Preparing for the HSAP
English II
Information
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
Reading: Building Vocabulary
Writing: Developing Written Communications
Researching: Applying the Skills of Inquiry and Oral Communication
Reading: Understanding and Using
Literary Texts
Sample Question
Passionate Shepherd To His Love
Christopher Marlowe
Come live with me and be my Love,
And we will all the pleasures prove,
That hills and valleys, dales and field,
Or woods or steepy mountain yields.
What conclusion can be drawn from
the poem based on the essential
information in the passage?
A) The shepherd is rather old and near death.
D) The shepherd will spare no expense and will
go to any extreme in order to please his
Love.
D
A gown made of the finest wool,
Which from our pretty lambs we pull,
Fair lined slippers for the cold,
With buckles of the purest gold.
C) The shepherd has tried once before,
unsuccessfully, to get his Love to come live
with him.
Correct
And I will make thee beds of roses
And a thousand fragrant posies,
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle
Embroider`d all with leaves of myrtle.
B) The shepherd will move into a finer home
and make that home a place of his dreams.
The shepherd will spare no expense and will go to any extreme
in order to please his Love is suggested by references to
"bed of roses," "gold," "silver," and "ivory."
And we will sit upon the rocks
And see the shepherds feed their flocks,
By shallow rivers, to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Analogy: This is a comparison based on a similarity between things that are otherwise dissimilar.
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Allegory: This is a story with two or more levels of meaning--a literal level and a symbolic level--in which
events, setting, and characters are symbols for ideas or qualities. Antagonist: This is the person or force
that creates conflict for the main character in a literary work.
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Alliteration: This is the repetition of initial consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.
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Allusion: This is the reference to a person, place, or event from history, literature, or religion with which
a reader is likely to be familiar.
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Aside: This is a short speech delivered by an actor in a play which expresses the actor's thoughts. It is
usually directed to the audience and not heard by other actors.
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Audience: This is whoever will be reading or listening to a piece of work/speech.
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Analyze: This is to separate a whole into its parts.
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Antagonist: This is the person or force that creates conflict for the main character in a literary work.
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Author\'s Purpose: This is the reason for creating written work.
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Accuracy of Sources: This includes direct relation to the topic, currency of information, author's
expertise, reputation of publication, and inclusion of supporting information.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Character: This is an individual's mental
or moral quality
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•
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Dramatic Irony: This is when the audience or the
readers know something that the characters do not
know.
Characters: These are the people or
animals who take part in a literary work.
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Consumer: This is the customer who
purchases goods and services, not for
resale, but for his or her own use.
Dialect: This is a form of language that is
characteristic of a particular place or by a particular
group of people.
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Describing Words: Adjectives and adverbs may
be expressed in three ways to show comparisons.
The first is the positive degree which describes one
thing. Next is the comparative degree which is
used when comparing two things. This is formed by
adding "-er" to the word or by adding "more" before
the word. The third degree is the superlative
degree which is used to compare three or more
things. This is formed by adding "-est" to the word
or by using "most" in front of the word. Some words
are irregular and do not follow these rules Falling
Action: This is the part of the plot where the conflict
begins to be worked out and tensions lessen.
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Dynamic Character: This is a person in a fictional
work that changes during the course of the action.
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Detail: information used to support the main idea
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Diction: (See) Word Choice
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Cause And Effect: This is the relationship
between two or more events in which one
event brings about another.
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Conclusion: This wraps up a piece of
writing and reminds readers of the thesis.
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Conflict: This is the main problem in a
literary work.
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Characterization: This is the combination
of ways that an author shows readers what
a person in a literary selection is like.
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Climax: This is the part of the plot where
the conflict and tension reach a peak.
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Central Message: This is the theme of a
story, novel, poem, or drama that readers
can apply to life.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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•
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Expository Text: This is a mode of writing
whose purpose is to convey information or to
explain and establish the validity of an idea in a
logical, clear, and concrete manner.
Extended Metaphor: This is a sustained
comparison in which a subject is written or
spoken of as if it were something else.
Evidence: This is information that supports a
generalization.
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Euphemism: This is the substitution of an
agreeable or non-offensive phrase for one that
might be unpleasant or offensive.
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Fiction: This is writing that tells about imaginary
characters and events.
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Flashback: This is a scene, a conversation, or
an event that interrupts the present action to
show something that happened in the past.
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First Person: This is a point of view where the
narrator is a character in the story and refers to
him or herself with I.
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Figurative Language: This goes beyond the
literal meanings of words to create special
effects or feelings.
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Foreshadowing: This is the use of hints in
written works about what will happen later.
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Flat Character: This is a person in a fictional
work that is never fully developed by the author.
Essay: This is a short, nonfiction work about a
particular subject.
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•
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External Conflict: This is when a character has
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a problem with another character, nature,
society, or fate.
