THE BIBLE It’s ORIGIN It’s HISTORY It’s RELIABILITY HOW DO WE KNOW THE BIBLE IS TRUE? 1.The accurate evidence of fulfilled prophecy - The prophecies were specific a. Empires rose & fell as Daniel predicted it b. Jesus’ birth, suffering, death & resurrection was predicted accurately Micah 5:2 – Matt 2:1 (Place of birth) Isaiah 7:14 – Matt 1:23 (Virgin birth) Isaiah 53:9 – Matt 27:57 (Burial place) c. Perilous times shall come (2 Tim 3) HOW DO WE KNOW THE BIBLE IS TRUE? 2. Archaeological findings prove the Bible to be true -The people, places & events mentioned in the Bible coincide with archaeological discoveries - Historically & scientifically accurate 3. The Bible was divinely structured & compiled - Collection of 66 books written by approx. 40 persons - Written over a period of 1,500-2,000 years with perfect unity & consistency HOW DO WE KNOW THE BIBLE IS TRUE? 4. The Bible is unique in its effect on mankind It appeals to hearts & minds and produces lasting effects Its counsel is sound, promises are true & its commands are wise WHAT DOES THE BIBLE CLAIM FOR ITSELF? WHAT DOES THE BIBLE CLAIM FOR ITSELF? 1. All Scripture is given by God. It is truth (Romans 3:4, 2 Tim 3:16) 2. The authors were supervised by the Holy Spirit (2 Peter 1:21, 1 Cor. 2:13, 2 Cor. 2:17) 3. Jesus endorsed the scriptures (Matt. 5:18) INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE INSPIRATION: God’s superintendence or supervision of the human authors so that using their own individual personalities, they composed and recorded without error his revelation to man. INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE CONFLICTING VIEWS ABOUT INSPIRATION 1. Partial Inspiration: only certain parts of the Bible are supernaturally inspired 2. Only the concepts are inspired but not the very words. The lesson you get from it becomes inspired. 3. Any believer is capable of writing Scripture 4. Bible authors were geniuses just like writers of other historical literature; it’s nothing supernatural. INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE Revelation: The process by which God communicated with man to write the Bible God communicated with man through Special Revelation. The two types of special revelation: External Revelation: God appearing to men & speaking in a clear, audible voice instructing them to write. (E.g. Moses – Exo. 17:14, 24:4, Deut. 31:9, Num. 33:1-2) INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE Internal Revelation: God using different mediums (dreams, visions, burdens) to communicate to selected men. (E.g. Malachi 1:1, Rev. 1:1, Paul’s epistles – “…by the will of God…”) The original scriptures were written in: HEBREW ARAMAIC: Similar to Hebrew /Official language of Persian empire (Parts of Ezra & Daniel are Aramaic) GREEK INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE WORDS IN ITALICS: -Words in italics were not included in the original writings - Added to scripture to help structure the sentence so that it makes sense - The original languages were written in a rough form of syntax & grammar. If presented as it was it would not be grammatically proper or easily understood in English. HOW WAS THE BIBLE COMPILED CANON: Literally means rule or measuring rod. It refers to the collection of books which passed a test of authenticity and authority to be accepted as the complete word of God. Were the right books included in the Bible? HOW WAS THE BIBLE COMPILED THE TEST FOR CANONICITY The books were already approved before tests were put to them. The council or early churches did not make the books authentic, the books already were. The council and early church recognized and verified certain books as the Word of God and in time were collected together as the Bible. The Council: “The Great Synagogue” consisted of 120 members which included Ezra, Haggai, Zechariah & Malachi (Neh. 8:4-13) The Early Church: Churches that began at Pentecost, during the missionary journeys & extended to the early church fathers. HOW WAS THE BIBLE COMPILED THE CRITERIA FOR TESTING CANON OF SCRIPTURES 1.The authority of the writer: Old Testament – Was the writer a prophet or lawgiver? New Testament – Was it written or endorsed by an apostle? 2.The authority of the word: The book should give internal evidence of authoritative unique character. It should commend itself to the reader as being different from an ordinary book in communicating the revelation of God. HOW WAS THE BIBLE COMPILED THE CRITERIA FOR TESTING CANON OF SCRIPTURES 3.The unanimous acceptance: The council & early churches were unified as to which books belonged to the canon 4.The unity of the books: They must bare some record of unity, relation or reference to other portions 5.The consistency of truth: They must not contradict truth or anything pertaining to God PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES WRITING MATERIALS PAPYRUS: The scriptures were written on papyrus which was made from reed (a stick-like plant). The reeds were cut into strips & placed line upon line at right angles, they were beaten, pressed & polished to form a primitive paper. Papyrus was rolled into a scroll. PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES WRITING MATERIALS ANIMAL SKIN: The scriptures were also written on animal skin which after processing was either called parchment or vellum. The document would resemble a book when finished. PEN & INK: Pens were made from stalks (sticks) or feathers called reeds or quill-pens. Ink was made from a black powdery substance (soot) & mixed with gum. Red ink came from gall apples. PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES PRESERVATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT - The O.T. was written by Moses, Joshua, Samuel & other prophets - Scrolls were kept in sacred places: Ark, Temple, Synagogue - Professional copying was done by priests, scribes & massoretes - The prophets tried to ensure that the word was not corrupted - The Jews reverenced the Word & treated it as sacred - The Jews memorized the word to pass it on or detect errors - Ezra & the Great Synagogue collected & standardized the O.T. PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES Scriptural reference to copying the O.T. Jer 36:28 Take thee again another roll, and write in it all the former words that were in the first roll, which Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath burned. Deut 17:18 And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites: Ezra 7:6,11 This Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given: and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him…Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, even a scribe of the words of the commandments of the LORD, and of his statutes to Israel. PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES PRESERVATION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT - Books & letters were written & circulated to believers & churches (Col. 4:16, 1 Thess. 