Human Factors Training in
Aircraft Maintenance
LTT’s Blended Training Concept
Agenda
Why Human Factors Training
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
Application for Continuation Training
Cost consideration of the Blended Training approach
Questions and Answers
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 2
Why Human Factors Training
– Personnel development is a challenging task in MRO the industry
Human
Performance
Maintenance
Licence
Continuation
Training
Economic
Pressure
Qualification
Recording
Customer
Demand
Working
Conditions
Labour Market
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 3
Human Factors Blended Training
– Who in the Maintenance Organisation needs training?
Part 145
 Postholder, Manager and Supervisor
 Technicians, Mechanics,
 Planner, Engineers,
Part 66 Module 9
 Certfying Staff CAT A, B1, B2 Basic
Training
 Technical Record Staff
 Quality Control, Quality Assurance Staff
 Specialised Services Staff
 Human Factors Trainer
 Purchasing and Store Department Staff
Part 145.35 Continuation Training
 Ground Equipment operators
 Certfying Staff CAT A, B1, B2 & C
 Contract Staff in the above Categories
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 4
Agenda
Why Human Factors Training
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
Application for Continuation Training
Cost consideration of the Blended Training approach
Questions and Answers
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 5
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
– General Contractual Issues
 About 4,000 technical, management and
quality audit personnel to be trained by
September 2006
 The expected training concept must
 comply with applicable regulation
Part 66 M9 and Part145
 must provide means to evolve for
continuation training
 affect worker performance and
reduce failure cost
 Improve overall training cost by 20%
against the conventional training
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 6
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
– Pedagogy Issues
 Something new, not the same old 2-3 days
of instructor-led lecture / discussion
 Use of modern media adapted to our
customer’s IT standards
 Delivery system that adapts to individual
learner knowledge and experience,
 A means to ensure consistent delivery of
training contents for large target group
 A means to ensure delivery of training in
German, English or other languages
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 7
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
– Technical Issues
 Keeps student records in LTT Learning
Management System
 Transfer student records to customer’s
HR database
 eLearning portion must run as intranet
and internet application
 eLearning portion must have individual
pass worded sign-ons
 Training solution must meet all of the
above for Regulatory oversight
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 8
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
– Expected and Not-Expected Challenges
Development Phase
 Company Firewalls and dual service on
intranet and internet
 Record keeping on LTT and Customer
Human Resource database
 Participation of several customer groups
in formative evaluation
 Internal “Old School” politics
Initial implementation phase
 Motivation of work planners to allocate
time in the daily work schedule
 Trainees’ discipline to control learning
by themselves
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 9
Agenda
Why Human Factors Training
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
Application for Continuation Training
Cost consideration of the Blended Training approach
Questions and Answers
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 10
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
– A threefold approach
Highly interactive
Web Based Training
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 11
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
– Meeting the Module 9 Knowledge Requirements
 About six hours highly interactive web
based training
 Adapts to individual learner knowledge and
experience,
 A means to ensure consistent delivery of
training contents
 individual pass worded sign-ons and
transfer of records to customer’s HR
database
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 12
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
– On-line Qualification Exercises
 20 randomly selected questions generated from a large database
 The computer shows the correct answer and provides a link to the
associated training segment
 Retake the examination as often
as you wish to receive a preselected score of e.g. 75%
 Once 75 % achieved the name is
automatically transferred to a list of
participants qualified for the
workshop
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 13
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
– Objectives of the Day 2 Workshop
 To reinforce the information from the Web-based training
with practical demonstrations.
 To ensure that all maintenance human factors questions
and issues can be discussed.
 To demonstrate human factors concepts as:
 The Dirty Dozen in Action - a real scenario,
 Communication (Flight & Ground Crews)
 Exercises for maintenance incidents investigation with
attention to Contributing Factors and Corrective Actions
 Examination to fulfil Part 147 standards for approved
training
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 14
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
– What did we achieve so far?
Highly interactive
Web Based Training
 3,900 students automatically registered
into Learning Management System
 eLearning began about mid-March 2003
for first scheduled students,
 1st workshop took place May, 13th 2003
followed by three more test runs
 About 1,500 people will have attended
the one day workshop
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 15
Agenda
Why Human Factors Training
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
Application for Continuation Training
Cost consideration of the Blended Training approach
Questions and Answers
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 16
Application for continuation Training
– General Concept for Continuation Training
 New developments in the field of Human Factors
research and experience
 Analysis of errors and incidents in the individual
organisation
 Qualify HF personnel to apply the systematic
approach to analyse incidents and build
investigations exercises
 Train the trainer programme for HF Continuation
training concept
 Subscription for access to a pool of electronic
event investigation exercise
 Participation in continuation training workshops
once a year
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 17
Application for Continuation Training
– How to participate in event investigation exercise development
Selection
Analysis
Storyboard
Production
The concept of “Contributing Factors and Corrective Actions” has
been derived from :
 Dirty Dozen Concept from Transport Canada
 Maintenance Error Decision Aid (MEDA) from Boeing
 Corrective Action Plan from the US Nuclear Power Industry
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 18
Delivery
Customer
LTT
InfoWerk
Agenda
Why Human Factors Training
Customer Requirements for Human Factors Training
Human Factors Blended Training Concept
Application for Continuation Training
Cost consideration of the Blended Training approach
Questions and Answers
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 19
Saving opportunities through blended training solutions
– E. g about 20 % reduction in Human Factors training
35,000
30,000
Conventional
Blended Trng
25,000
22 % Cost
Reduction
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
Course Fee
Travel Exp.
Trng Time
Add. Staff
Total
Conservative consideration because not counting
 Benefits of using the “Teachable Moments” (learning time / pace / place)
 Review opportunities for trainees without an instructor
Human Factors Blended Training
LTT Customer Event
Mainz, Oct. 1st 2003 20
Cost Analysis
Instructor-Led Training vs. Blended Training vs. WBT
Life Span of Course
3 years
Number of Students
800
Student Learning Time in Classroom
Reduction in Seat Time
Student Target Group
14 hours (2 days)
50%
Techn./Flight Ops
Burdened Compensation for Instructor
€ 176
Burdened Compensation for Student
€ 172
Design, Development and Delivery Costs
for a 2-day Training
Development Costs to create courseware
Instructor-led
Training (ILT)
Blended
Training (1:1
WBT/ ILT)
Pure
WBT
€ 40.000
€ 110.000
€ 180.000
53
€ 23.320
€ 412.800
€ 456.000
53
€ 11.660
€ 206.400
€ 348.000
0
€0
€ 137.600
€0
€ 5.600
€ 2.464
€ 2.800
€ 1.232
€ 2.800
€ 616
€0
€0
€ 6.000
€ 6.000
€ 6.000
€ 6.000
€ 940.184
€ 692.092
€333.016
Delivery Costs
+ Number of ILT Sessions (800 : 15 students /session)
+ Instructor Costs (€ 176 x 2,5/1,25 days x 53 sessions)
+ Student Costs (€ 172 x 3/2/1 days x 800)
+ Travel Costs (air transportation (€ 300) / lodging
(€ 100/day) / meals (€ 35/day)  € 570/435/0 x 800)
+ Student Material (€ 7/3,5 x 800)
+ Student Administration (Registration, Testing,
Certificates) (53 sessions x 2/1/0,5 hours per student
 14/7/3,5 days x € 176
+ Technical Support
+ Updates to Technology
Total
Summary
– one opportunity to achieve flexibility in delivering training
Thank you for listening !
Are there any questions ?
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Human Resources in Line Mantenance