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Evaluate: This is placing a value or rank on a
piece of writing or speaking.
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Exposition: This is the part of the plot that
introduces the characters, the setting, and the
basic situation.
Genre: This is the category or type of literature.
Generalization: This is forming a broad concept
based on specific instances. Inductive reasoning
Hyperbole: This is extreme exaggeration used
in a literary work.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Idiom: This is a phrase in common use that can not be
understood by literal or ordinary meanings.
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Irony: This is the contrast between appearance and
reality or what is expected and what actually happens.
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Implied Meaning: This is a suggested, but not stated,
definition.
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Inform: This is to give information
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Interpretation: This is the explanation of the significance
or meaning of a work.
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Internal Conflict: This is when a character has a problem
within him or herself.
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Infer: This is to get a conclusion from the facts or context;
to figure out what is being implied by reading between the
lines.
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Imagery: This uses sensory images to help readers to
picture a person, a place, or an event. This is the use of
language that appeals to the five senses--touch, taste,
smell, hearing, and sight.
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Inference: This is reading between the lines. It is taking
something that you read and putting it together with
something that you already know to make sense of what
you read.
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Logic: This is the reasoning used
to reach a conclusion based on a
set of assumptions, or it may be
defined as the science of
reasoning, proof, thinking, or
inference.
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Literary Elements: These are
the components used together to
create a fictional piece of writing.
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Literary Device: A type of tool or
strategy to enhance an author's
style
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Limited Third Person: This is a
point of view where the narrator
relates the inner thoughts and
feelings of only one person.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Memoir: This is an account of the personal experiences of an author.
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Myth: This is a traditional tale about gods, goddesses, heroes, and other characters.
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Mood: This is the feeling that an author wants readers to have while reading.
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Metaphor: This is a direct comparison of two unlike things without using the words "like" or "as."
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Opinion: This is a statement that reflects a writer's belief about a topic , and it cannot be proved.
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Oxymoron: This is something which seemingly cannot be, yet it is; a contradiction.
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Outcome: This is how a problem is solved or what happens at the end of a story.
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Organization: In writing, this is the trait of order, structure and presentation of information; It is the
writing trait which measures logical sequencing of ideas, details, or events.
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Onomatopoeia: This is the use of words that sound like the noises they describe.
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Omniscient Third Person: This is a point of view where the narrator relates the inner thoughts and
feelings of each character.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Personification: This is a type of figurative language in which
human qualities are given to nonhuman things.
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Parody: This is a humorous imitation of a literary work that
exaggerates or distorts the characteristic features of the original.
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Protagonist: This is the main character in a literary work.
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Plot: This is the series of events that happen in a literary work.
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Predict: This is to declare or say in advance.
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Persuade: This is to convince.
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Point Of View: This is the perspective from which a story is told.
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Purpose: This is an author's intention, reason, or drive for writing
the piece.
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Problem-Solution: This method of structuring text focuses on
defining an issue, then gives a possible remedy for the issue.
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Paradox: This is a statement that leads to a contradictory
situation in which something seems both true and false.
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Public: A ________ document is one that is available freely in
the media, or which can be requested from a government or
other agency.
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Resolution: This is the
part of the plot where the
conflict is ended.
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Rising Action: This is
the part of the plot where
the conflict and
suspense build.
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Relevant: This is an
adjective that implies a
thing closely relates to or
is on the same subject
matter; appropriate to the
situation.
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Round Character: This
is a person in a fictional
work that is welldeveloped by the author.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Satire: This is writing that uses humor to ridicule or criticize individuals, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving
them.
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Subplot: This is a secondary plot in a work of literature that either explains or helps to develop the main plot.
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Source: A person, book, document, website or record that provides information.
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Situational Irony: This is when something happens that is the opposite of what was expected.
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Symbolism: This is the use of objects or ideas that represent something other than themselves.
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Sound Devices: These are the sounds of words that poets use to enrich their poetry. Symbol: This is a person,
place, thing, or event that represents something more than itself in a literary work.
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Static Character: This is a person in a fictional work that does not change during the course of the action.
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Setting: This is the time and place in which a literary work happens. Satire: This is writing that uses humor to ridicule
or criticize individuals, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving them.
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Simile: This is a comparison of two unlike things using the terms "like" or "as".
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Soliloquy: This is a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character who is alone on the stage.
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Style: This is the way an author expresses ideas through the use of kinds of words, literary devices, and sentence
structure.
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Sensory Details: These are images help the reader see or hear or feel things. These are details that appeal to the
senses.
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Supporting Evidence: These are the facts or details that back up a main idea, theme, or thesis.
Reading: Understanding and Using Literary Texts
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Text: This is the main body of a piece of writing or any of the various forms in which writing exists,
such as a book, a poem, an article, or a short story.
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Tone: This is the attitude that an author takes toward the audience, the subject, or a character.
