Chapter 5: Culture & Community
Dr. Bauer EDUC 202
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Overview
Today’s Multicultural Classrooms
Social Class Differences
Ethnic & Racial Differences
Women & Men: Differences in the Classroom
Language Differences in the Classroom
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
Bringing It All Together: Teaching Every
Student
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Bringing it
All Together:
Teaching
Every Student
Concept Map for
Chapter 5
Today’s
Multicultural
Classrooms
Creating
Culturally
Compatible
Classrooms
Culture
and
Community
Social Class
Differences
Language
Differences
In the
Classroom
Women & Men:
Differences
in the
Classroom
Ethnic and Racial
Differences
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Today’s Multicultural Classroom
The Melting Pot
Cultural deficit model
Multicultural education
alternatives
No ‘best’ approach
The Banks Model
See Figure 5.1,
Woolfolk p. 158
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Bank’s Dimensions of Multicultural Education
Knowledge
Construction
Process
Content
Integration
Equity
Pedagogy
Multicultural
Education
Empowering School
Culture &
Social Structure
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Prejudice
Reduction
American Cultural Diversity
Culture defined
Group membership
Cautions in
interpreting cultural
differences
Teach individual
students, not
ethnicity!
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Social Class Differences
SES
Wealth, power, background, prestige
Upper, middle, working, lower
‘Poor’ defined
See Table 5.1, Woolfolk p. 160, and
Figure 5.2, p. 161
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SES and Achievement
Positive correlation: SES & achievement
Related influences:
Poor health care
Low expectations
Learned helplessness
Peer influences and resistance cultures
Tracking
Childrearing styles
Home environment and resources
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Ethnic and Racial Differences
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Definitions
Ethnicity
Race
Minority group
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The Changing Demographics:
Cultural Differences
Iceberg analogy
Cultural conflicts
Cultural compatibility
Ethnic & racial differences in
achievement
Working with families & communities
See Family and Community
Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 169
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Ethnic and Racial Differences
Discrimination
Brown court case
Prejudice
Authoritarian
personality
Stereotypes and
their effects
Combating
stereotypes
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Females & Males : Differences in
the Classroom
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Gender Role Identity
Differences between men & women
Gender versus sex
Androgynous
Gender schemas
Gender-role stereotyping
Gender bias in the curriculum
Sex discrimination in schools
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities
No overall IQ difference
Girls show strength in
reading, writing,
language, computation
Boys show strength in
mathematical,
mechanical, and visual
information processing
Why the differences?
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Eliminating Gender Bias
Check textbooks for gender bias
Watch for unintended biases in your
classroom practices
Check for equal opportunities for both
sexes in school activities
Use gender free language
Provide role models
See Guidelines, Woolfolk p. 179
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Language Differences
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Dialects
Language difference versus errors
Pronunciation differences
Dialects and teaching
Bilingualism
ESL
LEP
Bilingual education approaches
Transition
Maintain
Research on bilingual programs
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Bilingualism
Effective teaching
See Guidelines,
Woolfolk, p. 182 and
Table 5.3, p. 185
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Creating Culturally
Compatible Classrooms
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Goals for Cultural Compatibility
Eliminate:
Racism
Sexism
Prejudice
Incorporate:
Equal educational opportunities
Culturally friendly teaching strategies
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Teaching Strategies
Socialization
Learning styles
Appropriate cautions
Sociolinguistics
Participation structures
Misunderstandings
Culturally relevant pedagogy
Focus on academic success
Develop/maintain cultural
competence
Develop critical consciousness
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Application Question
How would you
lead a discussion
group that
Included Caucasians,
African Americans,
Native Americans,
and Hispanics?
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Reflection Question
Compare and contrast teaching in an
inner city school in Chicago with a
school on a Navaho Indian
Reservation. How would you vary
your teaching strategies?
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Bringing It All Together:
Teaching Every Student
Know your students
Respect your students
Teach your students
See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 192
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Summary
Today’s Multicultural Classrooms
Social Class Differences
Ethnic & Racial Differences
Women & Men: Differences in the Classroom
Language Differences in the Classroom
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
Bringing It All Together: Teaching Every
Student
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Review Questions
Distinguish between the “melting pot”
and multiculturalism.
What is multicultural education?
What is culture?
What is SES?
What is the relationship between SES
and school achievement?
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Review Questions
Distinguish between ethnicity and race.
How can ethnicity affect school
performance?
Distinguish between prejudice,
discrimination, and stereotype threat.
What is gender-role identity?
How do gender-role identities develop?
Are there sex differences in cognitive
abilities?
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
Review Questions
What are the origins of language
differences in the classroom?
What is bilingual education?
What are the elements of a culturally
compatible classroom?
What is culturally relevant pedagogy?
How can teachers create classrooms in
which all students can learn?
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
End Chapter 5
Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
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