PERSUASIVE
APPEALS:
Logos, Pathos,
Ethos
2
RHETORICAL STRATEGIES
 DESCRIPTION
 NARRATION (anecdotes)
 ILLUSTRATION (examples)
 PROCESS-ANALYSIS
 DIVISION and CLASSIFICATION (roles, types)
 COMPARISON and CONTRAST (similarities, differ.)
 DEFINITION
 REFUTATION
 PARADOX
 CAUSE and EFFECT
 ANALOGY
3
TYPES of EVIDENCE
 FACTS
 STATISTICS
 FIGURES, NUMBERS, DATES
 EXAMPLES
 REASONS
 DETAILS
 ANECDOTES
 EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY

first-hand, primary
 EXPERT TESTIMONY
4
HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE
 TIMELINESS

relevance
 INTENT

to entertain, to persuade
 CREDIBILITY

sincerity, agendas
 CONTEXT

circumstance, situation
5
HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE
 LOGICAL:


reasons, examples, details,
facts, stats, figures
 EMOTIONAL:

examples, anecdotes, eye-witness testimony
 CREDIBLE:

details, facts, stats, figures, expert testimony
LOGOS
THE
Rhetorical
TRIANGLE
PATHOS
ETHOS
 Not to be confused with Alexandre Dumas’ Three
Musketeers:




Athos
Porthos
Aramis
(and d'Artagnan )
8
BACKGROUND:
ARISTOTLE and the RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
 In Rhetoric (350 BC), the Greek philosopher
Aristotle (384-322 BC) suggests that the
fundamental human characteristics include:



logic, reasoning
emotion, empathy, compassion
credibility, trust (perception of character)
9
BACKGROUND:
ARISTOTLE and the RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
 Thus, he divided the persuasive appeals of
rhetoric into 3 parts:



Logos
Pathos
Ethos
10
LOGOS
 “logic”
 SUPPORT, PROOF, “GROUNDS”:





logic
reasons
examples
details
facts


“Just the facts, ma’am.” (Dragnet)
appeals to the Vulcan inside us (Star Trek)
11
EVALUATING LOGOS
 PURPOSE =



to stir readers’ thoughts
to offer readers different perspectives
to get readers to see something in a new way
 THESIS =

reasonable
12
EVALUATING LOGOS
 EVIDENCE =



accurate
clear, convincing
relevant, appropriate
 REASONS =


make sense
no fallacies
13
LOGOS EXAMPLES
SHAKESPEARE’S SONNET #18:
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
14
LOGOS EXAMPLES
SONNET 18:
 LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION:

ordered structure


3 quatrains + 1 couplet
evidence to support the point + concise
statement of the point
 RHYME SCHEME:
 ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG
 REGULAR RHYTHM:
 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
 LOGIC, REASONS:
 COMPARISONS and CONTRASTS
15
Other Examples of Logos in
Shakespeare
 Macbeth on regicide
 Hamlet on anything (esp. suicide)
 Brutus on Conspiracy
 Jacques on the world stage
 Jacques on the 7 ages of man
 Ulysses on degree
16
LOGOS in everyday life
 to win an argument on any subject:






receipts, ticket stubs
photos, video
text or phone or e-mail messages
witnesses, quotes
examples, instances, incidents, anecdotes
weather, financial, medical, legal reports
17
LOGOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:
 to win an argument on sports (e.g.):

use reasons supported by statistics,
highlights (examples), details, facts, spectator
(witness)
SCHOOL:
 to argue a grade:

refer (rationally) to the syllabus, assignment
sheet, textbook, test question, lecture notes,
handouts
18
LOGOS in everyday life
PARENTS:
 to argue for a raise in allowance
 to argue to borrow the car
 to argue to extend curfew

refer to “record” (stats) or make a bargain
CAR:
 to buy a car, to repair/keep vs. trade/sell/junk


use a debit sheet, refer to an advertisement
KBB, NADA, Edmunds.com, Lemon Law
19
LOGOS in everyday life
WORK (with your boss):
 to argue for a raise, day off
 employment file, service, dedication, time card,
schedule
WORK (with a customer):
 refer to circular, advertisement, sign, computer,
register
WORK (as a customer):
 with the cashier, customer service
representative
 refer to circular, ad, sign, register receipt
20
LOGOS in everyday life
 Card Stacking


