The World of Psychology
Wood and Wood
Cognition and Language
Chapter 7
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Tools of Thinking
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
 Imagery
 Concepts
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Tools of Thinking - AI
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Definition: AI is Computer generated intelligence
Thinking It Over
Experts have differing beliefs:
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Deep Blue by selectivity-looking in the right place in its
store of information for a required piece of data-it was
engaging in a process analogous to human thought.
Deep Blue was not really thinking on its own. Computers
can only do what they are programmed to do
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they lack the intuition
practical experience of humans.
But can’t they gain experience?
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Tools of Thinking – AI
Kasparov’s views
Garry Kasparov, the Russian-born chess grand
master and reigning world champion, thinks so.
In 1997, he conceded victory in a chess match
to Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer
specifically programmed to play chess against
Kasparov.
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Tools of Thinking - AI
Even the sophisticated "thinking" of
supercomputers is not really intelligence
because, unlike humans, these machines are
merely following a set of rules, no matter how
complex those rules may be.
 What do humans do?

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Tools of Thinking – AI
Kasparov’s views 2
For his part, Kasparov disagreed with Deep Blue's critics.
As the matches proceeded, he felt that the computer
showed signs of human-like cognitive ability in the form
of strategic understanding.
Somewhere along the way, the tactics (specific rules for
playing chess) that had been programmed into Deep Blue
had apparently been transformed into strategy
(formulation of an overall game plan).
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Tools of Thinking:
Types of Concepts
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A formal concept is one that is clearly
defined by a set of rules, a formal definition
or a characteristic.
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A natural concept is formed on the basis of
everyday perceptions and experiences and is
somewhat fuzzy.
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In Class Demonstration
Please write down the first thing you think of
when I say “dog.”
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Tools of Thinking:
Prototypes
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In using a natural concept, a person is likely to
picture a prototype of the concept.
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A prototype is an example that embodies its
most common and typical features.
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Tools of Thinking:
Prototypes
Example: Dog
 Class develop common and typical features list
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______________
 ______________
 ______________
 ______________
 ______________
 ______________

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Tools of Thinking:
Prototypes

Is this list a “formal concept”?
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Could a machine be “programmed” with this list?

Could a machine with vision develop
personalized images from experience?
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Tools of Thinking:
Exemplars
The individual instances of a concept that are
stored in personal memory from personal
experience
Examples:
Look at what you wrote down
Compare Exemplars with class
Make a list of characteristics from some of these
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Tools of Thinking:
Exemplars

Is this list a “natural concept”?

Could a machine be “programmed” with this list?

Could a machine with vision develop
personalized images from experience?
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Tools of Thinking - Imagery
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Representation in the mind of a sensory experience
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Visual
Auditory
Gustatory
Motor
Olfactory
OR Tactile
Others?
Einstein and Visualization
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Tools of Thinking - Concepts

A mental category is used to represent
things that share common characteristics or
attributes
A class or group of objects
 People
 Organizations
OR
 Relations

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Reasoning
Approaches to Problem Solving
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Approaches to Problem Solving
 Deductive
o
Reasoning
Syllogism
 Inductive
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Reasoning
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Deductive and Inductive
Reasoning: Logical Thinking
Deductive reasoning involves reasoning
from the general to the specific, or
drawing particular conclusions from
general principles.
Inductive reasoning is a form of reasoning
in which general conclusions are drawn
from particular facts or individual cases.
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Deductive Reasoning
• Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more
specific.
• Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach.
• Begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest.
• Then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we
can test.
• Narrow down even further when we collect observations to
address the hypotheses.
• Ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with
specific data -- a confirmation (or not) of our original theories.
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Deductive Reasoning Diagram
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Inductive Reasoning
 Inductive reasoning works the other way
 moving from specific observations to broader generalizations
and theories.
 Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach
 In inductive reasoning,
we begin with specific observations and measures,
begin to detect patterns and regularities,
formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore,
and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.
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Inductive Reasoning Diagram
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Differences
 These two methods of reasoning have a very different
"feel" to them
 Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and
exploratory, especially at the beginning.
 Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is
concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses.
 Even though a particular study may look like it's purely
deductive most social research involves both inductive
and deductive reasoning processes at some time in the
project.
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Putting it together
 One could assemble the two graphs into a single circular
one that continually cycles from theories down to
observations and back up again to theories.
 Even in the most constrained experiment, researchers
may observe patterns in the data that lead them to
develop new theories.
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A Circular View
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Decision Making
 Decision
o
o
o
o
o
o
Making
Additive Strategy
Elimination by Aspects
Heuristics
Framing
Trial and Error
Algorithms
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Impediments to Problem Solving
Functional Fixedness - The failure to sue
familiar objects in novel ways to solve
problems because of a tendency to view
objects only in terms of their customary
function
 Mental Set -The tendency to apply a
familiar strategy to the solution of a
problem without carefully considering the
special requirements of that problem