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Theme: This is the message, usually about life or society, that an author wishes to convey
through a literary work.
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Universal Theme: This is the central message of a story, poem, novel, or play that many readers
can apply to their own experiences, or to those of all people.
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Verbal Irony: This is when someone says the opposite of what he or she really means.
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Word Choice: This is another way of saying "diction." This can help reveal a) the tone of the
work, b) connotations of meaning, and/or c) his style of writing.
Reading: Understanding and Using
Informational Texts
Sample Question
Almost all the surrounding towns have
started curbside recycling programs. That
is why I propose that our town adopt a
similar program.
Which propaganda technique is used in this speech?
Correct B
In the first line of the excerpt, the author states,
"Almost all surrounding towns have started curbside recycling programs."
This is an example of the bandwagon technique
because the author states that many other
people are doing the same thing.
A) transfer
B) bandwagon
C) name-calling
D) glittering generalities
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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Author\'s Purpose: This is the reason for creating written work.
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Accuracy of Sources: This includes direct relation to the topic, currency of information, author's
expertise, reputation of publication, and inclusion of supporting information.
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Afterward: This is a short conclusion to a book usually written by someone other than the author.
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Argumentation: This is the kind of writing that tries to persuade readers to accept an author's
opinions.
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Argument: This involves one or more reasons presented by a speaker or a writer to lead the
audience or reader to a logical conclusion.
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Bold Print: This is done to part of a text to makes it stand out as a darker, sharper image. It is an
organizational feature to locate specific information.
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Bias: This is a prejudice that is leaning toward a positive or negative judgment on something; a
personal judgment or opinion about a particular person, position, or thing.
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Bibliography: This is a list of written works or other sources on a particular subject.
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Bandwagon: This is a persuasive technique in which the speaker tries to convince his audience
that a product is good because "everyone" is buying it.
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Bibliographic Reference: This is a note or citation to a publication, book or article, etc.
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Believability: This is the ability to trust something as true or credible.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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Caption: This is the explanation that goes with a picture or illustration.
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Consumer: This is the customer who purchases goods and services, not for resale, but for his or her
own use.
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Central Message: This is the theme of a story, novel, poem, or drama that readers can apply to life.
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Constructed Response: This is a type of writing assignment given on the HSAP test that requires
students to "build" or respond to a reading passage. The response must give specific and relevant
examples from the passage. This type of writing uses a 3-point scoring rubric.
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Central Idea: The key point made in a written passage; the chief topic.
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Central Argument: This is the dominant and controlling argument.
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Cause And Effect: This is the relationship between two or more events in which one event brings about
another.
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Contrast: This is a method of relating how two or more elements or texts are DIFFERENT.
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Compare And Contrast: This is a method of relating two or more objects in a piece of work.
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Chronological Order: This is the arrangement of events in the order in which they occur.
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Compare And Contrast: This is a method of relating two or more objects in a piece of work.
•
Directions: These are the instructions that tell how to do something.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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Editorial: This is an article in a publication or a commentary on television or radio expressing the opinion
of its editors, publishers, station, or network.
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Expository Text: This is a mode of writing whose purpose is to convey information or to explain and
establish the validity of an idea in a logical, clear, and concrete manner.
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Experience: This is the name for what is gathered through the general process of living, or for the process
itself.
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Evidence: This is information that supports a generalization.
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Emotional Appeal: This is a type of persuasive technique in which writers or speakers appeal to fear,
anger, or joy to sway their audience.
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Environmental Print: Text and other graphic symbols that are part of the physical environment, such as
street signs.
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Functional Text: This is writing or text that is used in everyday life such, as signs, directions, letters, and
manuals.
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Faulty Cause and Effect: This propaganda technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause
B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one
caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion.
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Forward: This is a short, separated introduction to a book usually written by the author.
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False Analogy Technique: This is a propaganda technique in which two things that may or may not really
be similar are portrayed as being similar. When examining the comparison, you must ask yourself how
similar the items are. Usually there is simply not enough evidence available to support the comparison.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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Graph: Write
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Graphic Source: A visual
piece of information
•
•
•
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Generalization: This is
forming a broad concept
based on specific
instances. Inductive
reasoning
Glossary: This is a list
found in the back of a book
that gives definitions of
unusual or hard words
found in the text.
Graphic Organizer: This is
a pictorial way of
representing knowledge. It
is used to help organize
ideas and present
information.
Heading: This is a title or
subtitle at the beginning of a
chapter, section, or unit of a
text.
•
Introduction: This is the beginning of a written work that explains
what will be found in the main part.
•
Infer: This is to get a conclusion from the facts or context; to figure out
what is being implied by reading between the lines.
•
Illustration: A drawing, painting, photograph or other visual
representation made for explaining information or furthering
understanding of an idea.
