Chapter 2
Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity
in the Literacy Program
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Chapter 2 Anticipation Guide
Copyright  Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010
Teaching Literacy to All Students:
The Role of NCLB
• Impact of NCLB
– Reading skills and overall academic performance
have improved
• Scientifically Based Literacy Instruction
– Key elements are phonological awareness, phonics,
fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
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Teaching Literacy to All Students:
The Role of RTI
• Response to Intervention (RTI)
– Students’ ability to learn is evaluated by noting how well they
respond to instruction of varying degrees of intensity.
• Universal Screening
• Tier I: Improving the General Program
– Students are provided with the best possible general literacy
program, instruction is differentiated, and progress is monitored at
least 3 times a year.
• Tiers II and III: Intervention
– Includes 20% of students
– 15% need only Tier II, 5% need Tier III also
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Teaching Literacy to All Students:
The Role of RTI
• RTI and English Language Learners
• Problem-Solving Approach versus Standard
Protocol
– Problem solving
– Standard protocol
• Monitoring Progress
• Collaboration
• Impact of RTI on Your Teaching
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Diversity in the Classroom: Providing
for the Literacy Needs of All Students
• English Language Learners
• Provide a Secure Environment
• Build Language
– Stages
– Coping Strategies
• Provide Comprehensible Input
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Modeling
Running commentary
Expansion
Redirect
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Diversity in the Classroom: Providing
for the Literacy Needs of All Students
• Build Academic Language
– Language skills (big and small words)
– Thinking skills of analyzing, explaining, inferring, and
organizing
– Appropriate grammar
– Background knowledge
• Assess Students’ Academic Language and
Background
• Building Academic Language Benefits All Students
• Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
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Stages of
Second-Language Acquisition
5 Stages of Second
Language Acquisition
Teaching Questions
Preproduction
What, who, where, yes/no
Early Production
What, who, where, either/or
Speech Emergence
What, who, where, when
Intermediate
What, who, where, when, why
Advanced
Continue to provide support
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Diversity in the Classroom: Providing
for the Literacy Needs of All Students
• Use cooperative learning and peer tutoring
strategies
• Use print
• Intentional, systematic instruction
– Focus on academic language
– Academic English instruction should be part
of the core curriculum
– Teach vocabulary constantly
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Students at Risk
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Economically disadvantaged students
Culturally diverse students
Students with learning disabilities
Students with attention deficit disorder
Students with intellectual disabilities
Slow learners
Students with language and speech disorders
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Economically
Disadvantaged Students
• Principles for teaching economically
disadvantaged children:
– Build background
– Create an atmosphere of success
– Make instruction explicit
– Provide a balanced program
– Provide access to books and magazines
– Counteract the fourth-grade slump
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Culturally Diverse Students
• Teachers should become acquainted with
students’ cultures.
• Recognize that you perceive students through
your own cultural lens (Maldonaldo-Colon,
2003).
• Develop teaching techniques appropriate for
diverse learning styles.
• Accept students’ languages and dialects while
modeling standard English.
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Students with Learning Disabilities
• In 2006-07, 9.6% of U.S. students aged 3-21
received special education services.
• The largest category of special needs students is
the group identified as learning disabled.
• 80% of students classified as learning disabled
have a reading difficulty.
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Students with Attention Deficit Disorder
• Meaningful and interesting
tasks
• Choices of materials and
tasks
• Mobility in the classroom
• Work in groups
• Minimize formal tests
• Directions must be
understood
• Homework assignments
must be understood
• Students keep a calendar
• Use visual aids
• Multiple, brief periods
of practice
• Work with parents
• Minimize distractions
• Clear classroom
procedures
• Highlight important
information
• Use peer tutoring
• Use computers
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Students with
Intellectual Disabilities
• Make explicit the processes of reading and
writing by using modeling and other
techniques.
• Develop functional literacy skills
– Reading traffic and warning signs, labels,
cooking directions, common forms, and
newspapers
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Slow Learners
• Function on a higher level than students with
intellectual disabilities but on a lower level than
average students.
• “More so” students: They need the same
instruction that regular students need, but more
so (guidance, practice, time, etc.).
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Students with Language and
Speech Disorders
• Speech impairments
– do not directly affect reading or writing.
• Children with slow language development
– can experience delays in acquiring basic
reading and writing skills.
• Children with language disorders
– experience disruption in the language
development process.
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Gifted and Talented Students
• Instruction for gifted and talented students
should help them
– Learn to select appropriate books
– Learn to investigate areas of interest
– Learn to use library and research tools
– Learn study skills, if necessary
– Participate in reading and writing workshops
– Participate in Junior Great Books (can also
be used with average and struggling readers)
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Inclusion
• Teaching students who have disabilities or
special needs within the general education
classroom.
– Warm, accepting atmosphere
– Modifications
• Altering curriculum or other school policy to
aid students with disabilities
– Accommodations
• Changes in the way students are taught
Copyright  Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010
Implications of Diversity, NCLB,
and RTI for Instruction
• Diversity means teachers need to
differentiate instruction.
• Teachers should try to bring all students to
proficiency as mandated by NCLB.
• Teachers should take a long-term view of
literacy.
• Teachers should be aware of the major
findings of literacy research and should
become teacher-researchers.
Copyright  Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010
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Chapter 11 Diversity in the Classroom