present only one side of the issue
failure in Iraq
 Erroneous, faulty data




WMD
mistaken witness
false credentials
assumption, inference, implication (not fact)
BAD LOGOS
 Faulty reasoning

poor induction or deduction
21
PATHOS
 “sympathy,” “empathy,” “pathetic”
 appeal to emotions (*fear, pity, guilt)
 human emotions=






affection, anger, contempt, delight, despair
disgust, embarrassment, envy, excitement
fear, guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor
jealousy, joy, love, royalty, passion, pity
pride, remorse, ridicule, sadness, shame
shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance
*often stronger than LOGOS*
22
EVALUATING PATHOS
 LEGITIMATE & APPROPRIATE



NOT forced,
NOT faked,
NOT manipulative
 With RESTRAINT


NOT exaggerated,
NOT overdone with wild hysterics
 With a SENSE of AUDIENCE
23
EVALUATING PATHOS
DANGERS:
 manipulative:


can lead readers from their better judgment
mob mentality
 often uses loaded language


emotionally charged words or phrases
words with strong connotations
24
PATHOS EXAMPLES
Shakespeare’s Sonnet #29:
When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
And look upon myself, and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,
Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising,
Haply I think on thee, and then my state,
Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;
For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
25
Other Examples of Pathos in
Shakespeare
 Macbeth’s “Tomorrow” (self-pity)
 Lear on ingratitude (self-pity)
 Lear with “Mad Tom”
 Lear with dead Cordelia
 Ophelia’s madness, Gertrude at Ophelia’s,
Horatio at Hamlet’s death
 Mark Antony with Julius Caesar’s wounds
(manipulative)
 Timon’s or Coriolanus’ vitriol
 Romeo and Juliet’s death
26
PATHOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:
 peer pressure
 teasing
SCHOOL:
 to argue a grade, to submit a late assignment



appeal to your bad day, death in the family
the evil computer (“the computer ate my
homework”)
your race/gender, the teacher’s race/gender
27
PATHOS in everyday life
PARENTS:
 guilt-trips by/to your mother



previous events or relationships
other siblings
playing one parent against the other
RELATIONSHIPS:
 guilt-trips by/to your significant other


previous events or relationships
other boy/girlfriends
28
PATHOS in everyday life
CAR:
 to buy or keep

attraction, sentimentality, frustration
 to try to get out of a speeding ticket


appeal to your bad day, death in the family,
race or gender, to the officer’s race or gender
flirt, act dumb or innocent
29
PATHOS in everyday life
WORK:
 to argue with your boss



(to get a raise, promotion, break)
use your family, dedication
years of service, long shift
30
PATHOS in everyday life
WORK:
 as a customer:



to argue a price, repair work, warranty
coverage
use your years of customer loyalty, justifiable
anger or indignation
threaten to take your business elsewhere, to
write or call the supervisor, to take your issue
up the “food chain”
31
PATHOS in everyday life
 Sentimentality:

save the children commercials
 Hatred:


BAD PATHOS
mobs, gangs,
voters, anti-? demonstrations
 Patriotism:

rallies, parades, 9/11, commercials,
commercialization (not just USA patriotism)
 Love:

Valentine’s Day, ad/commercials, Web sites
32
PATHOS in everyday life
 Sex:


ad/commercials (cars, TAG)
Web sites
 Humor:


BAD PATHOS
stand-ups, cartoons
late-night shows (hit&run)
 Religiosity:


guilt-trips, hell fire & brimstone, hypocrisy
extremists, fundamentalists, cults
33
ETHOS
 “ethics”
 writer’s credibility, character
 characteristics of an ethical person:






benevolence, courage, credibility, decency
dedication, dignity, enthusiasm, good will
honesty, honor, idealism, intelligence
morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve, respect
responsibility, seriousness, sincerity
trustworthiness, valor, wisdom
34
EVALUATING ETHOS
Is the writer… ?