•
Index: This is an alphabetical list of items contained in a printed work.
It is located in the back of the printed work and gives page numbers
where items may be found in the work. An alphabetical listing of
names and topics along with the page numbers where the topics or
names are discussed.
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Informational Text: This is a type of real-world writing that presents
information that is necessary or valuable to the reader.
•
Implicit Directions: Directions that are clearly stated step-by-step
within a passage.
•
Inform: To give information
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Italics: These should be used in lieu of underlining. Do this to most
titles of printed material and names of airplanes, trains & automobiles.
•
Internal Conflict: This is when a character has a problem within.
•
Inference: This is reading between the lines. It is taking something
that you read and putting it together with something that you already
know to make sense of what you read.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
•
Logic: This is the reasoning used to reach a conclusion based
on a set of assumptions, or it may be defined as the science of
reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference.
•
Layout: This is the physical arrangement of a text and graphics
on a page; and includes such elements as the ratio between
graphics and text, the fonts and font sizes used, and the
placement of text and graphics in relation to white spaces.
•
Loaded Language: These are words that have strong emotional
associations.
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Main Idea: This is the central and most important idea of a
reading passage.
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Nonfiction: This is factual writing that presents and explains
ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects, or events.
This is prose written with the primary purpose of explaining,
arguing, or describing in an objective, straightforward manner. It
includes such genres as 'biography' and 'autobiography'.
•
Name Calling: This propaganda technique consists of attaching
a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this
type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their
own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in,
they prefer to try to tear their opponent down.
•
Non-print Information: This can be found in resources other
than written materials.
•
Opinion: This is a
statement that reflects a
writer's belief about a
topic , and it cannot be
proved.
•
Order of Importance:
This is used when details
are organized by degree
of impact.
•
Organization: In writing,
this is the trait of order,
structure and presentation
of information; It is the
writing trait which
measures logical
sequencing of ideas,
details, or events.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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Plain Folks Technique: This is a propaganda technique that uses a folksy approach to convince
us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary
activities.
•
Predict: To declare or say in advance
•
Persuasive Techniques: These are techniques used to convince. They include repetition,
sentence variety, understatement, and overstatement.
•
Propaganda: This is information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause.
•
Prediction: This is the act of forecasting something that may (or may not) occur later.
•
Persuasive Technique: These are techniques used to convince. They include repetition,
sentence variety, understatement, and overstatement.
•
Primary Source: This is an original document or firsthand account.
•
Presentation: This is a prepared performance, report, or demonstration for an audience.
•
Public: A ________ document is one that is available freely in the media, or which can be
requested from a government or other agency.
•
Preface: This is a short introduction to a novel, play, or long poem usually written by the author. It
states the subject and/or purpose of the selection and gives background details.
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
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•
•
•
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Research: This is the
process of gathering,
evaluating, and
organizing information.
•
Secondary Source: This is a commentary on an original document or
firsthand account.
•
Skimming: This is reading or glancing quickly or superficially through
a text.
Repetition: This is a
persuasive technique in •
which a word, phrase, or
entire sentence is
repeated to reinforce the
•
speaker's message.
Reflective Writing: This
•
type of writing style is
characterized by deep,
thoughtful insights.
•
Relevant: This is an
adjective that implies a
thing closely relates to or •
is on the same subject
matter; appropriate to the
situation.
•
Reference: This is a
source used to find
information.
•
Spatial Order: This is used when details are organized from one
location to another.
Support: to strengthen or substantiate an argument or idea by
providing facts, details, examples and other information
Supporting Evidence: These are the facts or details that back up a
main idea, theme, or thesis.
Scanning: This is examining or reading quickly and selectively for a
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Side Bar: This is a short piece of informative or descriptive material
found next to a larger piece of writing, usually it is found in a box next
to the main article.
Snob Appeal: This is a propaganda technique used to make a person
desire to be a part of an elite, upper group and not part of the masses.
Stereotype: These are simplified images that narrowly define certain
groups of people
Reading: Understanding and Using Informational Texts
•
Transition: These are words, phrases or sentences that relate by linking larger segments of
writing.
•
Transitional Devices: These are connecting words used to link your sentences and paragraphs
together smoothly.
•
Transfer: This is a propaganda technique that is an attempt to move the prestige of a positive
symbol to a person or an idea.
•
Testimonial: This is a persuasive technique in which someone will testify that he used or bought
an advertised product which did indeed help, so it will work for the reader or audience, too.
•
Technical Writing: This is writing that communicates specific information about a particular
subject, craft, or occupation.
•
Thesis: In expository writing, this is the main point or central idea that a writer states and then
endeavors to prove valid by means of a systematic argument.
•
Thesis Statement: This is the way in which the main idea of a literary work is expressed, usually
as a generalization that is supported with concrete evidence.
