LO-2: Product Data
Standards
Lecturer: Ricardo Gonçalves
Contents
• PD Standards: History and Organizations
• ISO organization
– Structure
– TC184/SC4
• ISO 10303 (STEP)
– Basics
– Application Protocols and Modular STEP
– Pros and Cons
• Other Reference Standards
2
Standards development and standards setting
Developed nations and industries created a global,
sophisticated, consensus-based process that was very
successful in building needed standards.
Stakeholders recognized need for global (vice
national/regional) implementation and created
Organizations (SSO) for that purpose:
• ISO “International Organization for Standardization”
• ITU “International Telecommunication Union”
• IEC “International Electrotechnical Commission”
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
3
Brief Overview of Recent History
• Early 1980’s – century-long process of rapid evolution in standards setting culminated
in an orderly, hierarchical, global infrastructure that became a mature and respected
industry in its own right.
• Broad and deep infrastructure
• Covering all types of manufacturing, telecommunications, and technology
• Up to then, it served industry and society well -- but it then failed to adequately
accommodate the first wave of IT-based innovation and creativity
• Late 1980’s – Revolutionary changes such as consortia being used as a new type of
standards development organization (SDO).
• 1990’s – Convergence of IT, Communications and industry sectors
• Fragmentation of standardization
• Today – Infrastructure continues to serve traditional industry well, but is being
abandoned by some who want new IT standards.
• Generates global fragmentation in standards setting
• Some consortia became indistinguishable from traditional de jure SDO/SSO (e.g.,
IETF, W3C, OASIS, OMG)
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
4
Standards Universe
Consortia
Government
Industry
Associations
UN
Professional
Societies
5
Organization Examples
•
Voluntary vs. Involuntary standards
– Voluntary: consumer chooses
– Involuntary: government regulation/law
•
Treaty vs. non-treaty organizations
– Treaty: e.g., UN, ITU, G7, NAFTA
– Non-Treaty: e.g., ISO, IEC, IEEE
•
Standards setting organizations
– Accredited: e.g., ISO, IEC, BSI, DIN, CSA, JIS, ANSI, IEEE, UL, NFPA, SAE,
ASTM, INCITS, CEN
•
Specification development organizations
– Non-accredited: e.g., IETF (internet), W3C, OMG, ATM Forum, Open Group,
OASIS, IRDA, DAVIC, consortia
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
6
ISO Organization
International Organization for Standardization
(www.iso.org)
ISO Background
•
The "International Organization for Standardization" would have
different abbreviations in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in
French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), it was decided
at the outset to use a word derived from the Greek isos, meaning
"equal". Therefore, whatever the country, whatever the language, the
short form of the organization's name is always ISO.
•
International standardization began in the electrotechnical field: the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was established in
1906. Pioneering work in other fields was carried out by the
International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations
(ISA), which was set up in 1926. The emphasis within ISA was laid
heavily on mechanical engineering. ISA's activities came to an end in
1942.
