Chapter Nine:
Latin American Music
1
Four Major Categories of Latin
American Music
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Indigenous Music
Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo
(mixed ancestry) Folk Music
African influenced Music
Urban Popular Music
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Indigenous Peoples
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Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya,
and Inca.
South America, over 100 languages and
2000 dialects.
Several conquests over the past 500 years,
Spanish or Portuguese; genocide of much
indigenous population, early 16th century
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Instruments
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Indigenous instruments
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Flutes (kenas), ocarinas, conches, panpipes
(zampoñas), and various percussion instruments
(see the Sue Reichling presentation, class 36)
Non-indigenous (imported) instruments
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String instruments, related to violin, harp, and
guitar
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South America
Andes Mountain Region
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Andes Village Musicians, featuring panpipes & drums
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Panpipes with Kena,
Ozark Empire Fair
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Two Against Three
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Where have we seen this before?
Sesquialtera (simultaneous division of the
measure by 3 and by 2)
Hemiola (3 in the space of 2)
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IV:7 “Pajarillo”
European Renaissance music
Brahms
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Nueva Canción
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Nueva Cancion originated in Chile as a modern and
socially conscious musical style and message that draws
attention to the struggles for dignity by everyday people.
“El Lazo” (IV:8)
Pica Pica, by a composer from Springfield’s sister city in
Mexico, Tlaquepaque, is not so political in tone.
Sesquialtera = simultaneous feeling of 6/8 and 3/4 meters
(two against three).
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“America” from West Side Story alternates 6/8 and 3/4
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Pica, Pica
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Abran muy bien sus ojitos,
Agradezco su atencion
Con el degido respeto
Voy a entonar me cancion.
Open your eyes very wide,
I am grateful for your attention
With due respect
I am going to sing my song.
Identedad de mi pueblo,
Clutivo de mis ancestros,
Yo les presento un amigo,
Por favor tomen su asiento.
Intentity of my people,
Cultivation of my ancestors,
I introduce you to a friend,
Please take your seats.
Con el maiz y el frijol,
Plantas hermanas del sol,
El chile es tan mexicano,
Como el mariachi y su son.
With the corn and the bean,
Sister plants of the sun,
The Chile is so Mexican,
Like the mariachi and its rhythm
Pica, Pica, Dale a tu vida sabor,
Hot, Hot, give flavor to your life
Pica, pica, Milagro de esta region;
Hot, Hot, miracle of this region;
Pica, pica, Travieso y vcilador,Hot, Hot, mischievous and playful,
Pica, pica, Alburero y trovador.
Magician and troubadour.
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No tengan miedo senores,
Esto es cuestion de semblanza,
Aqui la cosa es calmada,
Pueden agarrar confianza.
Have no fear people,
This is a question of
similarities.
Here, things are calm,
You can trust.
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Hay ena gran variedad,
Hay diferentes sabores,
De formas y de colores,
Como podran apreciar.
There is a great variety,
There are different flavors
Of shapes and colors
As you will be able to
appreciate.
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Hay mulato y hay serrano,
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Y entre otros el cascabel,
Y uno que se cree muy ancho,
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A ver quien puede con el.
There are dark ones and
others from the mountain.
And among other the bell,
And one that thinks himself
very wide.
Let’s see who can put up with him.
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Chorus
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El guero le dijo al gordo,
Por ahi viene el jalapeno
Anda buscando camorra,
Junto con el cuaresmeno.
The blond said to the fat one
There comes the jalaapeno.
He’s looking for trouble,
Together with the one who is
the lesser.
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El manzano es muy tranquilo,
No seas guajillo le dicen,
The banana is pretty calm.
They say to him, “Don’t be a
hillbilly,
Si ya te quieres ir, vete,
Porque ahi viene el molcajete.
If you want to go, leave,
Because there comes the
troublemaker.”
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"me agarran desprevenido,”
Grito el chipotle maldito
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Y el piquin que le responde,
“They catch me unprepared,”
Shouted the cursed chile
chipotle.
And the little hot chili
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responded,
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"a mi me pelan fresquito”
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Chorus
“They skin me raw.”
Translation by Steve Breedlove
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Bolivian K’antu
h
“Kutirimunapaq” (CD IV:9)
“Hocketing panpipes, with rhythmic melodies played in parallel fifths and octaves
and a strong, steady rhythm on a large drum.”
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Instruments including multiple (over 20!) zampoña, wankara
drum, and ch’inisku (triangle).
hocket = alternating notes of melody among several voices
and/or instruments (as in the panpipes of this example).
Doubling of melodic line in parallel octaves and fifths.
Formal structure of ABC, and repeated
Continuous dancing along with the music
13
The Quichua of the Northern
Andes of Ecuador
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Comunas (small clusters of houses) on
the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi
Language is Quichua
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Traditions
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Traditional agriculture and material culture
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Maize; Cabuya cactus provides fiber
Homes are one room, covered patio, mud
walls, dirt floor
Men wear white or blue shirts, white pants, dark
poncho, hats; women wear embroidered
blouses, shawls, two skirts with two belts; dress
not changed much since 16th century
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Strong sense of community
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Common language, dress, material culture
Same diet of beans and potatoes
Weekly markets
Periodic community work projects
Fiestas
Communication carried by foot; walking, or
purina, is vital to daily life
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Sanjuán
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A type of song played at the festival of
St. John the Baptist
A type of dance performed at that
festival
Now a popular song form
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Harp
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Without pedals (one scale)
In the region for hundreds of years
Initially brought from European missionaries
Typically a male occupation
Cascarón (CD IV:10)
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Form of sanjuanes
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Strophic
Phrase length often lasts eight beats
Short-long-short rhythmic motive
Rhythm of first half often identical with
second half (isorhythm)
Some sanjuanes are sung, while
others are instrumental
Walking and wandering is an
important metaphor in text
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Two Classic Sanjuáns
h Rosa Maria’s House A-Burning (CD IV:11)
Harp, Voice (and golpe)
h
Ilumán tiyu (CD IV:12)
Violin, kenas, guitars, drum, and voice
Classic sanjuán
Highly popular song in the 1980s and 1990s
Composer was saying “remember me”
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Compare to “One Song, Glory” from Rent
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The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon
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Widespread phenomenon in the Andes and
beyond
Music making is an important means of
socialization among Quichua youths
Featured regularly for tourists
In the United States, many groups have
become popular and widely known
Peruvian wayno
h
Amor imposible (CD:12)
Performed by Chaskinakuy
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Additional Equadorian Music
h Vacación (IV:14) A Child’s Wake
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Toro Barroso (IV:16) Don César Muqinche
h
Vamos pa’ Manabi (IV:17) Bomba
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Chapter 9: Latin American Music