•
Text Features: These are common parts of nonfiction texts and are often used to design and
organize pages. They help readers navigate the information and make predictions about what will
be read.
•
Table: A diagram made to visually organize data in rows and columns.
Short
Answer
Question
16. Which
type
of point of
View do
you enjoy
reading
and
why?
•
Writer writes from a personal
perspective using “I’ and “me.”
- first
•
person
The narrator is outside of the story
and reveals the thoughts feelings and
observations of all of the characters
and events in the story.
– omniscient
•
The narrator is outside of the story
and reveals the thoughts feelings and
observations of only one character.
– third-person limited
Reading: Building Vocabulary
Sample Question
A 19th century bacteriologist convinced the dental profession that
natural-hair toothbrushes eventually accumulated microscopic
bacterial and fungal growth.
What is the meaning of the root cent in the word
century as used in this sentence from the passage?
Correct D
The meaning of the root cent is one hundred.
A century is one hundred years.
A) ten
B) one
C) year
D) one hundred
Reading: Building Vocabulary
•
•
Affix: This is a syllable or word
element that can only occur in
front of a root or stem, or at the
end of a root or stem.
Ambiguity: This is the state of
having more than one possible
meaning which often leads to
misunderstanding because the
meaning is not clear.
•
Analyze: This is to separate a
whole into its parts.
•
Antonym: This is a word or
phrase that means the opposite
of another word or phrase.
•
Analogy: This is a comparison
based on a similarity between
things that are otherwise
dissimilar.
•
Base Word: This is a word to
which affixes may be added to
create related words, as 'group' in
'regroup' or 'grouping'.
•
Connotation: This is the emotional feelings and associations
that go beyond the dictionary definition of a word.
•
Concise Wording: This is the author's use of brevity when
writing.
•
Clarify: Reading and writing both involve the mental
processing of information which must be clarified and used in
ways to make this information understandable.
•
Context: This is the framework of meaning which surrounds a
specific word, sentence, idea, or passage.
•
Context Clues: These are in the text surrounding a word and
give hints for the meaning of the word.
•
Context Analysis: This is a method of breaking down the
meaning of a word (or phrase) by working with the text or
passage in which the word is used.
•
Dictionary: This is a reference book containing an
alphabetical list of words, with information given for each
word, usually including meaning, pronunciation, and
etymology.
•
Derivation: This is the formation of a word made from an
earlier word or from a root.
•
Decode: This is when we analyze a spoken or written word to
discover its pronunciation or meaning.
•
Denotation: This is the dictionary definition of a word.
Reading: Building Vocabulary
•
Evaluate: This is placing a value or rank
on a piece of writing or speaking.
•
Euphuism: This is the substitution of an
agreeable or non-offensive phrase for one
that might be unpleasant or offensive.
•
Etymology: This is the origin and history
of a word which shows the language or
languages from which it is borrowed.
•
Figurative Language: This goes beyond
the literal meanings of words to create
special effects or feelings.
•
Foreign Words: These used in English
are borrowed directly from other
languages.
•
•
Glossary: This is a list found in the back
of a book that gives definitions of unusual
or hard words found in the text.
General Dictionary: This is a common
reference book of words in alphabetical
order including information about their
meanings, pronunciation, and forms.
•
Homophones: These are words that are
pronounced the same, but have different
meanings.
•
Infer: This is to get a conclusion from the facts or
context; to figure out what is being implied by
reading between the lines.
•
Inference: This is reading between the lines. It is
taking something that you read and putting it
together with something that you already know to
make sense of what you read.
•
Idiom: This is a phrase in common use that can
not be understood by literal or ordinary meanings.
•
Implied Meaning: This is a suggested, but not
stated, definition.
•
Literal Meaning: This is the ordinary, usual, or
exact meaning of words, phrases, or passages. No
figurative language or interpretation is involved.
•
Literal Understanding: This is the act of taking or
perceiving something according to the usual,
ordinary or surface meaning.
•
Literature: This is the body of written works that
includes prose and poetry.
Reading: Building Vocabulary
•
Multiple-meaning Words: These are words
that have more than one definition. The
meaning of the word is determined by how it
is used in a sentence.
•
Metaphor: This is a direct comparison of
two things, in which they are said to be (in
some sense) the same thing.
•
Nuance: A subtle difference in meaning.
•
Purpose: This is an author's intention,
reason, or drive for writing the piece.
•
Pronunciation: This is the way a word or
language sounds when spoken.
•
Prefix: This can be added to the beginning
of a word to change the word's meaning.
•
Precise Vocabulary: This is a writing skill
which assures that students choose words
that exactly and accurately describe or
reflect the writer's meaning.
•
Root Word: This is a word related in origin,
as certain words in genetically related
languages descended from the same
ancestral word. It is also the part of the word
after all affixes have been removed.
