subjuntivitis
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
-AR VERBS

Take the first person of the verb

Remove –o and add endings
e
es
e
emos
éis
en
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
-ER / -IR VERBS
Take the first person of the verb


Remove –o and add endings
a
as
a
amos
áis
an
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
IRREGULARS

caber
quepa

dar
dé

estar
esté (accents all but 1st
person plu.)

haber
haya

ir
vaya

saber
sepa
ser
sea
(accents 1st and 3rd
person sing.)
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
RADICAL CHANGING VERBS
a) Change happens as in the present tense
e.g. VOLVER
vuelva
vuelvas
vuelva
volvamos
volváis
vuelvan
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
RADICAL CHANGING VERBS
b) 1ST AND 2nd PERSON PLURAL

o…….ir verbs O
e.g. DORMIR
U
duerma
duermas
duerma
durmamos
durmáis
duerman
THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
RADICAL CHANGING VERBS
b) cont.

e……ir verbs
e.g. SENTIR
E
I
sienta
sientas
sienta
sintamos
sintáis
sientan
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #1
EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE
para que
so that
a fin de que
in order to
con el objeto de que
with the objective of
de modo que
in such a way that
con tal que
provided that
a condición de que
on condition that
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #1
EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE, cont.
de manera que
so that
en caso de que
in case that
a menos que
unless
a no ser que
unless
sin que
without
antes de que
before
aunque
even though, even if
EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE - PRACTICE
1. I will fail the exam unless I study
2. It’s necessary to recycle so that we protect the
environment
3. She gives a lot to charity although she is poor
4. A hurricane can kill a lot of people unless they shelter
themselves
5. I’m going to tidy my room before my mum complains
EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE - PRACTICE
6. She can never do anything without her boyfriend
knowing
7. I have to close my eyes so that they don’t hurt
8. They read the paper a lot so that (which means that) they
are always aware of what is happening in the world
9. We’ll go to the disco unless it’s too busy
10. Warn him before it’s too late
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #1
ANSWERS
•
Suspenderé el examen a menos que estudie
•
Es necesario reciclar para que protejamos el medio
ambiente
3. Da mucho a obras benefices aunque sea pobre
4. Un huracán puede matar a mucha gente a menos que la
gente se abrige
5. Voy a arreglar mi dormitorio antes de que se queje mi
madre
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #1
ANSWERS
6. Nunca puede hacer nada sin que se entere/sepa su
novio
7. Tengo que cerrar los ojos para que no me duelan
8. Leen mucho el periódico de manera que siempre estén
enterados de lo que pasa en el mundo
9. Iremos a la discoteca a menos que sea demasiado
ocupada
10. Avísale antes de que sea demasiado tarde
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS
•Verbs of wanting, liking, ordering, advising, allowing
or causing someone/something to do an action
•Verbs of avoiding, preventing or prohibiting
someone/something from doing an action
•The subject of the two verbs must be different
e.g.
Quiero ayudar
¿Quieres que te ayude?
(I want, I help)
(you want, I help)
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
MOST COMMON VERBS
decir
mandar
sugerir
querer
permitir
exigir
pedir
implorar
prohibir
preferir
aconsejar
hacer
conseguir
lograr
impedir
recomendar
consentir (en)
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
EXAMPLES
Quiero que no tengas frío
It's irrelevant whether the person is cold or not.
The sentence expresses a wish, not reality.
Se permite que lleven chaquetas allí
The phrase expresses permission for an action
to take place.
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
Decide if the following require subjunctive or
not, and then choose the correct answer
1. I want you to eat with me.
Quiero que comes conmigo.
Quiero que comas conmigo.
Quiero que comieras conmigo.
Quiero que comís conmigo.
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
2. I want her to work.
Quiero la trabajar.
Quiero trabajarla.
Quiero que la trabajaba.
Quiero que trabaje.
Quiero que la trabaje.
Quiera la trabajar.
Quiera la trabaja.
Quiera que trabaja.
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
3. I want to work.
Quiero trabajar.
Quiera trabajar.
Quiera que trabaje.
Quiera trabaje.
Quisiera trabaje.
Quiero me trabaja.
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
A) INFLUENCING OTHERS, cont.
4. They want me to work.
Quieren me trabajar.
Quieren me trabaje.
Quieren que me trabaje.
Quieren que trabaje.
Quieran que trabaje.
Quieran que me trabaje
B) EMOTIONAL REACTIONS
AFTER VERBS / EXPRESSIONS OF JOY,
SADNESS, ANGER, SORROW, FEAR, ETC..
sentir
alegrarse (de que)
estar contento (de que)
estar sorprendido (de que)
temer que
e.g. Nos alegra mucho que puedas estar aquí
