People – Slides 7 - 10
Literature – Slides 11 - 14
Religion – Slide 15
War – Slides 16 – 20
Art – Slide 21
Architecture – Slide 22
Bibliography – Slides 23 - 25
Time Line
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1700’s – Seminole Tribe Unites
1804 – William Powell Born
1810 – Holata Micco Born
1812 – Juan Caballo Born
1817 – First Seminole War Began
1818 – First Seminole War Ended
1832 – Payne’s Landing Treaty Signed
1835 – Second Seminole War Began
1838 – William Powell Died at Fort Marion
1842 – Second Seminole War Ended
1855 – Third Seminole War Began
1856 – Seminole’s given the Indian Territory
1858 – Third Seminole War Ended
1864 – Holata Micco Died
1882 – Juan Caballo Died
1890 – Seminoles and Whites begin to trade peacefully
1907 – First Missionaries came to Seminole Lands
General History
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The word "Seminole" is derived from the Muskogee word
"simano-li," taken originally from the Spanish "cimmarron."
meaning wild or runaway.
The Seminole tribe came together in the 1700’s when groups of
Indians from the Southeast left their territory to flee from
enslavement. They settled in Florida which at the time was being
held by the Spanish. Later in 1817 the Seminoles were accused
of harboring runaway slaves. Because of this Andrew Jackson
commanded 3,000 troops to attack the Seminoles and burn their
land. This was the beginning of the First Seminole War. Shortly
after the war the Spanish gave Florida to the United States. This
sale meant the Seminoles had to live under the laws of the
United States. Later a treaty was agreed upon and gave the
Seminoles a reserved tract east of Tampa Bay, Florida.
General History
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In 1832 the Payne’s Landing Treaty took away all the land from the Seminole
Indians. Later in 1834 the treaty was changed which allowed the Seminoles three
years longer and then they were to leave. The Seminoles were angry with this
because the they were being removed three years from the original treaty and not
three years after the change. These problems resulted in the Great Seminole War.
The war lasted for nearly seven years and thousands of people died.
In 1842 an agreement was reached allowing for several hundred Seminole Indians
to remain in Florida. By 1856 the Seminoles were given Indian Territory which was
part of the Creek country that later became known as the Seminole Nation. Today
the Seminole Indians are recognized as one of five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma.
Global Impact
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The Seminole Indians are people that have left us with a lot of their
culture. Today most of the Seminole Indians reside in Oklahoma.
They have continued to make their Basketry which is from “sweet
grass” that has been made for the last 60 years. They also continue
their gorgeous bead work. Seminole woman wear a remarkable
twenty pounds of beads on them. There is also the Chickee style of
architecture which is palmetto thatch over a log frame. This type of
architecture came from the early 1800’s when the Seminole Indians
needed quick and disposable homes when they were on the run from
the United States troops. They also continue to make their dolls that
are dressed as original Seminole Indians were. Seminole children still
listen to the old storytellers tell their stories and legends of the
Seminole culture and life.
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We can learn a lot from the Seminole Indians. They were like African
American slaves, on the run and were out only for their freedom and
their land. From them we can learn about their lives so the people of
the future will not make the mistakes of the people of the past.
Famous People
Holata Micco “Billy Bowlegs”
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Famous for attacks during the 3rd
Seminole War.
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Assisted in negotiating land in
Evergreens.
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Noted for very good war tactics.
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Part of the “Cowkeeper Dynasty”.
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Emerged as leader during 2nd
Seminole War.
1810-1864
William Powell “Osceola”
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Had many names such as “Black
Drink”, “Asiyahola”.
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Lead 5 successful battles against
U.S. Generals.
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Estimated to have cost U.S. $50
million in the 8 year war.
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Punished own people if they
cooperated with the whites.
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Murdered the United States Indian
Agent.
1804-1838
Juan Caballo “Gopher John”
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Began life as a black slave to the
Seminole Indians.
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Later recognized as a Black
Seminole Warrior.
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Able to speak in 4 languages
fluently.
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Given title of Captain in Mexican
army.
1812-1882
Literature
The Rabbit and the Lion
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Famous story told to Seminole
Indian children.
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Explains why there are not lions
on our side of the earth.
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Speaks of the continent dividing
by the release of a rope.
The Milky Way
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Story regarding the life of
Seminoles.
Discusses that the “Milky Way” is
where good Indian spirits go.
Notes that the “Milky Way”
shines best when a tribe member
has died.
Milky Way patchwork
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Also called the “City in the Sky”.
Explains how a solar eclipse
occurs in Seminole tradition.
Seminole Creation Story
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Passed down from generation to
generation.
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Explains how animals were
brought to earth and named.
Seminole Tribe of Florida
Flag
Seminoles and Christianity
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In 1907, the first Indian missionaries
came to the Florida Seminoles living
near Indiantown east of Lake
Okeechobee. The missionaries were
Creek Baptist Indian missionaries
from Oklahoma. They spoke the
Creek or Muscogee language.
Black Seminoles inclined toward a
syncretic form of Christianity
inherited from the plantations.
Certain cultural practices, such as
jumping the broom to celebrate
marriage, hailed from the plantations;
other customs, such as the names
used for blacks' towns, clearly
echoed Africa.
Seminole Wars
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First Seminole War (1817-1818)
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The Second War (1835-1842)
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The Third War (1855- 1858)
First Seminole War
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The First Seminole War was started with the
invasion of eastern Florida by U.S. Army forces
under the command of General Andrew Jackson.
Andrew Jackson's army destroys crops, steals
livestock, and destroys Negro forts in the
Apalachicola and Suwannee River regions.
