Introduction to Project
Management
Chapter 8
Managing Project Quality
Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, 1e
Fuller/Valacich/George
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Quality
• According to PMBOK, project quality is defined
as “the degree to which a set of inherent
characteristics fulfill requirements.”
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Importance of Quality
• Determined by industry or tolerance for error
• Critical: health or safety related
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Quality Within Project Management
• Required in all stages
– Initiation and closure
• Goals and level of achievement (lessons learned)
– Planning
• Determine ways to control quality
– Execution and control
• Feedback mechanisms to monitor and adjust
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Quality
• Can Be Applied To:
– The project team
• Sets performance expectations
– Processes
• Identifies ways to control quality
– Success level
• Allows team to determine the level of quality attainment
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Pioneers in Quality Management
• Deming
– 14 points of quality
• Juran
– Pareto Principle (80/20 rule)
• Crosby
– 4 absolutes of quality management
• Ishikawa
– Cause and effect diagram (Fishbone diagram)
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Crosby: Four Absolutes of
Quality Management
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Balanced Scorecard
• Developed by Kaplan & Norton
• 4 views of organizational activity
– Learning and Growth
– Business Process
– Customer
– Financial
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Quality Standards
• ISO9000
– Quality management focus
• Customer quality requirements
• Regulatory requirements
• Enhance customer satisfaction
• Continual improvement
• Six Sigma
– To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce
more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities
– Champion, Master Black Belt, Black Belt, Green Belt
proficiency designations
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•ISO 9000 Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary
•ISO 9001 Quality management systems – Requirements
•ISO 9004 Managing for the sustained success of an organization – A quality management approach
•ISO 9050 Glass in building – Determination of light transmittance, solar direct transmittance, total solar energy transmittance,
•ISO 9069 Information processing – SGML support facilities – SGML Document Interchange Format (SDIF)
•ISO/IEC 9075 Information technology – Database languages – SQL
•ISO/IEC 9126 Software engineering – Product quality
•ISO 9141 Road vehicles – Diagnostic systems[Note 3]
•ISO 9141-2 CARB requirements for interchange of digital information
•ISO 9141-3 Verification of the communication between vehicle and OBD II scan tool
•ISO 9241 Ergonomics of human-system interaction
•ISO/IEC 9293 Information technology – Volume and file structure of disk cartridges for information interchange
•ISO 9362 Banking – Banking telecommunication messages – Business identifier code (BIC)
•ISO 9407 Shoe sizes – Mondopoint system of sizing and marking
•ISO/IEC 9541 Information technology – Font information interchange
•ISO/IEC 9541-1:1991 Architecture
•ISO/IEC 9541-2:1991 Interchange Format
•ISO/IEC 9541-3:1994 Glyph shape representation
•ISO/IEC 9541-4:2009 Harmonization to Open Font Format
•ISO 9564 Financial services – Personal Identification Number (PIN) management and security[Note 3]
•ISO/IEC 9579 Information technology – Remote database access for SQL with security enhancement
•ISO/IEC 9592 Information technology – Computer graphics and image processing – Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS)
•ISO/IEC 9593 Information technology – Computer graphics – Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) language bindings [Note 3]
•ISO/IEC 9594 Information technology – Open Systems Interconnection – The Directory
•ISO/IEC 9636 Information technology - Computer graphics - Interfacing techniques for dialogues with graphical devices (CGI) - Functional specification
•ISO 9660 Information processing – Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information interchange
•ISO 9712 Non-destructive testing - Qualification and certification of NDT personnel
•ISO/IEC 9796 Information technology – Security techniques – Digital signature schemes giving message recovery
•ISO/IEC 9797 Information technology – Security techniques – Message Authentication Codes (MACs)
•ISO/IEC 9797-1 Mechanisms using a block cipher
•ISO/IEC 9797-2 Mechanisms using a dedicated hash-function
•ISO/IEC 9798 Information technology – Security techniques – Entity authentication
•ISO/IEC 9834 Information technology – Open Systems Interconnection – Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities
•ISO 9869 Thermal insulation – Building elements – In-situ measurements of thermal resistance and thermal transmittance
•ISO/IEC 9899 Programming languages – C
•ISO/IEC/IEEE 9945 Information technology – Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX®) Base Specifications, Issue 7
•ISO 9984 Information and documentation – Transliteration of Georgian characters into Latin characters
•ISO 9985 Information and documentation – Transliteration of Armenian characters into Latin characters
•ISO 9992 Financial transaction cards – Messages between the integrated circuit card and the card accepting device
•ISO/IEC 9995 Information technology – Keyboard layouts for text and office systems
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•ISO 9999 Assistive products for persons with disability – Classification and terminology
Certificates/Awards
• Baldridge National Quality Program
– Designed to encourage organizations increase their
competitiveness by focusing on:
• Delivering ever improving value to customers
• Improving overall organizational performance
• Total Quality Management (TQM)
– A description of the culture, attitude, and organization
of a company that strives to provide customers with
products and services that satisfy their needs
– Emphasizes processes being done right the first time
and defects and waste eradicated from operations
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Quality
• Where do you focus?
• How do you measure?
• What is the return on investment?