fair-minded
trustworthy
believable
sincere
honest
well-prepared
35
EVALUATING ETHOS
AN ETHICAL WRITER ...
 presents both sides of the issue AND
 is fair to both sides (Rogerian Method)
 shows different points of view
 appears well-versed on subject (accuracy)
 gives biography (job, education, credentials)
 uses data that’s well-researched (*authority)
 has displays of intellect/knowledge
 exhibits a sense of right & wrong
 is not manipulative (*with PATHOS)
 uses the voice of a concerned citizen addressing a serious
societal issue
 perhaps is challenging givens/bullies
 demonstrates good will & good intentions
 appears dedicated to the truth
36
ETHOS
TONE: (toward the subject and the audience)









concerned
caring, compassionate
interested
genuine, frank, earnest, honest
NOT sarcastic,
NOT self-aggrandizing, self-righteous
NOT condescending
NOT arrogant
NOT insincere
37
ETHOS
DANGER:



exploited to serve unethical ends:
pretending to be moral,
irresponsible/immoral persons presenting
themselves as responsible/moral
38
ETHOS EXAMPLES
SHAKESPEARE’S SONNET #130:
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
I grant I never saw a goddess go,
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
As any she belied with false compare.
39
ETHOS EXAMPLES
SONNET #130:

Same LOGOS as #18


14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
3 quatrains + couplet, contrasts
BUT…
 What is the Speaker’s tone?


Down-to-earth honesty, wit (anti-Petrarchan)
Mean-spirited sarcasm


“dun,” “black wires,” “reek”
“rare” =
 (1) precious, special (2) unusual, freakish
40
ETHOS EXAMPLES
POLONIUS to LAERTES:
Yet here, Laertes? Aboard, aboard, for
shame!
The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail
And you are stayed for. There, my
blessing with thee.
And these few precepts in thy memory
Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no
tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act.
Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar.
Those friends thou hast, and their
adoption tried,
Grapple them unto thy soul with hoops of
steel,
But do not dull thy palm with
entertainment
Of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade.
Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in,
Bear 't that th' opposèd may beware of
thee.
Give every man thy ear but few thy
voice.
Take each man's censure but reserve thy
judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not expressed in fancy—rich, not
gaudy,
For the apparel oft proclaims the man,
And they in France of the best rank and
station
Are of a most select and generous chief
in that.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be,
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of
husbandry.
This above all: to thine own self be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any
man.
Farewell. My blessing season this in
thee.
41
ETHOS EXAMPLES
 Polonius’ LOGOS:
 practical information
 aphorisms, maxims, clichés
 Polonius’ ETHOS:
 rambling, meddling old man
 fathering at last minute (and the ship’s waiting!)
 not practical, but selfish, self-serving
 opposite of Jesus: Beatitudes & faith, hope,
love/charity
 making Laertes into a “mini-Polonius”
 Polonius’ TONE?
 loving, tough love, thoughtful
 rambling, babbling, long-winded
 crude, manipulative, sinister, worldly
42
ETHOS EXAMPLES
 CLAUDIUS at PRAYER:
“My words fly up, my thoughts remain
below. / Words without thoughts never to
heaven go.” (3.3.98-99)
BAD ETHOS = “words without thoughts”
 insincerity, artificiality, dishonesty, duplicity,
hypocrisy
 heart vs. words
43
Other Examples of Ethos in
Shakespeare
 Claudius on death
 Claudius at prayer
 Lady Macbeth attacking her husband’s
manliness to convince him to murder Duncan
 Decius’ re-interpretation of Julius Caesar’s
dream to get him to go to the capital
 Mark Antony’s eulogy of Julius Caesar to sway
the mob against the Conspirators
44
ETHOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:


your best interest, no ulterior motives
advice from personal experiences
POLITICS:

political, religious, sports scandals


who do you believe?!
voting for a politician (record, accountability)
SCHOOL:
 request for help or argue a grade

factors: attendance, participation,
preparedness, tone
45
ETHOS in everyday life
PARENTS:



advice from experience
fair, consistent rulings (parents)
honesty, reliability, responsibility,
accountability (you)
RELATIONSHIPS:



trust
honesty, best interests, morals, values,
sincerity
responsibility, accountability
46
ETHOS in everyday life
CAR:


reliable dealer, quality service, good
reputation
responsibility, accountability, dependability
WORK:


attempt to be fair-minded, understanding,
calm, rational
you, your boss, the customer
47
ETHOS in everyday life
 false charm:


proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing
politician, serial killer, ex-boy/girlfriend
 hypocrites:

who say one thing but do another
BAD ETHOS
48
ETHOS in everyday life
 arguing a grade:


disrespectful tone
poor record
 relationships:

poor record, caught in a lie




lipstick, cig. smell
faulty reasoning
BAD
bullying
limited sense of right & wrong
ETHOS
THE
PERSUASIVE APPEALS
in everyday life:
A CASE STUDY
50
BASEBALL & STEROIDS
The STEROID Era
51
MITCHELL REPORT
DRAMATIS PERSONAE
Kirk Radomski
Barry Bonds
Brian McNamee
Sen. George Mitchell,
union leader Donald Fehr,
commissioner Bud Selig
Sammy Sosa, Jason Giambi, Rafael Palmeiro, Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Miguel Tejada
53
HE SAID-HE SAID
54
CREDIBILITY?
MITCHELL REPORT:




George Mitchell, former Senate Majority leader, Maine Democrat (retired 1995)
20-month investigation & report has no legal standing
relied on McNamee and Radomski (limited contact)
only 2 active players involved (Giambi, Frank Thomas)

only 5 approached to be interviewed
 only 68 of 500 former players interviewed
 remainder of the 700 = current or former club officials, managers, coaches,
team physicians, athletic trainers, or resident security agents
 failure to release most of the evidence from his probe on doping in baseball

(50+ documents referenced in footnotes )
 Conflict of interest:
 Mitchell is on the board of directors for the Boston Red Sox; no BRS prime player was
named, but prime NY Yankees players were
 leaked information prior to Game 7 of ALCS (Indians-Sox) @ Paul Byrd’s (Indians
pitcher) alleged steroids use
 chairman of the board of the Walt Disney Co., parent of ESPN, which has an eightyear, $2.4 billion contract to televise MLB games & is currently producing a reality
show with Barry Bonds
 Mitchell was hired by the Commissioner’s Office and then suggests in the report that
the CO have more testing power, rather than outside, independent testing
 players were named, but not team officials (who knew @ steroid use, traded players
when they quit)
55
CREDIBILITY?
RADOMSKI:
 a former New York Mets clubhouse attendant (11 yrs.)
 became the chief supplier of drugs for baseball players after the
2003 federal shut-down of BALCO
 after a December 2005 federal raid on his NY home (operation
base)
 pleaded guilty (April 2007 ) in SF to money laundering & to the
illegal distribution of anabolic steroids, human growth hormone,
Clenbuterol, amphetamines, & other drugs to McNamee and
current & former MLB players
 cooperated (17+ months) with the federal authorities and Mitchell’s
investigators in exchange for leniency (plea deal)






17+ months of cooperation
“undercover” distribution of steroids (wire)
his own distribution of steroids
his witnessing of steroid usage among Mets players
knowledge of steroids in general
Sentence: five years' probation & an $18,575 fine
56
CREDIBILITY?
McNAMEE:







a prior sexual assault allegation against him
prior public denials about giving steroids to
ballplayers
cooperated with federal authorities & Mitchell
as part of a plea agreement on steroids-dealing
charges
“drug dealer”
kept “blackmail” evidence
brought in Clemens’ wife
RC was not at the 1998 J. Canseco party in
Miami
57
CREDIBILITY?
CLEMENS:






