Chapter
Managers
and
Management
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Learning Outcomes
•
•
•
•
Tell who managers are and where they work
Define management
Describe what managers do
Explain why it’s important to study
management
• Describe the factors that are reshaping and
redefining management
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1-2
Who Are Managers?
Where Do They Work?
• Organization
– A deliberate arrangement of people brought
together to accomplish a specific purpose.
• Common Characteristics of Organizations
– Distinct purpose
– People working together
– A deliberate systematic structure
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How Are Managers Different from
Nonmanagerial Employees?
• Nonmanagerial Employees
– People who work directly on a job or task and
have no responsibility for overseeing the work of
others.
– Examples, associates, team members
• Managers
– Individuals in organizations who direct the
activities of others.
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What Titles Do Managers Have?
• Top Managers
– Responsible for making decisions about the direction
of the organization.
– Examples; President, Chief Executive Officer, VicePresident
• Middle Managers
– Manage the activities of other managers.
– Examples; District Manager, Division Manager
• First-line Managers
– Responsible for directing nonmanagerial employees
– Examples; Supervisor, Team Leader
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What Is Management?
• Management
– The process of getting things done effectively and
efficiently, with and through people
• Effectiveness
– “Doing the right things”, doing those tasks that
help an organization reach its goals
• Efficiency
– Concerned with the means, efficient use of
resources like people, money, and equipment
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What Do Managers Do?
In the functions approach
proposed by French
industrialist Henri Fayol,
all managers perform
certain activities or
functions
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Four Management Functions
• Planning
– Defining the organizational purpose and ways to
achieve it
• Organizing
– Arranging and structuring work to accomplish
organizational goals
• Leading
– Directing the work activities of others
• Controlling
– Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work
performance
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1-12
What Roles Do Managers Play?
Henry Mintzberg observed that a manager’s job can be
described by ten roles performed by managers in
three general categories
• Interpersonal Roles
– Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison
• Informational Roles
– Monitor, Disseminator and Spokesperson
• Decisional roles
– Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource
Allocator and Negotiator
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What Skills Do Managers Need?
Robert Katz and others describe four critical skills in
managing
• Conceptual Skills
– Used to analyze complex situations
• Interpersonal Skills
– Used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate
• Technical Skills
– Based on specialized knowledge required for work
• Political Skills
– Used to build a power base and establish connections
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Is The Manager’s Job Universal?
The previous discussion describe management as a generic
activity. In reality, a manager’s job varies with along
several dimensions
• Level in the Organization
– Top level managers do more planning than
supervisors
• Profit vs. Nonprofit
– Management performance is measured on
different objectives
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Is the Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d)
• Size of the Organization
– Small businesses require
an emphasis in the
management role of
spokesperson
• National Borders
– These concepts work
best in English-speaking
countries and may need
to be modified in other
global environments
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Why Study
Management?
• All of us have a vested
interest in improving the
way organizations are
managed
• Organizations that are well
managed find ways to
prosper even in challenging
economic times
• After graduation most
students become managers
or are managed
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What Can Students of Management
Learn From Other Courses?
• Anthropology
– The study of social
societies which helps us
learn about humans and
their activities
• Economics
– Provides us with an
understanding of the
changing economy and
competition in a global
context
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What Can Students of Management
Learn From Other Courses? (cont’d)
• Philosophy
• Psychology
– Inquires into the nature
of things, particularly
values and ethics
– The science that seeks to
measure, explain and
sometimes change the
behavior of humans
• Sociology
• Political Science
– The study of behavior
and groups within a
political environment
– The study of people in
relationship to their
fellow human beings
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What Factors Are Reshaping and
Redefining Management?
Welcome to the new world of management!
Today managers must deal with
– Changing workplaces
– Ethical and trust issues
– Global economic uncertainties
– Changing technologies
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Why Are Customers Important to the
Manager’s Job?
• Without customers most organizations would
cease to exist
• Today we’re discovering that employee
attitudes and behaviors play a big part in
customer satisfaction
• Managers must create a customer responsive
where employees are friendly, knowledgeable,
responsive g to customer needs
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Why Is Innovation Important to the
Manager’s Job?
• “Nothing is more risky
than not innovating”
• Innovation isn’t just
important for high
technology companies
but essential in all
types of organizations
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History Module
A Brief History of
Management’s Roots
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Early Management
• Management has been
practiced a long time.
• Organized endeavors
directed by people
responsible for
planning, organizing,
leading and controlling
have existed for
thousands of years
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Classical Approaches
• Scientific Management
– Frederick W. Taylor
described scientific
management as a method
of scientifically finding the
“one best way to do a job”
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Other Classic Approaches
• General Administrative Theory
– focused on what constituted good
management
– Max Weber (pictured) described the
bureaucracy as an ideal rational form
of organization
– Henri Fayol identified five
management functions and 14
management principles
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Behavioral Approaches
• Early management writers included
– Robert Owen, was concerned about deplorable
working conditions
– Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer the field of
industrial psychology
– Mary Parker Follett recognized hat organizations
could be viewed from both individual and group
behavior.
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The Hawthorne Studies
• Conducted at the Western
Electric Company Works
these studies:
– Provided new insights into
individual and group behavior
in the behavior of people at
work.
– Concluded that group
pressures can significantly
impact individual productivity
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Quantitative Approaches
• Quantitative Approach
– Used quantitative techniques to improve decision
making
– Evolved from mathematical and statistical
solutions developed for military problems during
World War II
– W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran ‘s ideas
became the basis for total quality management
(TQM)
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Contemporary Approaches
• Focused on managers’ concerns inside the
organization
– Chester Barnard wrote in his 1938 book The
Functions of the Executive that an organization
functioned as a cooperative system
– Fred Feildler first popularized the contingency
approach (or situational approach) which says
that organizations, employees, and situations are
different and require different ways of managing
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Chapter One Managers and Management