El Subjuntivo
No es tan complicado…
En Español
The subjuntivo is not a tense; rather, it is a
mood.
Tense refers to when an action takes place
(past, present, future), while mood merely
reflects how the speaker feels about the action.
The subjunctive mood is rarely used in
English, but it is widely used in Spanish.
Many common expressions introduce
subjunctive clauses:
Es una pena que... "It is a shame that..."
Quiero que... "I want..."
Ojalá... "I hope..."
Es importante que... "It is important that..."
Me alegro de que... "I am happy that..."
Es bueno que... "It is good that..."
Es necesario que... "It is necessary that..."
Dudo que... "I doubt that..."
How to form:
1. Conjugate to the present tense first
person singular form. (ex. hablar -->
hablo)
2. Drop the o (hablo --> habl)
3. Add the opposite ending (habl --> hable,
hables, hable, hablemos, habléis, hablen)
Verb Endings
AR
ER
IR
Singular
e
Plural
emos
es
e
éis
en
1st Person
2nd Person
Singular
a
as
Plural
amos
áis
3rd Person
a
an
1st Person
2nd Person
3rd Person
HABLAR
Singular
Plural
1st Person
hable
hablemos
2nd Person
hables
habléis
3rd Person
hable
hablen
PONER
Singular
Plural
1st Person
ponga
pongamos
2nd Person
pongas
pongáis
3rd Person
ponga
pongan
SALIR
Singular
Plural
1st Person
salga
salgamos
2nd Person
salgas
salgáis
3rd Person
salga
salgan
-CAR / -GAR / -ZAR
These verbs change spelling to preserve vowel sound.
BUSCAR
Singular
Plural
1st Person
busque
busquemos
2nd Person
busques
busquéis
3rd Person
busque
busquen
LLEGAR
Singular
Plural
1st Person
llegue
lleguemos
2nd Person
llegues
lleguéis
3rd Person
llegue
lleguen
COMENZAR Singular
Plural
1st Person
comience
comencemos
2nd Person
comiences
comiencéis
3rd Person
comience
comiencen
Irregulares: DISHES
Dar, Ir, Ser, Haber, Estar, Saber
DAR
1st Person
Singular
dé
Plural
demos
2nd Person
3rd Person
des
dé
déis
den
IR
1st Person
Singular
vaya
Plural
vayamos
2nd Person
3rd Person
vayas
vaya
vayáis
vayan
Más Irregulares - DISHES
SER
1st Person
2nd Person
Singular
sea
seas
Plural
seamos
seáis
3rd Person
sea
sean
HABER
1st Person
Singular
haya
Plural
hayamos
2nd Person
3rd Person
hayas
haya
hayáis
hayan
…Más Irregulares - DISHES
ESTAR
1st Person
2nd Person
3rd Person
Singular
esté
estés
esté
Plural
estemos
estéis
estén
SABER
Singular
Plural
1st Person
sepa
sepamos
2nd Person
3rd Person
sepas
sepa
sepáis
sepan
¿Cuándo se usa el subjuntivo?
2 clauses
Subjunctive trigger verb or expression, a.k.a.
“WEIRDO” element
“QUE” or other connector
Change of subject from clause 1 to clause 2
Cláusula Principal
+
QUE
Indicativo
Verbo especial, es decir, “trigger”
+
Cláusula Subordinada
Subjuntivo
Sujeto diferente
In general, the subjunctive is a mood that is
used to express an action or state of being that
reflects the speaker's reaction to it.
Most commonly (although not always), the
subjunctive verb is used in a clause that starts
with the relative pronoun que (meaning
"which," "that" or "who").
Frequently, the sentences that contain a
subjunctive verb are used to express doubt,
uncertainty, denial, desire, commands or
reactions to the clause containing the
subjunctive verb.
W
Wishes
E
Emotion
I
Impersonal Expressions
R
Requests/Recommendations
D
Doubt / Denial
O
Ojalá / Obligation
La fórmula
Main Verb + que + New Subject + Subjunctive
Quiero+ que + ella+ me llame
I want her to call me.
Formula for when subjunctive is used
S1 + V1 + QUE + S2 + V2
This VERB has to TRIGGER the
subjunctive. It must denote
emotion, denial, uncertainty,
volition, influence, desire, etc.
This verb will
be in the
subjunctive.
Indicativo = Normal
No influence
Straight forward
Business-like…
No emotion
Just the facts, ma’am.
Subjuntivo = Tipo jipi
Hypothetical…
Emotional…
Philosophizing…
Doubting…
Unsure…
In Denial…
Under the
influence…
Desire…
Unknown future
outcomes…
Subjunctive Triggers of Influence
Querer
Recomendar
Insistir (en)
Sugerir
Preferir
Pedir
Mandar
Es necesario
Prohibir
Es urgente
Permitir
Es importante
Desear
Es mejor
Lista
completa
p. 135
+ que + subjunctive
Te sugiero que hables con tus padres.
Subjunctive Triggers of Emotion
Alegrarse de
Es mejor
Esperar
Es bueno
Sentir
Es malo
Temer
Es ridículo
Tener miedo de
Es terrible
Gustar
Es una lástima
Molestar
Es urgente
Sorprender
¡Qué extraño
Es extraño
¡Qué lástima
Es increible
Me alegro de que vayas a estudiar en México.
Lista
completa p.
136
+ que + subjunctive
Subjunctive Triggers of Doubt & Denial
No creer
Es probable
Dudar
No es probable
Negar
Es improbable
No es cierto
No es
improbable
No es seguro
No es verdad
Lista
completa
p. 136
+ que + subjunctive
No estar
seguro/a (de)
Es posible
No es posible
Dudo que hayas estudiado para el examen.
Videos that Explain Usage
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlJxXPtv0cE&feature=
related (Formation - Irregulars)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rTTcm9OAcDo&featur
e=related (Influence)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOsgpBgQDiA&featur
e=related (Emotion)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjLJgCkRkjM&feature
=related (Doubt and Denial)
Gracias!
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El Subjuntivo - gallegoscentral