•
In 1946, delegates from 25 countries met in London and decided to
create a new international organization, of which the object would be
"to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial
standards". The new organization, ISO, officially began operations on
23 February 1947.
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
8
ISO Structure
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
9
National Member Bodies (107)
Algeria (IANOR)
Argentina (IRAM)
Armenia (SARM)
Australia (SA)
Austria (ON)
Azerbaijan (AZSTAND)
Bahrain (BSMD)
Bangladesh (BSTI)
Barbados (BNSI)
Belarus (BELST)
Belgium (IBN)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BASMP)
Botswana (BOBS)
Brazil (ABNT)
Bulgaria (BDS)
Canada (SCC)
Chile (INN)
China (SAC)
Colombia (ICONTEC)
Costa Rica (INTECO)
Croatia (HZN)
Cuba (NC)
Cyprus (CYS) Czech Republic (CNI)
Côte-d'Ivoire (CODINORM)
Denmark (DS)
Ecuador (INEN)
Egypt (EOS)
Ethiopia (QSAE)
Fiji (FTSQCO)
Finland (SFS)
France (AFNOR)
Germany (DIN)
Ghana (GSB)
Greece (ELOT)
Hungary (MSZT)
Iceland (IST)
India (BIS)
Indonesia (BSN)
Iran, Islamic Republic of (ISIRI)
Iraq (COSQC)
Ireland (NSAI)
Israel (SII)
Italy (UNI)
Jamaica (JBS)
Japan (JISC)
Jordan (JISM)
Kazakhstan (KAZMEMST)
Kenya (KEBS)
Korea, Democratic People's Republic (CSK)
Korea, Republic of (KATS)
Kuwait (KOWSMD)
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (LNCSM)
Luxembourg (SEE)
Malaysia (DSM)
Malta (MSA)
Mauritius (MSB)
Mexico (DGN)
Mongolia (MASM)
Morocco (SNIMA)
Netherlands (NEN)
New Zealand (SNZ)
Nigeria (SON)
Norway (SN)
Oman (DGSM)
Pakistan (PSQCA)
Panama (COPANIT)
Philippines (BPS)
Poland (PKN)
Portugal (IPQ)
Qatar (QS)
Romania (ASRO)
Russian Federation (GOST R)
Saint Lucia (SLBS)
Saudi Arabia (SASO)
Serbia and Montenegro (ISSM)
Singapore (SPRING SG)
Slovakia (SUTN)
Slovenia (SIST)
South Africa (SABS)
Spain (AENOR)
Sri Lanka (SLSI)
Sudan (SSMO)
Sweden (SIS)
Switzerland (SNV)
Syrian Arab Republic (SASMO)
Tanzania, United Republic of (TBS)
Thailand (TISI)
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia (ISRM)
Trinidad and Tobago (TTBS)
Tunisia (INNORPI)
Turkey (TSE)
USA (ANSI)
Ukraine (DSSU)
United Arab Emirates (ESMA)
United Kingdom (BSI)
Uruguay (UNIT)
Uzbekistan (UZSTANDARD)
Venezuela (FONDONORMA)
Viet Nam (TCVN)
Zimbabwe (SAZ)
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
10
Corresponding Members (47)
Afghanistan (ANSA)
Albania (DPS)
Angola (IANORQ)
Benin (CEBENOR)
Bhutan (SQCA)
Bolivia (IBNORCA)
Brunei Darussalam (CPRU)
Burkina Faso (FASONORM)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of (OCC)
Dominican Republic (DIGENOR)
El Salvador (CONACYT)
Eritrea (ESI)
Estonia (EVS)
Guatemala (COGUANOR)
Guinea (INM)
Guinea-Bissau (DSNPQ)
Hong Kong, China (ITCHKSAR)
Kyrgyzstan (NISM)
Latvia (LVS)
Lebanon (LIBNOR)
Lithuania (LST)
Macau, China (CPTTM)
Madagascar (BNM)
Malawi (MBS)
Mali (MLIDNI)
Moldova, Republic of (MOLDST)
Mozambique (INNOQ)
Myanmar (MSTRD)
Namibia (NSIQO)
Nepal (NBSM)
Nicaragua (DTNM)
Niger (DNQM)
Palestine (PSI)
Papua New Guinea (NISIT)
Paraguay (INTN)
Peru (INDECOPI)
Rwanda (RBS)
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (SVGBS)
Senegal (ASN)
Seychelles (SBS)
Swaziland (SQAS)
Tajikistan (TJKSTN)
Togo (CSN)
Turkmenistan (MSIT)
Uganda (UNBS)
Yemen (YSMO)
Zambia (ZABS)
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
11
ISO Structure
TC184/SC4
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
12
Technical Management Board
•
To report to and, when relevant, advise Council on all matters concerning the
organization, coordination, strategic planning, and programming of the technical work
of ISO.
•
To examine proposals for new fields of ISO technical activity, and to decide on all
matters concerning the establishment and dissolution of technical committees.
•
On behalf of ISO, to keep the ISO/IEC Directives for the technical work under review,
to examine and coordinate all proposals for amendments and to approve appropriate
revisions.
•
To establish (and dissolve) Technical Advisory Groups (TAG) in order to obtain expert
advice, and to appoint their members and chairmen.
•
To appoint registration authorities and maintenance agencies for the
implementation of International Standards.
•
To establish (and dissolve) committees on general standardization principles and
to appoint their chairmen.
13
ISO/TC 184: Industrial data systems and integration
Mission:
•
Develop and promulgate standards for the representation of scientific, technical
and industrial data.
•
Develop methods for assessing conformance to these standards, and to provide
technical support to other organizations seeking to deploy such standards in industry.
•
Provide implementable specifications, in the form of international standards that will
support the requirements for product model data and enable electronic
commerce among the virtual, collaborative enterprises of the 21st century.