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Decision Making: Making Choices in Life
The additive strategy
The elimination-by-aspects strategy
The availability heuristic
 The representativeness heuristic
 Framing
http://www.sjdm.org/
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additive strategy
 The additive strategy is a decision-making approach in
which each alternative is rated on each important factor
affecting the decision and the alternative rated highest
overall is chosen.
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elimination-by-aspects strategy
 The elimination-by-aspects strategy is most useful when
a decision involves many alternatives and multiple
factors. With this approach, some alternatives are
eliminated because they do not satisfy the most
important factors. Then the additive strategy is typically
used to make the best choice among the surviving
alternatives.
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availability heuristic
 The availability heuristic is a rule of thumb that says that
the probability of an event or the importance assigned to
it is based on availability in memory, that is, the ease
with which the information comes to mind.
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representativeness heuristic
 The representativeness heuristic is a thinking strategy
that is used in decision making and that assesses how
closely a new object or situation matches an existing
prototype of that object or situation.
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Framing
 Framing is the way information is presented so as to
focus on either a potential gain or a potential loss.
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Problem Solving:
Beyond Decision Making
Three basic approaches to problem solving
Trial and error
Algorithms
Heuristics.
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Algorithm
An algorithm is:
a systematic, step-by-step procedure or formula
guarantees a solution to a certain type of problem
if the algorithm
Is appropriate
AND
Is executed properly.
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Three Heuristics
Three heuristics used in problem solving are:
working backwards,
means-end analysis,
 the analogy heuristic.
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Impediments
Functional fixedness: the tendency to view
objects only in terms of their customary
functions, results in a failure to use the
objects in novel ways to solve problems.
Mental set: the tendency to apply a strategy
that was successful in the past to solve new
problems, even though it may not be
appropriate for the new requirements.
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Imagine that you are shipwrecked on a desert island, with only what you find on the
island and parts of your boat to help you. You try a variety of problem-solving
techniques to survive -- and make some mistakes!
Examples
Working
backward
Means-end
Analysis
Analogy
heuristic
Functional
fixedness
Mental set
1. You make a careful inventory of all the
wood, water, and food you have available
and allocate it into daily rations.
2. You dry all your wood before trying to
start a fire, because you remember that
worked on a camping trip in the seventh
grade.
3. You continue to go to the same part of
the island for food because you found
berries there the first time you looked.
4. You decide exactly how much
driftwood you will need for five days and
then collect that amount.
5. You don't realize you could use the
door from your shipwrecked boat as a raft.
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Language

Languages
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Language Components
The four important components of language are
(1) phonemes, the smallest units of sound in a spoken language;
(2) morphemes, the smallest units of meaning;
(3) syntax, the grammatical rules for arranging and combining
words to form phrases and sentences
(4) semantics, the meaning derived from phonemes, morphemes,
and sentences.
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Some interesting
Language Facts
• Chimpanzees do not have a vocal tract adapted to speech,
and their communication using sign language or symbols
consists of constructions strung together rather than actual
sentences.
• In general, thought has a greater influence on language
than vice versa.
• People who learn a second language when they are
younger than 10 or 11 usually speak without an accent, are
more fluent, and make fewer grammatical errors than do
those who are older when they learn another language.
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The Structure of Language
Definitions
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Syntax - The aspect of grammar that specifies the
rules for arranging and combining words to form
phrases and sentences.
Semantics - The meaning or the study of meaning
derived from morphemes, words, and sentences.
Surface Structure - The literal words of a sentence
that are spoken or written.
Deep Structure - The underlying meaning of a
sentence.
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The Brain and Language
•Wernicke’s area
Named for Carl Wernicke who first described it in 1874, Werenicke's area
appears to be crucial for language comprehension. People who suffer from
neurophysiological damage to this area (called Wernicke's aphasia or fluent
aphasia) are unable to understand the content words while listening, and unable
to produce meaningful sentences; their speech has grammatical structure but no
meaning. Auditory and speech information is transported from the auditory area
to Wernicke's area for evaluation of significance of content words, then to
Broca's area for analysis of syntax. In speech production, content words are
selected by neural systems in Wernicke's area, grammatical refinements are
added by neural systems in Broca's area, and then the information is sent to the
motor cortex, which sets up the muscle movements for speaking.
•References:
•Gray, Peter. (1994). Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishing.
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The Brain and Language
•Broca’s area
Named for Paul Broca who first described it in 1861, Broca's area is the section of
the brain which is involved in speech production, specifically assessing syntax of
words while listening, and comprehending structural complexity. People suffering
from neurophysiological damage to this area are unable to understand and make
grammatically complex sentences. Speech will consist almost entirely of content
words. Auditory and speech information is transported from the auditory area to
Wernicke's area for evaluation of significance of content words, then to Broca's
area for analysis of syntax. In speech production, content words are selected by
neural systems in Wernicke's area, grammatical refinements are added by neural
systems in Broca's area, and then the information is sent to the motor cortex,
which sets up the muscle movements for speaking.
•References:
1.Gray, Peter. (1994). Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishing.
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Current(?) Research
VOLUME 29 , NUMBER 10 -October 1998
http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct98/skills.html
It’s time to throw out those old psychology textbooks that
highlight just two main language centers in the brain:
•Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe
•Broca’s area in the frontal lobe
•According to Nina Dronkers, PhD:
'There are many, many other areas involved in language processing.'
•Studying highly specific language skills identifies small areas of the
brain responsible for those skills
•Many fall outside the two traditional language locales.
•Example: A tiny piece in a patch of cortex buried deep inside the
cerebral hemisphere, the insula, is associated with speech apraxia
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Apraxia
•Apraxia of speech is a disorder in which the patient can
identify a word, but have trouble speaking it.
•All of the test patients diagnosed with apraxia of speech had
lesions in the prefrontal gyrus of the insula
•Gyrus: A ridge or convolution of the cerebral cortex.
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Credits…
Devon Bryce at
http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~mike/P
earl_Street/Dictionary/contents/B/broc
as_area.html
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