White settlers had previously attacked the Seminole
and the Seminole had retaliated.
The presence of runaway slaves and maroons living
among the Seminoles, a community known to
historians today as the Black Seminoles, was another
sore point.
The largest battle of the war, an engagement on the
Suwannee river, was between U.S. and black
warriors. Jackson's overall campaign scattered but
did not destroy the Black Seminole maroon
settlements of Florida, led to the confinement of the
Seminole Indians within a constricted area of the
interior, and secured American control of eastern
Florida, still nominally claimed by Spain.
Second Seminole War
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The Second Seminole War was fought by the
Seminole as guerrillas. Drawing from a population
of about 4,000 Seminole Indians and 800 Black
Seminole allies, there were at most 1,400 allied
Seminole warriors commanded by head chief
Micanopy, but led and inspired by Osceola.
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A major battle fought between the Seminole and
U.S. was the Battle of Lake Okeechobee in which
Colonel Zachary Taylor won a Pyrrhic victory over
the Seminole allies, claiming success even though
U.S. forces suffered greater casualties. Eventually
over 10,000 regulars and 30,000 militia served in
Florida during the conflict.
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Capture of Osceola under false flag of truce and
later died at Fort Marion.
Chief Osceola
Second Seminole War
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Seminole villages were destroyed
and their crops burned. Threatened
with starvation, the conflict came to
an untidy end on August 14, 1842,
although no peace treaty was ever
signed. Around 1,500 U.S. soldiers
had died during the conflict, mostly
from disease.
The U.S. government is estimated to
have spent at least $20,000,000 on
the war, at the time an astronomical
sum.
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Many Indians were forcibly exiled
to Creek lands west of the
Mississippi; others retreated into
the Everglades where they
became known as the
Miccosukee.
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About 500 Black Seminoles
emigrated west with the Seminole
Indians, with 250 of the blacks
receiving promises of freedom in
exchange for their surrender. In
the end, the U.S. government gave
up trying to subjugate the
Seminole in their Everglades
redoubts and left the remaining
Seminoles in peace.
Third Seminole War
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Third Seminole War was the final
clash over land between the
Seminole and white settlers.
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Third Seminole War, also known
as the Billy Bowlegs' War.
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By the time the conflict was
declared finished on May 8, 1858
there were fewer than 200
Seminoles in Florida -- and when
Bowlegs surrendered, he had only
forty warriors with him.
Art
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Basketry – The Seminole tribe has
been making baskets for many years.
According to www.seminoletribe.com,
the baskets were usually made of wild
sweet grass. ->
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<- Dolls – The Seminole tribe not
only made houses out of
palmettos, they also made dolls.
These dolls accurately portray the
clothing and hairstyles of
members of the tribe.
Beads – The women of the Seminole
Indians wore many strands of beads.
These beads were usually made
overseas. The were made of glass and
about the size of a pea. ->
Architecture
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The Seminole Indians needed a place to live that could be built very fast
and simple. This was due to the fact that the Seminole Indians were
usually being chased by US troops from place to place. The chickee was
developed as a primary dwelling for the Seminole tribe. According to
www.wikipedia.com, the word chickee is the Seminole word for
“house”. The chickee was used as both a dwelling and for utility
purposes. It consisted of a cypress log frame with palmetto leaves
thatched over it.
Bibliography
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"Florida Facts." Seminole Indians. 05 Oct. 2005
<http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/facts/history/seminole/wars.cfm>.
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"Wikipedia." Black Seminoles. 30 Nov. 2005
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Seminoles>.
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"Encyclopedia of the North America Indians." Seminole. Houghton Mifflin. 05 Oct. 2005
<http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/naind/html/na_035200_seminole.htm>.
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West, Jean. "Slavery In America." Seminole and Slaves: Florida;s Freedom Seekers. 05 Oct.
2005 <http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/history/hs_es_seminole.htm>.
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"The Seminole Tribe of Florida." 05 Oct. 2005 <seminoletribe.com>.
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Murray, Dru. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Florida History Native Peoples. 03 Oct. 2005
<http://www.abfla.com/1tocf/seminole/semhistory.html>.
Bibliography
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Gildewell, Jan. "St. Petersburg Times Turn." Osceola, ca. 1804-1838. 11 1999. St. Petersburg
Times. 03 Oct. 2005
<http://www.sptimes.com/News/112899/Floridian/Osceola__ca_1804_1838.shtml>.
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"Osceola." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. 03 Oct. 2005
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osceola>.
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Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "CABALLO, JUAN,“. 03 Oct. 2005
<http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/CC/fcacl.html.
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Welker, Glenn. "The Milky Way." Indigenous People Literature. 19 Oct. 2005
<http://www.indigenouspeople.net>.
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"Legends." Culture: Who We Are. Seminole Tribe of Florida. 19 Oct. 2005
<http://www.seminoletribe.com/culture/legends.shtml.>.
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“Billy Bowlegs." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. 03 Oct.
2005 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy-Bowlegs>.
Bibliography
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Wilkinson, Jerry. "History of The Seminole Indians." 01 Dec. 2005
<http://www.keyshistory.org/seminolespage1.html>.
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"Access Genealogy." Seminole Indian Tribe History. 01 Dec. 2005
<http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seminole/seminolehist.htm>.
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Native Americans. 01 Dec. 2005 <http://www.nativeamericans.com/Seminole.htm>.
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"The Seminole Tribe of Florida." 05 Oct. 2005 <seminoletribe.com>.
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Google Images. 01 Dec. 2005
<http://images.google.com/images?q=seminole+indians&ie=ISO->.
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