•
Root Word: This is a word related in origin,
as certain words in genetically related
languages descended from the same
ancestral word. It is also the part of the word
after all affixes have been removed.
•
Related Words: These are words built on
the same root word.
Reading: Building Vocabulary
•
Theme: This is the message, usually about life or
society, that an author wishes to convey through a
literary work.
•
Thesaurus: This is a book of synonyms.
•
Terminology: This is the special or technical
vocabulary used in specific subjects or areas.
•
Universal Theme: This is the central message of
a story, poem, novel, or play that many readers can
apply to their own experiences, or to those of all
people.
•
Simile: This is a comparison of two unlike
things using the terms "like" or "as".
•
Speech: This is a talk or public address.
•
Syntax: This refers to the ordering of
elements in a sentence.
•
Stem: This is the part of a word to which we
attach an affix (prefix or suffix).
•
Synonym: This is a word or phrase that has
the same or almost the same meaning as
another word or phrase.
•
Usage: This is the way words and phrases are
utilized correctly in written or spoken language.
•
Suffix: This can be added to the end of a
word to change the word's meaning.
•
Vocabulary: All the words in a language; the
words used for a specific content or task.
Synonym: lexicon.
•
Strategy: This is any kind of mental action
used by a student to comprehend and make
meaning out of a reading text.
•
Word recognition: This is the ability to analyze
and interpret the graphic symbols for words. This
includes understanding as well as pronunciation.
Standard American English: This is the
version of the English language that is
regarded as the model in America for writers
and speakers who are considered educated.
•
Word Choice: This is another way of saying
"diction." This can help reveal a) the tone of the
work, b) connotations of meaning, and/or c) his
style of writing.
Specialized Dictionary: This is a book listing
words or other linguistic items in a particular
category or subject with specialized
information about them.
•
Word Origin: This tells when and how a word
originated and developed into modern English.
•
•
Writing: Developing Written
Communications
Sample Question
Asteroids
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior_Solar_System/Asteroid_belt
1 The first asteroids were named after mythical heroes and gods much like the major
planets. The first to be discovered (1) named Ceres after the Roman goddess of growing
plants (particularly grain) and of motherly love. The second asteroid discovered was
called Pallas named after one of the Greek gods of wisdom. Asteroids are also given a
number in the order of their discovery, so Ceres is 1, Pallas is 2, and so forth. As the
number of known asteroids increased, the supply of mythical names (2) so names from
other sources were used.
Look at the blank with the number (2) in the passage. Which of these
answers correctly completes the sentence?
Correct A
was exhausted,
agrees with the subject "supply" and employs the required past tense.
A) was exhausted,
B) were exhausted,
C) was exhausting,
D ) were exhausting,
Writing: Developing Written Communications
•
Conventions: In writing, this is the trait to measure
standard writing and the editing processes of spelling,
punctuation, grammar, capitalization, and paraphrasing.
•
Describe: This is to tell all about.
•
Dangling Modifiers: These are words or phrases that do
not modify ANY word in the sentence.
•
Edit: This is to correct and/or revise a piece of writing.
•
Explain: This is to tell how, what, when, where, etc.
•
Fluency: This is the ability to speak, read, or write a
language; automatic word recognition, decoding, and
checking for meaning.
•
Grammar: This is the structure of language and the rules
that go with it.
•
Misplaced Modifier: This a word or word group that sounds
unclear because it seems to describe the wrong word.
•
Modifiers: These are words or phrases that make the
intended meaning more specific.
•
Organization: In writing, this is the trait of order, structure
and presentation of information; It is the writing trait which
measures logical sequencing of ideas, details, or events.
•
Prewriting: This the first stage in
the writing process, used to focus
ideas and find good topics.
•
Persona: This is a speaker
created by a writer, not
necessarily the writer. It can
simply be the narrator. It involves
the characteristic speech and
thought patterns of a speaker.
•
Punctuation: This is the system
of standardized marks in written
language to clarify meaning.
•
Precise Vocabulary: This is a
writing skill which assures that
students choose words that
exactly and accurately describe
or reflect the writer's meaning.
•
Proofread: This is the process of
making marks on a written
document to correct errors.
Writing: Developing Written Communications
•
Relevant: This is an adjective that implies a
thing closely relates to or is on the same
subject matter; appropriate to the situation.
•
Revise: This is to make changes to a piece
of written work based on comments or new
evidence.
•
Revision: These are changes made to a
draft to improve its focus, content or
organization.
•
Sentence Variety: This is a writing skill
which assures that students write sentences
that differ in structure and length. It can be a
persuasive technique.
•
Standard American English: This is the
version of the English language that is
regarded as the model in America for writers
and speakers who are considered educated.
•
Voice: (1) This describes whether transitive
verbs have the subject performing the
action, or receiving the action. (2) This
involves the author's unique way of
communicating-of being heard. It is
associated with the basic vision of the writer
and reveals the individual quality that makes
the author's writing her own.