C) VALUE JUDGEMENTS
REACTIONS OF INDIGNATION, INCREDULITY,
JUSTIFICATION, APPROVAL, DISAPPROVAL
OR CONCERN
es lástima que
sería mejor que
es una verguenza que
es asqueroso que
es increíble que
e.g. Es una verguenza que no podamos salir sin miedo
No me gustó que ocurriese así
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #2
Influence, emotion, judgement
PRACTICE
1.
I begged them to be quiet
2.
I want you all to listen to me
3.
He permitted us to go to Spain
4.
They wanted me to eat squid!
5.
Tell Josie not to watch TV
6.
I ask you to accept my offer
7.
I’d prefer you to come tomorrow
8.
I’d rather you came tomorrow
9.
11. We hope you will return next
year
12.I’m afraid he may leave me
13.I am surprised that you travel
first class
14.How strange that they’re not
here!
15.He is surprised that you are
saying that
16.I am scared that it may upset
him
17.It annoys me that you complain so
much
She was afraid that he would follow
her
18.It surprises me that he hasn’t
written to us
10.We are sorry you are stressed
19.It’s incredible that he has
behaved like that!
It is disgusting that young people
have to live like that
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #3
DOUBT, DISBELIEF & POSSIBILITY
A) EXPRESSIONS OF DOUBT
dudar que
to doubt whether
es dudoso que
it’s doubtful whether
parece dudoso que
it seems doubtful that
resulta dudoso que
it turns out to be doubtful that
temer que
to be afraid that
esperar que
to hope that
e.g. Es dudoso que nos ayuden
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #3
DOUBT, DISBELIEF & POSSIBILITY
A) EXPRESSIONS OF DOUBT
In the negative, these expressions take the indicative
e.g. No dudo que vais a aprobar
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #3
DOUBT, DISBELIEF & POSSIBILITY
B) EXPRESSIONS OF UNCERTAINTY
Expressions of uncertainty in the NEGATIVE
+ subjunctive
e.g. No es cierto que sepan la verdad
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #3
DOUBT, DISBELIEF & POSSIBILITY
C) EXPRESSIONS OF DISBELIEF
Verbs of knowing, saying, thinking in NEGATIVE
+ subjunctive
e.g.
No creo que sea el caso
No puedo decir tenga razón
Questions with negative implications
e.g. ¿Tú crees que todo salga bien?
N.B. If you don’t know/can’t say/don’t think so =
DOUBT
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #3
DOUBT, DISBELIEF & POSSIBILITY
D) POSSIBILITY/PROBABILITY
imply doubt (not total certainty) = subjunctive
Es posible/probable que
Parece /Resulta /probable que
Hay/existe la posibilidad/probabilidad de que
Puede (ser) que
Imploré que estuvieran callados
Quiero que me escuchéis todos
Permitió que fuéramos a España
Quieren que coma calamares
Di a Josie que no vea la tele
Ruego que aceptes mi oferta
Prefiero que vengas mañana
Preferiría que vinieras mañana
Temía que le siguiera
Sentimos que estés estresado/a
Esperamos que vuelvas el año que viene
Temo que me deje
Me sorprende que viajes de primera clase
¡Qué raro que no estén aquí!
Le sorprende que digas eso
Temo que le moleste
Me molesta que te quejes tanto
Me extraña que no nos escriba
Es increíble que se haya comportado así
Es asqueroso que los jóvenes tienen que vivir de esa manera
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
A)
FUTURITY
The subjunctive must be used after the following
expressions when they refer to actions which have
not yet taken place but which may (or may not)
take place in the future:
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
A) FUTURITY
así que
so
en cuanto
as soon as
tan pronto como
no bien…
no sooner…(than…)
hasta que
until
después de que
after
mientras
as long as…., while….
una vez que
once
cuando
when
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
e.g.
Hasta que se cambie la ley, no podremos hacer nada
Mientras no se cambie la ley, …..
N.B. Use the subjunctive when the action had not
taken place at the time of reference
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
e.g.
Todos estábamos de acuerdo de que no podríamos
hacer nada hasta que se cambiara la ley
We were all agreed that we wouldn’t be able to do
anything until the law was changed
**When these expressions are used to record a fact
with no reference to the future, they are followed by
the indicative
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
B)
PURPOSE
Subjunctive used after phrases meaning ‘so that, in
order that’, which indicate purpose
para que
a que
a fin de que
con el objeto de que
de modo que
e.g. Doy muchos deberes para que aprobéis el examen
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
C)
EXPRESSIONS REQUIRING SUBJUNCTIVE
antes de que
before
con tal que
provided that
a condición de que
on condition that
a no ser que
unless
a menos que
unless
sin que
without
aunque
even though, even if
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE #4
FUTURITY, PURPOSE & OTHER EXPRESSIONS
C)
EXPRESSIONS REQUIRING SUBJUNCTIVE,
cont.
e.g.
Iré al parque a menos que llueva
**When ‘aunque’ means ‘although’, and simply
reports a fact, it is followed by the indicative
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