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Quality Planning
• Quality planning
– The process of identifying relevant quality standards
and developing a plan to ensure the project meets
those standards
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Quality Planning – Inputs
• Enterprise factors
– Government regulations
– Standards or rules specific to organization’s product
or service
• Organizational process assets
– Quality policies/procedures/guidelines
– Lessons learned
• Project scope statement
• Project management plan
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Quality Planning – Techniques
• Cost/benefit analysis
– An evaluation of the costs and benefits of alternative
approaches to a proposed activity to determine the
best alternative
• Benchmarking
– Study of a competitor’s product or business practices
in order to improve the performance of one’s own
company
• Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
– Used to determine an organization’s capability with
respect to best practices within a specific industry
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Quality Planning – Techniques (cont.)
Capability Maturity Model
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Quality Planning – Techniques (cont.)
• Design of experiments
– Application of selected statistical techniques to test
the efficiency of certain project management
approaches by testing factors that may influence a
specific variable
– http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c030106a.as
p
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Business class seats sold on its off-peak flights
Key factors were identified as advertising level and pricing strategy
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Quality Planning – Techniques
(cont.)
• Cost of quality analysis (COQ)
– Cost to improve or ensure quality measures, as well
as the cost associated with a lack of quality
– The "cost of quality" isn't the price of creating a quality
product or service. It's the cost of NOT creating a
quality product or service.
– Every time work is redone, the cost of quality
increases. Obvious examples include:
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The reworking of a manufactured item.
The retesting of an assembly.
The correction of a bank statement.
The reworking of a service, such as the reprocessing of a loan operation or
the replacement of a food order in a restaurant.
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• Prevention Costs
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New product review
Quality planning
Supplier capability surveys
Process capability evaluations
Quality improvement projects
Quality Costs
• Appraisal Costs
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Incoming and source inspection/test of purchased material
In-process and final inspection/test
Calibration of measuring and test equipment
Associated supplies and materials
• Failure Costs
• Internal Failure Costs
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Scrap
Rework
Re-testing
Downgrading
• External Failure Costs
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Processing customer complaints
Customer returns
Warranty claims
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Product recalls
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Types of Quality Costs
Types of Cost
Examples
Cost of conformance
Prevention costs
Costs of training staff in design methodologies
Appraisal costs
Code inspection and testing
Cost of non-conformance
Internal failure costs
Costs of rework in programming
External failure costs
Costs of support and maintenance
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Reducing Software Quality Costs
• Avoiding any failure costs by driving defects to
zero
• Investing in prevention activities to improve
quality
• Reducing appraisal costs as quality improves
• Continuously evaluating and altering preventive
efforts for more improvement
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Quality Planning – Outputs
• Quality management plan
– A plan specifying how quality measures will be
implemented during a project
• Quality metrics
– Operational definitions of specific, processes, events,
or products, as well as an explanation of how they will
be measured in terms of quality
• Quality checklists
– Tools used to ensure that a specific set of actions has
been correctly performed
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Quality Planning – Outputs (cont.)
• Process improvement plan
– A plan specifying how to identify wasteful and nonvalue added activities
• Quality baseline
– The basis for which project quality is measured and
reported
• Updates to project management plan
– Incorporation of quality management plan outputs into
project management plan
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Quality Assurance
• The process of ensuring that the project meets
the quality standards outlined during the quality
planning phase
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Quality Assurance – Inputs
• Quality management plan
• Quality metrics
• Process improvement plans
• Work performance information
• Approved change requests
• Quality control measures
• Implemented
– change requests
– corrective actions
– defect repairs
– preventive actions
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Quality Assurance –
Tools & Techniques
• Quality planning tools and techniques can be
applied
• Quality audits
– Structured and independent review activities
designed to review other quality management
procedures and to identify potential lessons learned
• Process analysis
– Examines how a process is performed
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Quality Assurance – Outputs
• Requested changes
• Recommended corrective actions
• Updates to organizational process assets
• Updates to the project management plan
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Quality Control
• The monitoring of project activities in order to
determine if specified quality standards are
being met
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Quality Control – Inputs
• Quality management plan
• Quality metrics
• Quality checklists
• Organizational process assets
• Work performance information
• Approved change requests
• Deliverables
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Work Performance Information
• Status summaries of:
– Project deliverables
– Any collected performance measures
– Implemented changes from the original project
management plan
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Quality Control –
Tools & Techniques
• Cause and effect diagrams (Ishikawa)
• Control charts
• Pareto charts
• Flowcharts
• Histogram
• Run chart
• Scatter diagram
• Statistical sampling
• Inspection review
• Defect repair review
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Ishikawa (fishbone) Diagram
Sample
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Control Chart Sample
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Causes of fluctuation
Common causes e.g. known machine variances,
differences between machines
Special causes e.g. dropped processes, improper
material configuration
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Statistical Process Control: Western Electric Rules
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Pareto Chart
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Quality Control – Outputs
• Quality control measurements
• Validated defect repair
• Updates to the quality baseline
• Recommended correction actions
• Recommended preventative actions
• Requested changes
• Recommended defect repair
• Updates to organizational process assets
• Validated deliverables
• Updates to project management plan
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Questions?
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