Registration of Trademarks under
the Madrid System
LLM University of Turin – Study Visit
Tetyana Demchenko
Senior Legal Officer
Geneva
October 3, 2013
Registration of Trademarks
Principle of territoriality
Trademark rights are confined to the territory in
which the mark was applied for and registered
Registration in Switzerland… Italy… France…
Russia… etc.
Protection only in Switzerland… Italy… France...
Russia… etc.
Registration of Trademarks Abroad (1)
National Route
filing applications with the Trademark Office of each
country in which protection of the mark is sought
Registration of Trademarks Abroad (2)
Regional Route
applying for protection in countries which are members of a
regional trademarks registration system with effect in the
territories of all Member States
Benelux Trademark Office
https://www.boip.int
Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM)
http://oami.europa.eu
African Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO)
http://www.aripo.org/
African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI)
http://www.oapi.int/
Registration of Trademarks Abroad (3)
International Route
Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks
National IP Office
Madrid System
Objectives and Fundamentals
Legal Framework and Geographical Scope
Basic Features
Facts and Figures
Recent Developments
Online Information Services
Useful Links and Contacts
Objectives of the Madrid System
A simple, low-cost and effective system to facilitate
trademark protection in export markets through:
one central filing and registration procedure
producing effects in one or more territories bound
by the system
one central procedure to maintain and manage an
international registration with effects in all territories
concerned
Madrid System Fundamentals (1)
From Application to Protection
21 – 23 FEBRUARY 2011, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA
Substantive
Grant of Protection Examination
12/18/18+ months
Provisional Refusal
Recording in the International Register ,
publication, notification of a holder
Applicant:
Filing in Home
Country (O/O)
O/O:
Formal Examination Registration
Certifying an IA
Forwarding IA to WIPO
Publication
Certificate
Madrid System Fundamentals (2)
Effects of the International Registration
The International "Registration" =
a National Application
until the expiry of the time limit to issue a refusal
a National Registration
once the time limit to issue a refusal has expired
(assuming no refusal or refusal withdrawn)
Madrid System Fundamentals (3)
Management of International Registrations
21 – 23 FEBRUARY 2011, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA
Designated CPs
Recording in the International Register ,
publication, notification of a holder
Request for Recording of Changes
in the International Register
Notification of
designated CPs
Registration
Formal Examination
Holder
Publication
National IP Office
Notification
Madrid System Fundamentals (4)
Maintenance of International Registrations
Notification of
designated CPs
Payment for the Renewal of IR
Holder
Registration
Renewal of IR
Publication
Certificate
Go National or International Route ?
National Route
Many Offices for filing
Many application forms
Many languages
Many currencies
Many registrations
Many renewals
Many modifications
Many foreign attorneys needed
from filing stage
Madrid Route
One Office for filing
One single application form
One language (E/F/S)
One currency (Swiss francs)
One international registration
One renewal
One modification
Foreign attorney first needed in
case of refusal
Legal Framework (1)
Madrid Agreement (1891) latest revised in 1979
Madrid Protocol (1989) latest revised in 2007
Common Regulations as in force from January 1, 2013
Administrative Instructions as in force from January 1,
2008
Law and Regulations of each Contracting Party
See at http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/legal_texts/
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/members/ipoffices_info.html
Legal Framework (2)
Agreement – v – Protocol
Agreement
Open to States
Basic registration
French (initially)
Standard fees
Refusal time limit of 12
months
5 year dependency
Protocol
…and Intergovernmental
Organizations
… or Basic application
… and English and
Spanish
… or Individual Fees
Possibility of time limit of
18 months or Longer
… with Possibility of
transformation
Legal Framework (3)
Madrid Treaties and Regulations
providing the basic principles and mechanism of the
system; governing the formal conditions for an
international registration
Domestic Law and Regulations of a Contracting Party
governing the substantive conditions for granting
protection in each relevant territory
Geographical Scope
Madrid Union as of October 2013
1 Agreement only
37 Protocol only (including EU)
54 Agreement and Protocol
92 Members
Madrid Union Members – October 2013
91
MEMBERS PARTY TO THE MADRID PROTOCOL
Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,
Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bhutan, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana,
Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Estonia, Egypt, European
Union, Finland, France, Georgia, Ghana, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands (+ Curaçao, Saint Martin, the BES
Islands), New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, San
Marino, San Tome and Principe, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab
Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tajikistan, Tunisia,
Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America,
Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Zambia
underlined = Agreement also
1
MEMBER PARTY TO THE AGREEMENT ONLY
Algeria
www.wipo.int/madrid/en/members/ipoffices_info.html
Geographical Scope – Updates
2012 & 2013
Philippines (with effect from July 25, 2012)
Colombia (with effect from August 29, 2012)
New Zealand (with effect from December 10, 2012)
Mexico (with effect from February 19, 2013)
India (with effect from July 8, 2013)
Rwanda (with effect from August 17, 2013)
Tunisia (with effect from October 16, 2013)
Possible future accessions to the Madrid Protocol
ASEAN-countries (by 2015)
Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago (by 2014)
Costa Rica and Dominican Republic
South-Africa
Basic Features (1)
The Madrid System can
only be used by an applicant
from a member of the Madrid System
for designating other members of the Madrid System
bound by the same treaty, the Madrid Agreement or
the Madrid Protocol
Basic Features (2)
Basic mark (application or registration)
in a Contracting Party of the Madrid System
and
Connection between an applicant or holder of the basic
mark and that Contacting Party
(establishment, domicile, or nationality) are needed
Filing through an Office of origin
Designation of one or more other Contracting Parties
bound by the same treaty (a home designation is not
possible)
Basic Features (3)
Fixed time limits for granting or refusing protection by
designated Contracting Parties
10 year term of protection with the possibility of renewal
Possibility to add other CPs to IR
(subsequent designation)
Centralized management of international registrations
Basic Features (4)
Dependence on the basic mark for the first 5 years
Ceasing of effect of the basic mark and cancellation of IR
Possibility of transformation of IR into national or regional
applications under the Madrid Protocol
Facts and Figures
International registrations in force
as of December 31, 2012
559,826 international registrations in force
5.57 million designations in force
185,503 trademark holders
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/statistics/
Madrid Registry Activity 2012
Madrid System Activity 2012
45'000
40'000
35'000
30'000
25'000
20'000
15'000
10'000
5'000
0
2005
2006
2007
Applications
2008
2009
Subsequent designations
2010
2011
Renewals
2012
International Applications Filed in
2008-2012
50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
IA
Grow th
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
42,074
35,194
39,687
42,270
44,018
5.3%
-16.4%
12.8%
6.5%
4.1%
Top 10 Filing Contracting Parties
(2008 – 2012)
Contracting Party of Origin
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
European Union
3,600
3,710
4,707
5,859
6,333
United States of America
3,684
3,201
4,147
4,791
5,402
Germany
6,214
4,793
5,006
5,000
4,408
France
4,218
3,523
3,565
3,804
3,735
Switzerland
2,888
2,671
2,893
2,933
2,778
Italy
2,763
1,877
2,596
2,306
2,354
China
1,584
1,358
1,928
2,149
2,100
Japan
1,278
1,312
1,577
1,538
2,054
Benelux
2,668
1,968
1,922
1,920
1,755
Russian Federation
1,190
1,068
1,218
1,652
1,591
11,987
9,713
10,128
10,318
11,508
Others
Total
42,074
35,195
39,687
42,270
44,018
Top 10 Designated Contracting Parties
(2008 – 2012)
Designated contracting party
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
China
17,829
14,766
16,143
18,724
20,120
European Union
14,502
12,564
14,604
16,344
16,889
Russian Federation
16,768
14,150
14,250
15,691
16,634
United States of America
15,715
13,406
14,252
15,890
16,411
Switzerland
14,907
13,161
12,469
13,695
13,464
Japan
12,748
10,386
11,124
12,211
12,493
Australia
10,529
8,575
9,222
10,453
10,753
Republic of Korea
9,539
7,755
8,336
9,821
10,090
Turkey
9,844
7,942
8,210
9,277
9,656
Ukraine
10,635
8,539
8,288
8,903
9,282
Others
245,878
192,100
182,578
192,846
192,227
Total
378,894
303,344
299,476
323,855
328,019
Top 10 Applicants in 2012
Rank
Country
Number of IA
Company
1
CH
176
NOVARTIS
2
DE
160
BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM
3
FR
138
L'OREAL
4
UK
127
GLAXO GROUP
5
CH
105
NESTLÉ
6
HU
91
RICHTER GEDEON NYRT
7
DE
90
BSH BOSCH AND SIEMENS
8
CH
88
PHILIP MORRIS BRANDS
9
NE
83
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V.
