Seminole Indians: An Unconquered Tribe Presented By: Shawna Soller (Editor), Denise Martinez (Researcher), Randall Smith (Timeline Compiler) and Maggie Russell (Leader). Table of Contents Title Page – Slide 1 Table of Contents – Slide 2 Time Line – Slide 3 General History – Slides 4 – 5 Global Impact – Slide 6 Famous People – Slides 7 - 10 Literature – Slides 11 - 14 Religion – Slide 15 War – Slides 16 – 20 Art – Slide 21 Architecture – Slide 22 Bibliography – Slides 23 - 25 Time Line 1700’s – Seminole Tribe Unites 1804 – William Powell Born 1810 – Holata Micco Born 1812 – Juan Caballo Born 1817 – First Seminole War Began 1818 – First Seminole War Ended 1832 – Payne’s Landing Treaty Signed 1835 – Second Seminole War Began 1838 – William Powell Died at Fort Marion 1842 – Second Seminole War Ended 1855 – Third Seminole War Began 1856 – Seminole’s given the Indian Territory 1858 – Third Seminole War Ended 1864 – Holata Micco Died 1882 – Juan Caballo Died 1890 – Seminoles and Whites begin to trade peacefully 1907 – First Missionaries came to Seminole Lands General History The word "Seminole" is derived from the Muskogee word "simano-li," taken originally from the Spanish "cimmarron." meaning wild or runaway. The Seminole tribe came together in the 1700’s when groups of Indians from the Southeast left their territory to flee from enslavement. They settled in Florida which at the time was being held by the Spanish. Later in 1817 the Seminoles were accused of harboring runaway slaves. Because of this Andrew Jackson commanded 3,000 troops to attack the Seminoles and burn their land. This was the beginning of the First Seminole War. Shortly after the war the Spanish gave Florida to the United States. This sale meant the Seminoles had to live under the laws of the United States. Later a treaty was agreed upon and gave the Seminoles a reserved tract east of Tampa Bay, Florida. General History In 1832 the Payne’s Landing Treaty took away all the land from the Seminole Indians. Later in 1834 the treaty was changed which allowed the Seminoles three years longer and then they were to leave. The Seminoles were angry with this because the they were being removed three years from the original treaty and not three years after the change. These problems resulted in the Great Seminole War. The war lasted for nearly seven years and thousands of people died. In 1842 an agreement was reached allowing for several hundred Seminole Indians to remain in Florida. By 1856 the Seminoles were given Indian Territory which was part of the Creek country that later became known as the Seminole Nation. Today the Seminole Indians are recognized as one of five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma. Global Impact The Seminole Indians are people that have left us with a lot of their culture. Today most of the Seminole Indians reside in Oklahoma. They have continued to make their Basketry which is from “sweet grass” that has been made for the last 60 years. They also continue their gorgeous bead work. Seminole woman wear a remarkable twenty pounds of beads on them. There is also the Chickee style of architecture which is palmetto thatch over a log frame. This type of architecture came from the early 1800’s when the Seminole Indians needed quick and disposable homes when they were on the run from the United States troops. They also continue to make their dolls that are dressed as original Seminole Indians were. Seminole children still listen to the old storytellers tell their stories and legends of the Seminole culture and life. We can learn a lot from the Seminole Indians. They were like African American slaves, on the run and were out only for their freedom and their land. From them we can learn about their lives so the people of the future will not make the mistakes of the people of the past. Famous People Holata Micco “Billy Bowlegs” Famous for attacks during the 3rd Seminole War. Assisted in negotiating land in Evergreens. Noted for very good war tactics. Part of the “Cowkeeper Dynasty”. Emerged as leader during 2nd Seminole War. 1810-1864 William Powell “Osceola” Had many names such as “Black Drink”, “Asiyahola”. Lead 5 successful battles against U.S. Generals. Estimated to have cost U.S. $50 million in the 8 year war. Punished own people if they cooperated with the whites. Murdered the United States Indian Agent. 1804-1838 Juan Caballo “Gopher John” Began life as a black slave to the Seminole Indians. Later recognized as a Black Seminole Warrior. Able to speak in 4 languages fluently. Given title of Captain in Mexican army. 1812-1882 Literature The Rabbit and the Lion Famous story told to Seminole Indian children. Explains why there are not lions on our side of the earth. Speaks of the continent dividing by the release of a rope. The Milky Way Story regarding the life of Seminoles. Discusses that the “Milky Way” is where good Indian spirits go. Notes that the “Milky Way” shines best when a tribe member has died. Milky Way patchwork Also called the “City in the Sky”. Explains how a solar eclipse occurs in Seminole tradition. Seminole Creation Story Passed down from generation to generation. Explains how animals were brought to earth and named. Seminole Tribe of Florida Flag Seminoles and Christianity In 1907, the first Indian missionaries came to the Florida Seminoles living near Indiantown east of Lake Okeechobee. The missionaries were Creek Baptist Indian missionaries from Oklahoma. They spoke the Creek or Muscogee language. Black Seminoles inclined toward a syncretic form of Christianity inherited from the plantations. Certain cultural practices, such as jumping the broom to celebrate marriage, hailed from the plantations; other customs, such as the names used for blacks' towns, clearly echoed Africa. Seminole Wars First Seminole War (1817-1818) The Second War (1835-1842) The Third War (1855- 1858) First Seminole War The First Seminole War was started with the invasion of eastern Florida by