•
Word Choice: This is another way of saying
"diction." This can help reveal a) the tone of
the work, b) connotations of meaning, and/or
c) his style of writing.
Researching: Applying the Skills of
Inquiry and Oral Communication
Sample Question
Pet Dangers
Carole Jenkins
(4) It may seem perfectly harmless to toss a pet a grape or a raisin as a
treat, but these can be very deadly. (5) Although the exact cause is not
known, gastrointestinal problems result after a pet ingests grapes or
raisins. (6) Kidney failure frequently occurs.
(7) Flowering plants, when eaten by pets, can also be lethal. (8) Lilies are
especially toxic to cats by causing kidney failure. (9) Azaleas and
rhododendrons can lead to serious problems for dogs. (10) Vomiting,
diarrhea, and central nervous system problems can result.
(11) Small amounts of Xylitol, an artificial sweetener used in sugar-free
candy, chewing gum, cookies, and other baked goods, can cause low
blood sugar and liver damage in dogs. (12) It doesn't take much of this
stuff to cause serious problems.
(13) There are many other common household items that are hazardous to
pets. (14) All pet owners should educate themselves about these items
and the effects that they have on pets. (15)Every effort should be made
to "pet-proof" homes to provide safe and healthy environment for pets.
Where would this
article MOST LIKELY
be published?
A) in a book about poison control
B) in a book about training
household pets
C) in a magazine about pet
protection in the home
D) n a magazine about protecting
children from poisoned animals
Correct C
In a magazine about pet protection in the home because
sentences 2, 14, and 15 state the importance of this.
Everyone knows that a home should be "child-proof" to protect young babies
and toddlers from illness and injury. (2) Pets are also in danger from
many common household sources which many people don't realize. (3)
Pets can chew and swallow seemingly safe things, resulting in disaster.
Research
•
Accuracy of Sources: This includes direct
relation to the topic, currency of information,
author's expertise, reputation of publication, and
inclusion of supporting information.
•
Almanac: This is a magazine or book that
contains weather forecasts, statistics, or other
information of use or interest to readers.
•
Audience: This is whoever will be reading or
listening to a piece of work/speech
•
Analyze: This is to separate a whole into its
parts.
•
Annotation: This is the addition of explanatory
notes to a text by the author or editor, often to
explain or cite sources.
•
Author\'s Purpose: This is the reason for
creating written work.
•
Atlas: This is a book of maps.
•
Argument: The logical, systematic presentation
of reasoning and supporting evidence that
proves the validity of a statement or position.
•
Affix: This is a syllable or word element that can
only occur in front of a root or stem, or at the end of a
root or stem.
•Bias: This is a prejudice that is leaning
toward a positive or negative judgment
on something; a personal judgment or
opinion about a particular person,
position, or thing.
•Base Word: This is a word to which
affixes may be added to create related
words, as 'group' in 'regroup' or
'grouping'.
•Bibliography: This is a list of written
works or other sources on a particular
subject.
•Bibliographic Reference: This is a
note or citation to a publication, book or
article, etc.
Research
•
Critique: This is a written or spoken evaluation of what is
and is not effective in a literary work.
•
Concluding Sentence: This is the statement which
brings a paragraph to a close by restating the main idea.
•
Concise Wording: This is the author's use of brevity
when writing.
•
Citation: This is the notation of a source used for a paper.
•
Caption: This is the explanation that goes with a picture
or illustration.
•
Chronological Order: This is the arrangement of events
in the order in which they occur
•
Cognate: These are words that have a common origin.
•
Context: This is the framework of meaning which
surrounds a specific word, sentence, idea, or passage.
•
Cause And Effect: This is the relationship between two
or more events in which one event brings about another.
•
Context Clues: These are in the text surrounding a word
and give hints for the meaning of the word.
•
Compare And Contrast: This is a method of relating two
or more objects in a piece of work.
•
Derivation: This is the formation of a
word made from an earlier word or from
a root.
•
Dictionary: This is a reference book
containing an alphabetical list of words,
with information given for each word,
usually including meaning,
pronunciation, and etymology.
•
Decode: This is when we analyze a
spoken or written word to discover its
pronunciation or meaning.
•
End Note: This is reference,
explanation, or comment often placed
below the text on a page or at the end
of the text.
•
Footnote: This is a reference,
explanation, or comment placed below
the text on a printed page.
•
Foreign Words: These used in English
are borrowed directly from other
languages.
•
Implicit Directions: Directions that are clearly stated step-bystep within a passage.
•
Index: This is an alphabetical list of items contained in a printed
work. It is located in the back of the printed work and gives page
numbers where items may be found in the work.
•
Informational Text: This is a type of real-world writing that
presents information that is necessary or valuable to the reader.