ISO
TC 184
Technical Committee 184 for Industrial
Automation Systems and Integration
SC1 Subcommittee 1
for Physical
Device Control
SC2 Subcommittee 2
for Robots for
Manufacturing
Environments
SC4 - Subcommittee 4 for
Industrial Data
...
SC5 - Subcommittee 5
for Architecture,
Communications &
Integration Framework
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
14
What is Industrial Data?
• Long life span – 30 to 50 years
• Related to large, complex products, needing configuration
management
• Must have component libraries for
– Different views such as geometry and metadata
– Different forms of lists - explicit, algorithm, class
• Need a simple model of data warehousing
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
15
Industrial Data Exchange / Sharing
• Industry requires complete, accurate and timely data
exchange and use
– Between all the participants in a value chain
– Throughout the entire life cycle
– Across all business functions
• The exchange/sharing of the data must use:
–
–
–
–
Consistent models
Common vocabulary
Consistent reference data
Information quality
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
16
TC184/SC4 Goals
•
Creation and maintenance of standards that
– enable the capture of information comprising a computerized product model in a
neutral form without loss of completeness and integrity throughout the lifecycle of
the product
•
Specific objectives include:
– flexibility to permit expansion without invalidating existing portions of the
standard;
– efficiency for processing, communication, and storage;
– rigorous and unambiguous documentation;
– the minimum possible set of data elements;
– separation of data content from physical format, that is a clear separation
between format and instances;
– a logical classification of data elements;
– compatibility with other existing relevant standards;
– implementability;
– testability.
* Courtesy of ISO TC184-SC4
Jerry Smith and Chris Kreiler (DoD, USA)
17
TC184/SC4 Families of Standards
Name
ISO number
Title
Standard for the exchange of product model data
STEP
ISO 10303
PLIB
ISO 13584
MANDATE
ISO 15531
OIL & GAS
ISO 15926
PSL
ISO 18629
Parts Library
Industrial manufacturing management data
exchange, in the annex the titles of the standards
delivered
Integration of Life-cycle Data for Oil and Gas
Production
Process specification language
Technical Specifications: integration of industrial
data for exchange, access, and sharing
IIDEAS
ISO 18876
OTD
ISO 22745
…
…
Open technical dictionary
….
18
ISO 10303 (STEP)
Standard for the Exchange of Product data
What is STEP – ISO 10303?
• ISO 10303, also known as STEP (Standard for the Exchange of
Product data) is a multi-part open-standard for the computerinterpretable representation of product information and for the
exchange of product data under the manufacturing domain.
[ISO 10303 is an International Standard for the computer-interpretable representation of product
information and for the exchange of product data. The objective is to provide a neutral mechanism
capable of describing products throughout their life cycle. This mechanism is suitable not only for
neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases, and as
a basis for archiving.]*
*from ISO 10303-1
International Standard
product information
computer-interpretable representation
exchange of product data. …neutral mechanism
products throughout their life cycle
basis for implementing and sharing product databases
basis for archiving
20
STEP Family of Standards
The structure of this International Standard is described in ISO 10303-1. The numbering of the parts of the International Standard reflects its
structure:
•
•
•
Definitions universal to all STEP
standards
Standardized
Parts [11..20]: Description methods,
languages/methodologies for the
–
Part 11, Description methods: The EXPRESS language reference manual
representation of STEP information
Part 1, Overview and fundamental principles
Parts [21..30]: Implementation methods,
–
–
–
Part 21, Implementation methods: Clear text encoding of the exchange structure;
Part 25, Implementation methods: EXPRESS to OMG XMI binding;
Part 28, Implementation methods: XML representations of EXPRESS schemas and data;
•
Parts [31..40]: Conformance testing methodology and framework,
•
Parts [41..100]: Integrated generic resources,
–
–
–
Part 41, Integrated generic resource: Fundamentals of product description and support
Part 42, Integrated generic resource: Geometric and topological representation
Part 45, Integrated generic resource: Materials
•
Parts [101..200]: Integrated application resources,
•
Parts [200..300]: Application protocols,
–
–
–
•
Parts [301..500]: Abstract test suites,
–
•
Part 325, Abstract test suite: Building elements using explicit shape representation
Parts [501..1000]: Application interpreted constructs,
–
•
Part 210, Application protocol: Electronic assembly, interconnect, and packaging design
Part 214, Application protocol: Core data for automotive mechanical design processes
Part 236, Application protocol: Furniture product data and project data
Part 515, Application interpreted construct: Constructive solid geometry
Parts [>1001]: Application modules.