10
HU
73
EGIS GYOGYSZERGYAR
Top 5 Most Used Class Goods & Services
(2011 – 2012)
Classes
Goods and Services
2011
2012
9
Covers e-g- computer hardware and software
and other electrical or electronic apparatus of a
scientific nature
9,286
9,598
35
Covers services such as office functions,
advertising and business management
7,596
7,912
42
Covers services provided by e.g. scientific,
industrial or
technological engineers and computer
specialists
5,505
5,966
25
Covers clothing, footwear, and headgear
5,411
5,617
5
Includes mainly pharmaceuticals and other
preparations for medical purposes
4,687
4,936
Madrid System: Right-Holders
Trademarks
by right-holder
Right-holders
(185,503)

1-2 marks
3-10 marks
11-100 marks
101-500 marks
> 500 marks
147,403
31,400
6,369
296
35
79.46%
16.93%
3.43%
0.16%
0.02%
All
185,503
100.00%
101-500 marks
9.22%
Registrations
in force
(559,826)
Number of
right-holders
> 500 marks
5.95%
1-2 marks
31.86%

11-100 marks
27.05%
3-10 marks
25.92%
Latest Developments
Legal Framework
Discussions of the Working Group on the Legal
Development of the Madrid System
http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/details.jsp?meeting_id=29762
Customer-Service Policy
Further Automation
Madrid Goods and Services Manager
Madrid Portfolio Manager
Madrid Real-Time Status
Madrid Electronic Alert
Online Information Services (1)
International Trademark Information Database
ROMARIN
To search for:
the international marks recorded under the Madrid System,
that are currently in force in the International Register or
have expired within the past six months;
data relating to international applications, subsequent
designations and limitations that are still under the
examination process within the International Bureau
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/romarin/
Online Information Services (2)
Goods and Services Manager
http://www.wipo.int/gsmanager/index.jsp?lang=en
On-line tool designated to assist trademark applicants in compiling the list of
goods and services for the purpose of filing an international application
Includes the terms from the Nice Classification (10th edition as of January 1,
2012), frequent terms extracted from the Madrid International Register and
terms from other databases (such as Trilateral list (US, EM, JP) and
USPTO) accepted by the International Bureau as correctly classified
Allows to reduce irregularity notices issued by the IB regarding the
classification of goods and services
Lists can currently be compiled in one of fifteen languages including
English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Italian,
Portuguese, Russian, Chinese simplified and traditional, Japanese,
Norwegian and Turkish, and translated into three Madrid working languages
(English, French or Spanish)
Online Information Services (3)
Madrid Real-time Status (MRS)
provides the status in real time of trademark documents being processed
by the International Bureau of WIPO
http://www.wipo.int/mrs
Madrid Electronic Alert (MEA)
allows users to create a list of international registration numbers of particular interest
and to be informed by email each time an inscription concerning one of them is
recorded in the International Register
https://www3.wipo.int/login/en/mea/index.jsp
Madrid Portfolio Manager (MPM)
allows holders of international registrations and their representatives to access their
international trademark portfolios in order to view and modify the international
registrations concerned
https://www3.wipo.int/login/en/mpm/index.jsp
Useful Links
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en
Legal Texts and Guide
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/legal_texts/
E-WIPO Gazette of International Marks
http://www.wipo.int/madridgazette/en/
Fee Calculator
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/fees/calculator.jsp
International Application Simulator
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/madrid_simulator/
E-Renewal
https://webaccess.wipo.int/trademarks_ren/erenewal_en.jsp
E-Payment
https://webaccess.wipo.int/epayment/
ROMARIN (database of international marks)
Global Brand Database
Country Profiles
Goods & Services Manager
http://www.wipo.int/romarin
http://www.wipo.int/branddb/en/index.jsp
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/members/ipoffices_info.html
http://www.wipo.int/gsmanager/index.jsp?lang=en
Contact Us
General queries on the Madrid System
Madrid Customer Service: +41 22 338 8686
[email protected]
Specific queries on IA or IR
[email protected], +41 22 338 750 1
[email protected], +41 22 338 750 2
[email protected], +41 22 338 750 3
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/contact.html
For the electronic communication with IB
[email protected]
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/services/electronic_notification.html
Subscribe for the
Madrid E-Newsletter
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/subscribe.html
to receive
the Madrid Highlights
http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en/highlights/
and be up to dated with the latest developments of
the Madrid System
Thank you!
[email protected]
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