U.S. Army forces under the command of General Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson's army destroys crops, steals livestock, and destroys Negro forts in the Apalachicola and Suwannee River regions. White settlers had previously attacked the Seminole and the Seminole had retaliated. The presence of runaway slaves and maroons living among the Seminoles, a community known to historians today as the Black Seminoles, was another sore point. The largest battle of the war, an engagement on the Suwannee river, was between U.S. and black warriors. Jackson's overall campaign scattered but did not destroy the Black Seminole maroon settlements of Florida, led to the confinement of the Seminole Indians within a constricted area of the interior, and secured American control of eastern Florida, still nominally claimed by Spain. Second Seminole War The Second Seminole War was fought by the Seminole as guerrillas. Drawing from a population of about 4,000 Seminole Indians and 800 Black Seminole allies, there were at most 1,400 allied Seminole warriors commanded by head chief Micanopy, but led and inspired by Osceola. A major battle fought between the Seminole and U.S. was the Battle of Lake Okeechobee in which Colonel Zachary Taylor won a Pyrrhic victory over the Seminole allies, claiming success even though U.S. forces suffered greater casualties. Eventually over 10,000 regulars and 30,000 militia served in Florida during the conflict. Capture of Osceola under false flag of truce and later died at Fort Marion. Chief Osceola Second Seminole War Seminole villages were destroyed and their crops burned. Threatened with starvation, the conflict came to an untidy end on August 14, 1842, although no peace treaty was ever signed. Around 1,500 U.S. soldiers had died during the conflict, mostly from disease. The U.S. government is estimated to have spent at least $20,000,000 on the war, at the time an astronomical sum. Many Indians were forcibly exiled to Creek lands west of the Mississippi; others retreated into the Everglades where they became known as the Miccosukee. About 500 Black Seminoles emigrated west with the Seminole Indians, with 250 of the blacks receiving promises of freedom in exchange for their surrender. In the end, the U.S. government gave up trying to subjugate the Seminole in their Everglades redoubts and left the remaining Seminoles in peace. Third Seminole War Third Seminole War was the final clash over land between the Seminole and white settlers. Third Seminole War, also known as the Billy Bowlegs' War. By the time the conflict was declared finished on May 8, 1858 there were fewer than 200 Seminoles in Florida -- and when Bowlegs surrendered, he had only forty warriors with him. Art Basketry – The Seminole tribe has been making baskets for many years. According to www.seminoletribe.com, the baskets were usually made of wild sweet grass. -> <- Dolls – The Seminole tribe not only made houses out of palmettos, they also made dolls. These dolls accurately portray the clothing and hairstyles of members of the tribe. Beads – The women of the Seminole Indians wore many strands of beads. These beads were usually made overseas. The were made of glass and about the size of a pea. -> Architecture The Seminole Indians needed a place to live that could be built very fast and simple. This was due to the fact that the Seminole Indians were usually being chased by US troops from place to place. The chickee was developed as a primary dwelling for the Seminole tribe. According to www.wikipedia.com, the word chickee is the Seminole word for “house”. The chickee was used as both a dwelling and for utility purposes. It consisted of a cypress log frame with palmetto leaves thatched over it. Bibliography "Florida Facts." Seminole Indians. 05 Oct. 2005 <http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/facts/history/seminole/wars.cfm>. "Wikipedia." Black Seminoles. 30 Nov. 2005 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Seminoles>. "Encyclopedia of the North America Indians." Seminole. Houghton Mifflin. 05 Oct. 2005 <http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/naind/html/na_035200_seminole.htm>. West, Jean. "Slavery In America." Seminole and Slaves: Florida;s Freedom Seekers. 05 Oct. 2005 <http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/history/hs_es_seminole.htm>. "The Seminole Tribe of Florida." 05 Oct. 2005 <seminoletribe.com>. Murray, Dru. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Florida History Native Peoples. 03 Oct. 2005 <http://www.abfla.com/1tocf/seminole/semhistory.html>. Bibliography Gildewell, Jan. "St. Petersburg Times Turn." Osceola, ca. 1804-1838. 11 1999. St. Petersburg Times. 03 Oct. 2005 <http://www.sptimes.com/News/112899/Floridian/Osceola__ca_1804_1838.shtml>. "Osceola." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. 03 Oct. 2005 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osceola>. Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "CABALLO, JUAN,“. 03 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/CC/fcacl.html. Welker, Glenn. "The Milky Way." Indigenous People Literature. 19 Oct. 2005 <http://www.indigenouspeople.net>. "Legends." Culture: Who We Are. Seminole Tribe of Florida. 19 Oct. 2005 <http://www.seminoletribe.com/culture/legends.shtml.>. “Billy Bowlegs." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. 03 Oct. 2005 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy-Bowlegs>. Bibliography Wilkinson, Jerry. "History of The Seminole Indians." 01 Dec. 2005 <http://www.keyshistory.org/seminolespage1.html>. "Access Genealogy." Seminole Indian Tribe History. 01 Dec. 2005 <http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seminole/seminolehist.htm>. Native Americans. 01 Dec. 2005 <http://www.nativeamericans.com/Seminole.htm>. "The Seminole Tribe of Florida." 05 Oct. 2005 <seminoletribe.com>. Google Images. 01 Dec. 2005 <http://images.google.com/images?q=seminole+indians&ie=ISO->.