–
–
Part 1103, Application module: Product class;
Part 1104, Application module: Specified product;
Formalized bindings of STEP
information to other standards
Methodologies and procedures to
test software-product conformance
to STEP standards
Generic STEP data models. These
can be considered building blocks
of STEP and are shareable among
different Application Protocols
Top level of the STEP
hierarchy. Are the industrial
standards, and describe
specific product information
Tests of data and criteria that are
used to asses conformance of
software
Re-usable groups of semantic
and functional information.
Application Protocols include
several of these to describe their
data model
21
Modelling in STEP: The Triangle example
22
STEP Technologies
Part 11: EXPRESS Part 28: XML Binding(XSD)
SCHEMA Geometry;
TYPE shape = ENUMERATION OF ( aLine, aTriangle );
END_TYPE;
ENTITY Geometric_shape ABSTRACT;
ofType : OPTIONAL shape;
label : STRING;
elements : SET [1:?] OF Object;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Line
SUBTYPE OF (Geometric_shape);
SELF\Geometric_shape.elements
RENAMED edges : SET [2:2] OF Point;
DERIVE
SELF\Geometric_shape.ofType : shape := aLine;
WHERE
size : Distance(edges[0], edges[1]) > 0;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Object;
label : STRING;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Geometric_plan;
id: STRING;
elements : SET [1:?] OF Geometric_shape;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Point
SUBTYPE OF (Object);
x : INTEGER;
y : INTEGER;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Triangle
SUBTYPE OF (Geometric_shape);
SELF\Geometric_shape.elements RENAMED
vertices : SET [3:3] OF Point;
DERIVE
SELF\Geometric_shape.ofType : shape := aTriangle;
WHERE
side1 : Distance(vertices[0], vertices[1]) > 0;
side2 : Distance(vertices[1], vertices[2]) > 0;
side3 : Distance(vertices[0], vertices[2]) > 0;
END_ENTITY;
FUNCTION Distance (p1, p2 : Point): INTEGER;
LOCAL
result : INTEGER;
END_LOCAL;
result := SQRT((p2.x-p1.x)**2 + (p2.y-p1.y)**2);
RETURN(result);
END_FUNCTION;
END_SCHEMA;
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
xmlns:exp="urn:oid:1.0.10303.28.2.1.1" xmlns:ge="urn:iso1030328:express/Geometry" elementFormDefault="unqualified"
attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="0.2"
targetNamespace="urn:iso10303-28:express/Geometry">
<!--Part28 Base schema import-->
<xs:import namespace="urn:oid:1.0.10303.28.2.1.1"
schemaLocation="exp.xsd" />
…
<!--SCHEMA Geometry-->
<!--TYPE shape-->
<xs:simpleType name="shape">
<xs:restriction base="xs:normalizedString">
<xs:enumeration value="aLine" />
<xs:enumeration value="aTriangle" />
</xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>
…
<!--ENTITY Point-->
<xs:element name="Point" type="ge:Point" nillable="true" block="extension
restriction" substitutionGroup="ge:Object" />
<xs:complexType name="Point">
<xs:complexContent>
<xs:extension base="ge:Object">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="x" type="xs:long" />
<xs:element name="y" type="xs:long" />
</xs:sequence>
</xs:extension>
</xs:complexContent>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:group name="Point-complexEntity-group">
<xs:choice>
<xs:group ref="ge:Point-group" />
<xs:element ref="exp:complexEntity" />
</xs:choice>
</xs:group>
<xs:group name="Point-group">
<xs:choice>
<xs:element ref="ge:Point" />
</xs:choice>
</xs:group>
…
</xs:schema>
Part 21: Data File
#10 = Point ('P01', 2, -1);
#20 = Point ('P02', 5, 0);
#30 = Point ('P03', 4, 4);
#110 = Triangle ($,'Tri_01', (#10, #20, #30));
#200 = Geometric_plan ('testing plan', (#110));
Part 28: XML Data File
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<p28doc:iso_10303_28 version="2.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:cnf="urn:oid:1.0.10303.28.2.1.2"
xmlns:p28doc="urn:oid:1.0.10303.28.2.1.3"
xsi:schemaLocation="urn:oid:1.0.10303.28.2.1.3 p28.xsd">
…
<ge:Point id="_10">
<label>P01</label> <x>2</x> <y>-1</y>
</ge:Point>
<ge:Point id="_20">
<label>P02</label> <x>5</x> <y>0</y>
</ge:Point>
<ge:Point id="_30">
<label>P03</label> <x>4</x> <y>4</y>
</ge:Point>
<ge:Triangle id="_40">
<label>Tri_01</label>
<vertices>
<ge:Point ref="_10"/>
<ge:Point ref="_20"/>
<ge:Point ref="_30"/>
</vertices>
</ge:Triangle>
<ge:Geometric_plan>
<id>testing plan</id>
<elements> <ge:Triangle ref="_40"/> </elements>
</ge:Geometric_plan>
</exp:uos>
</p28doc:iso_10303_28>
23
Application Protocol (AP)
•
STEP Application protocols (APs) are information models that capture the
semantics of an industrial requirement and provide standardized structures
within which data values can be understood by a computer implementation.