5:27) - Copies were made of the originals - Some of the apostles probably made copies (2 Tim. 4:13) - Secretaries were appointed to write books & make copies (Rom. 16:22, 1 Peter 5:12) PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES THE COPYING OF SCRIPTURES - Massoretes - The Massoretes were very meticulous in copying the scriptures - The Massoretes were families of Jewish scholars & textual critics - They collected vital information about the text & established detailed rules for copying - They introduced vowels (Hebrew had no vowels) - They affixed accents (to ensure correct pronunciation) - They explained the meaning of words (when unclear) - They added punctuation marks (for fluent reading) - They counted the verses, words & letters PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES THE COPYING OF SCRIPTURES - Massoretes COPYING RULES 1. Only clean animal skins were to be used 2. Each skin must contain the same number of columns 3. Black ink was made from a special recipe 4. No word or letter was to be written from memory 5. If there was an error on a page the sheet was destroyed (including omission of one letter, one letter touching another) 6. Three mistakes on a page, the whole manuscript was condemned PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES GOD’S WORD IS PRESERVED & PROTECTED! Isa. 40:8 The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand for ever. Psalm 12:6-7 The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times. Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever Psalm 119: 151-152 Thou art near, O LORD; and all thy commandments are truth. Concerning thy testimonies, I have known of old that thou hast founded them for ever. Rev. 22:18-19 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES MANUSCRIPT DISCOVERIES -Manuscripts of the Bible were being discovered from as early as 6th century A.D. -The Dead Sea scrolls were discovered in 1947 in caves at Qumran in Jordan near the Dead Sea. These scrolls contained the entire book of Isaiah & fragments of every O.T. book except Esther -Another manuscript found was the Codex Sinaiticus which contained PART of the O.T. & ALL of the N.T. -Another important manuscript was found in 1859 at Mnt. Sinai called Codex Vaticanus this contained PART of the O.T. & PART of the N.T. (Fragments of other manuscripts were found in different places and times but the above ones had more volumes and were more reputable) PRESERVATION OF SCRIPTURES Two major texts that scholars translate from: 1. Byzantine Text (The Received Text) 2. Alexandrian Text TRANSLATION OF SCRIPTURES How we got the English version -285 B.C. (70-72) Scholars translated the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek: Septuagint -In the 2nd century A.D. the entire Bible was translated into “Old Latin” in Africa -450 A.D. the Old Latin was revised & entire Bible was translated to Latin “Vulgate” (common or current language of the people) done by Jerome. The Latin Vulgate was very instrumental in translating the Bible to English. -Portions of the Bible were being translated in English between the 7th10th century -John Wycliffe attempted a complete hand-written English translation in 1300’s -1525 William Tyndale completed all of the New Testament & part of the Old Testament in printed format. Multiple copies were distributed. -1535 the first complete English Bible was printed by Miles Coverdale OLD ENGLISH OF THE OUR FATHER PRAYER Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum, Si þin nama gehalgod. to becume þin rice, gewurþe ðin willa, on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg, and forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum. and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfele. soþlice. TRANSLATION OF SCRIPTURES How we got the English version -1539 “The Great Bible” (because of size) was printed by Thomas Cromwell & revised in 1568 -1560 the Geneva Bible was printed & dedicated to Queen Elizabeth -1568 the “Bishop’s Bible” was printed for the Roman Catholics -1611 the “Authorized Version” (King James Version) was printed -1881 the “English Revised Version” was printed -1901 the “American Standard Version” -1946 & 1952 the “Revised Standard Version” -1973-1979 the “New International Version” -1982 the “New King James Version” -1989 the “New Revised Standard Version” King James Version vs. New International Version COMPARISON The following TABLE (1) contains examples of VERSES that are present in the King James Version (KJV) but omitted from the New International Version (NIV) in the New Testament. NOTE: Not all the omitted verses are listed in the table below but for statistical purposes; a total of SEVENTEEN (17) VERSES are omitted from the New Testament of the NIV Bible. TABLE 1: VERSES omitted from the NIV Bible Mt 17:21 Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. Mt 18:11 For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost. Mt 23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. Mark 9:44 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. Mar 11:26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses. Lu 17:36 Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Lu 23:17 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.) John 5:4 For an angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of whatsoever disease he had. Acts 15:34 Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still. Acts 24:7 But the chief captain Lysias came upon us, and with great violence took him away out of our hands, Rom 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen 1 John 5:7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. The following TABLE (2) contains examples of PHRASES that are omitted from the NIV in the New Testament but present in the KJV NOTE: Not all the omitted phrases are listed in the table but for statistical purposes; a total of ONE HUNDRED & FORTY SEVEN (147) PHRASES are omitted from the New Testament of the NIV Bible. TABLE 2: PHRASES omitted from the NIV Bible Mt 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; Mt 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. Mt 20:16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen. Lu 4:8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Lu 9:56 For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village. Ac 9:5 And he said, Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. Ac 9:6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do. Ro 8:1 ¶ There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Ro 13:9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Ro 14:21 It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak. 1Co 6:20 For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's. Ga 3:1 ¶ O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you? Php 3:16 Nevertheless, whereto we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing. 1Ti 3:3 Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; 1Ti 6:5 Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself. 1Pe 4:14 If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. 1Jo 4:3 And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world. 1Jo 5:13 These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God. Re 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. Re 21:24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.