•
Inference: This is reading between the lines. It is taking
something that you read and putting it together with something
that you already know to make sense of what you read.
•
Implicit Directions: Directions that are clearly stated step-bystep within a passage.
•
Literal Understanding: This is the act of taking or perceiving
something according to the usual, ordinary or surface meaning.
•
Literature: This is the body of written works that includes prose
and poetry.
•
Multiple Meaning Words: These are words that have more than
one definition. The meaning of the word is determined by how it is
used in a sentence.
•
Non print Information: This can be found in resources other than
written materials.
•
Order of Importance: This is used when details are organized by
degree of impact.
Research
•
•
•
•
General Dictionary: This is
a common reference book
of words in alphabetical
order including information
about their meanings,
pronunciation, and forms.
Graphic Organizer: This is
a pictorial way of
representing knowledge. It
is used to help organize
ideas and present
information.
Hypothesis: This is a term
used in research and is a
statement of what you
anticipate your research will
show.
Heading: This is a title or
subtitle at the beginning of a
chapter, section, or unit of a
text.
Research
•
Plagiarism: This is the use of someone else's
ideas or statements as if they were your own
and without giving proper credit.
Reference: This is a source used to find
information.
•
Research: This is the process of gathering,
evaluating, and organizing information.
•
Prediction: This is the act of forecasting
something that may (or may not) occur later.
•
•
Purpose: This is an author's intention, reason,
or drive for writing the piece.
Research Topic: This is a limited topic within
a general topic that can be adequately
covered within the length of a particular
assignment.
•
Precise Vocabulary: This is a writing skill
which assures that students choose words
that exactly and accurately describe or reflect
the writer's meaning.
•
Refine: This is to make improvements to a
piece of writing.
•
Relevant: This is an adjective that implies a
thing closely relates to or is on the same
subject matter; appropriate to the situation.
•
Resource: This is something that can be
used for support or to help.
•
Related Words: These are words built on the
same root word.
•
Root Word: This is a word related in origin,
as certain words in genetically related
languages descended from the same
ancestral word. It is also the part of the word
after all affixes have been removed.
•
•
•
Parts of Speech: These are the different
classes into which words are commonly
grouped according to their form, function or
meaning.
Presentation: This is a prepared
performance, report, or demonstration for an
audience.
•
Primary Source: This is an original document
or firsthand account.
•
Point Of View: This is the perspective from
which a story is told.
Research
•
Sequential Order: This is the chronological, or time, order of events in a reading passage.
•
Spatial Order: This is used when details are organized from one location to another.
•
Strategy: This is any kind of mental action used by a student to comprehend and make meaning
out of a reading text.
•
Structure: This refers to a writer's arrangement or overall design of a literary work. It is the way
words, sentences, and paragraphs are organized to create a complete work.
•
Speech: This is a talk or public address.
•
Suffix: This can be added to the end of a word to change the word's meaning.
•
Specialized Dictionary: This is a book listing words or other linguistic items in a particular
category or subject with specialized information about them.
•
Supporting Evidence: These are the facts or details that back up a main idea, theme, or thesis.
•
Structure: This refers to a writer's arrangement or overall design of a literary work. It is the way
words, sentences, and paragraphs are organized to create a complete work.
•
Synonym: This is a word or phrase that has the same or almost the same meaning as another
word or phrase.
•
Secondary Source: This is a commentary on an original document or firsthand account.
Research
•
Thesis Statement: This is the way in which the
main idea of a literary work is expressed, usually as
a generalization that is supported with concrete
evidence.
•
Transition: These are words, phrases or sentences
that relate by linking larger segments of writing.
•
Theme: This is the message, usually about life or
society, that an author wishes to convey through a
literary work.
•
Table Of Contents: This is a section found at the
beginning of a text that lists the topics and page
numbers in the order in which they occur in the text.
•
Tone: This is the attitude that an author takes
toward the audience, the subject, or a character.
•
Technical Writing: This is writing that
communicates specific information about a
particular subject, craft, or occupation.
•
Transitional Devices: These are connecting words
used to link your sentences and paragraphs
together smoothly.
•
Universal Theme: This is the central message of a
story, poem, novel, or play that many readers can
apply to their own experiences, or to those of all
people.
•
Vocabulary: All the words in a
language; the words used for a
specific content or task. Synonym:
lexicon.
•
Voice: This describes whether
transitive verbs have the subject
performing the action, or receiving the
action.
•
Word Recognition: This is the ability
to analyze and interpret the graphic
symbols for words. This includes
understanding as well as
pronunciation.
•
Word Choice: This is another way of
saying "diction." This can help reveal
a) the tone of the work, b)
connotations of meaning, and/or c)
his style of writing.
•
Works Cited: This is a list with
author, title and publication details of
the works (the books, articles, etc.) a
researcher used to write a paper.
This is an informational list at the end
of a research paper to credit sources.
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