•
An AP defines neutral file formats (ISO 10303 Part 21 and Part 28) which can
support all the product data required by the application. The neutral file
formats can be used for exchange between CAD, CAE and PDM (Product
Data Management) systems, and for the long term archiving of product data.
•
Also defines a reference data model that allows to describe context specific
industrial information along the full PLC:
• conceptual view of that information (ARM – Application Reference Model)
• implementable specification (AIM – Application Interpreted Model)
•
Data model is described both textually and graphically using the EXPRESS
(ISO 10303 Part 11) modeling language.
24
AP - Implementable Specification
Constraint,
Specialize,
Complete
Resource Constructs
Constraint,
Specialize,
Complete
Interpretation
CCs
Implementable views
on top of AM,
providing levels of
functionality
AMs
Application model
consistent with the
semantics of IRs and AICs
AICs
Logical grouping of ICs, for
usage across multiple
application contexts, i.e.,
interoperability between APs
IRs
Independent of
Implementation Contexts,
i.e. Application Independent
Information Models
25
AP Structure || AM Structure
26
Application Module (in EXPRESS)
SCHEMA Product_class_arm;
ENTITY Class_inclusion_association;
ENTITY Specification_category;
USE FROM Identification_assignment_arm;
associated_product_class : Product_class;
id : STRING;
USE FROM Product_concept_identification_arm;
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
description : STRING;
USE FROM Group_arm;
associated_inclusion : Specification_inclusion;
implicit_exclusive_condition : BOOLEAN;
TYPE expression_operator = ENUMERATION OF
END_ENTITY;
END_ENTITY;
(or_operator, and_operator, oneof_operator,
not_operator);
ENTITY Class_specification_association;
ENTITY Specification_category_hierarchy;
END_TYPE;
associated_product_class : Product_class;
sub_category : Specification_category;
TYPE specification_operand_select = SELECT
association_type : STRING;
super_category : Specification_category;
associated_specification : Specification;
END_ENTITY;
END_TYPE;
END_ENTITY;
ENTITY Specification_expression;
TYPE id_for_class = EXTENSIBLE SELECT BASED_ON
ENTITY Product_class
id : OPTIONAL STRING;
(Specification_expression, Specification);
identification_item WITH (product_class);
SUBTYPE OF (Product_concept);
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
END_TYPE;
version_id : OPTIONAL STRING;
operation : expression_operator;
TYPE specification_for_category =
level_type : OPTIONAL STRING;
operand : SET[1:?] OF specification_operand_select;
EXTENSIBLE SELECT BASED_ON groupable_item;
WHERE
WHERE
END_TYPE;
WR1: NOT
EXISTS(SELF\Product_concept.target_market);
WR1: (operation <> not_operator) OR
(SIZEOF(operand)=1);
ENTITY Class_category_association;
END_ENTITY;
END_ENTITY;
associated_product_class : Product_class;
ENTITY Product_class_relationship;
ENTITY Specification_inclusion;
mandatory : BOOLEAN;
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
id : OPTIONAL STRING;
associated_category : Specification_category;
relating : Product_class;
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
END_ENTITY;
related : Product_class;
if_condition : specification_operand_select;
ENTITY Class_condition_association;
relation_type : STRING;
included_specification : specification_operand_select;
condition_type : STRING;
END_ENTITY;
END_ENTITY;
associated_product_class : Product_class;
ENTITY Specification;
END_SCHEMA;
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
id : STRING;
27
Application Module (in Graphical EXPRESS)
28
STEP Strengths
•
Contains more than forty APs focused on Product Data Modeling
•
Large body of standardized, rigourously defined (by industry people)
technical concepts
•
Based on public data models, open architecture and sharable data, allowing
companies to effectively exchange and share product information
•
Supports design reuse and provide access to data across all stages of PLM
•
Can integrate all Product Data providing a single standard Product Data
Storage.