Andy Pettitte’s recollection of a 1999 conversation
w/RC
Clemens’ wife Debbie used HGH, from McNamee, in
2003
McNamee was right @ Pettitte and Knoblauch
Mitchell Office’s notification to MLBPU in July
only B-12 and Lidocaine injections from McNamee
 Clemens had a "palpable mass" on his buttocks
that was, according to Toronto Blue Jays' doctors
& trainers, unlike anything they had ever seen
caused by such injections
Why would McNamee lie @ Clemens but not @ AP,
58
CREDIBILITY?
CONGRESS:

divided on party lines





Republicans = supported Clemens
Democrats = supported McNamee
Why? Clemens is from Texas and is a friend of
the Bush family.
off-topic: supposed to be on the credibility of
the Mitchell Report and not on individual
culpability
race: Barry Bonds = black, Roger Clemens =
white; in order not to appear to have shown
any bias, Congress wants to pursue Clemens
with the same zeal it did Bonds
59
CREDIBILITY?
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
MAJORITY (Democrats)
Henry Waxman, Chairman, California
Ed Towns, New York
Paul E. Kanjorski, Pennsylvania
Carolyn B. Maloney, New York
Elijah Cummings, Maryland
Dennis J. Kucinich, Ohio
Danny K. Davis, Illinois
John F. Tierney, Massachusetts
William Clay, Missouri
Diane Watson, California
Stephen Lynch, Massachusetts
Brian Higgins, New York
John Yarmuth, Kentucky
Bruce Braley, Iowa
Eleanor Holmes Norton, DC
Betty McCollum, Minnesota
Jim Cooper, Tennessee
Chris Van Hollen, Maryland
Paul Hodes, New Hampshire
Chris Murphy, Connecticut
John Sarbanes, Maryland
Peter Welch, Vermont

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MINORITY (Republicans)
Tom Davis, Ranking Member, Virginia
Dan Burton, Indiana
Christopher Shays, Connecticut
John M. McHugh, New York
John Mica, Florida
Mark Souder, Indiana
Todd Russell Platts, Pennsylvania
Chris Cannon, Utah
John James Duncan, Jr., Tennessee
Michael R. Turner, Ohio
Darrell Issa, California
Kenny Marchant, Texas
Lynn Westmoreland, Georgia
Patrick McHenry, North Carolina
Virginia Foxx, North Carolina
Brian Bilbray, California
Bill Sali, Idaho
Jim Jordan, Ohio
60
CREDIBILITY?
Committee Jurisdiction


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
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
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


Legislative Responsibilities
The legislative jurisdiction of the Committee on Oversight and
Government Reform includes the following areas, as set forth in
House Rule X, clause 1:
Federal civil service, including intergovernmental personnel; and the
status of officers and employees of the United States, including their
compensation, classification, and retirement;
Municipal affairs of the District of Columbia in general (other than
appropriations);
Federal paperwork reduction;
Government management and accounting measures generally;
Holidays and celebrations;
Overall economy, efficiency, and management of government
operations and activities, including federal procurement;
National archives;
Population and demography generally, including the Census;
Postal service generally, including transportation of the mails;
Public information and records;
Relationship of the federal government to the states and municipalities
generally; and
61
CREDIBILITY?
Oversight Responsibilities


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
The oversight responsibilities of the Committee are set forth in House Rule X, clauses 2, 3,
and 4.
House Rule X, clause 2(b), provides that the Committee shall review and study on a
continuing basis—
(A) the application, administration, execution, and effectiveness of laws and programs
addressing subjects within its jurisdiction;
(B) the organization and operation of Federal agencies and entities having responsibilities
for the administration and execution of laws and programs addressing subjects within its
jurisdiction;
(C) any conditions or circumstances that may indicate the necessity or desirability of
enacting new or additional legislation addressing subjects within its jurisdiction (whether or
not a bill or resolution has been introduced with respect thereto); and
(D) future research and forecasting on subjects within its jurisdiction.
House Rule X, clause 3(i), provides that the Committee shall “review and study on a
continuing basis the operation of Government activities at all levels with a view to
determining their economy and efficiency.”
House Rule X, clause 4(c)(1), provides that the Committee shall:
(A) receive and examine reports of the Comptroller General of the United States and submit
to the House such recommendations as it considers necessary or desirable in connection
with the subject matter of the reports;
(B) evaluate the effects of laws enacted to reorganize the legislative and executive branches
of the Government; and
(C) study intergovernmental relationships between the States and municipalities and
between the United States and international organizations of which the United States is a
member.
And House Rule X, clause 4(c)(2), provides that the Committee “may at any time conduct
investigations of any matter without regard to clause 1, 2, 3, or this clause [of House Rule X]
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PERSUASIVE APPEALS: - Luzerne County Community …