•
STEP modeling language (EXPRESS - ISO 10303-11) is very powerful.
– Provide capabilities to embed bussiness rules in data models
•
Recent studies proved that the use STEP could generate savings of about $1
bilion per year in the US automotive, aerospace, and ship building industries
(PDES, Inc)
29
STEP Weaknesses
• Traditionally exchanged using ISO 10303-21(Part 21)
– However recently XML structure (Part 28) was also introduced
• Part 21 is an ASCII character based syntax, which lacks
extensibility and is hard for humans to read.
– Interpretable only by systems using STEP
• STEP modeling language (EXPRESS) is complex and
unfamiliar to most application developers
• Lack of low-cost support
– Characteristic essential for reduced budget organizations
30
Other Reference
Standards
Other Reference Standards
• Other communities are also developing work regarding
the development of standards, methodologies,
recommendations and frameworks to deal with product
data:
–
–
–
–
–
OMG,
W3C,
OASIS,
OAG,
Etc.
32
OMG
Object Management Group
OMG moves forward in establishing CORBA as the "Middleware that's Everywhere"
through its
worldwide standard specifications: CORBA/IIOP, Object Services, Internet Facilities and
Domain Interface specifications.
Established in 1989, OMG's mission is to promote the theory and practice of object
technology for the development of distributed computing systems. The goal is to provide a
common architectural framework for object oriented applications based on widely
available interface specifications. OMG is headquartered in Framingham, MA, USA and
has international marketing offices in the UK, Germany, Japan, Australia, and India.
Additionally, OMG sponsors the Object World series of Trade Shows and Conferences.
References:
• UML and XMI
• MDA
• …
33
W3C
The W3C was founded in 1994 to develop common protocols for the evolution of the World
Wide Web. We are an international industry consortium, jointly hosted by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science [MIT/LCS] in the United States; the
Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique [INRIA] in Europe; and the
Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus in Asia. Initially, the W3C was established in
collaboration with CERN, where the Web originated, with support from DARPA and the
European Commission.
We're vendor neutral, working with the global community to produce specifications and reference
software that is made freely
available throughout the world.
References:
• XML,XSD
• HTML
• XSL
• …
34
OASIS
Organization for The Advancement of
Structured Information Standards
•
•
OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) is a
not-for-profit, international consortium that drives the development, convergence, and
adoption of e-business standards. The consortium produces more Web services
standards than any other organization along with standards for security, e-business,
and standardization efforts in the public sector and for application-specific markets.
Founded in 1993, OASIS has more than 3,500 participants representing over 600
organizations and individual members in 100 countries.
OASIS is distinguished by its transparent governance and operating procedures.
Members themselves set the OASIS technical agenda, using a lightweight process
expressly designed to promote industry consensus and unite disparate efforts.
Completed work is ratified by open ballot. Governance is accountable and unrestricted.
Officers of both the OASIS Board of Directors and Technical Advisory Board are
chosen by democratic election to serve two-year terms. Consortium leadership is
based on individual merit and is not tied to financial contribution, corporate standing, or
special appointment.
References:
• ebXML,
• UDDI
• …
35
OAG
Open Applications Group
The Open Applications Group is a non-profit consortium focusing on best practices and
process based XML content for eBusiness and Application Integration. It is the largest
publisher of XML based content for business software interoperability in the world.
Open Applications Group, Inc. members have over 5 years of extensive experience in
building this industry consensus based framework for business software application
interoperability and have developed a repeatable process for quickly developing high
quality business content and XML representations of that content. The OAG, a major
publisher of XML-based content for business software interoperability, has published
over 170 BODs. BODs focus on content, not technology; this content is the business
object or process model for interoperability.
References:
• BODs
• …
36
Descargar

BDI Agents in Service-Oriented and Model