Broadcast Technology
RTV 151
Internet & WWW
Broadband etc.
Internet Review
 Advanced Research Projects Agency
 Pentagon / University relationship
 LANs and WANs
 Single location / wide geographic area
 ARPANET combined with LANs and
WANs became the Internet in 1983
 TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf)
 Packet switching and IP addresses
Domain Name System (DNS)
 IP address
 Text-based DNS translates human language into the
computer’s ‘phone number’
TLD -- .com , .net, .edu
 ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list)
 Determined by IANA, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Organizational identifier – tamuc , google
Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Buy domains from registrars (Mad Dog, GoDaddy,
Programs on the Internet…
 WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML
language which led to Mosaic
 A browser interprets the HTML
 Web page creation...
 XML--extensible markup language
 SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on
 XHTML--another form of XML
 App creation
Programs on the Internet…
 E-mail
 Newsgroups / Usenet (link)
 Chat / IM (AIM, iChat, Meebo)
 Telnet (link)
 FTP (Fetch, etc.)
 Internet Phone (Skype, Google Voice)
 Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life,
podcasts…) Video streams (Bittorent,
Veoh, Hulu, clicker)
What’s going on today…
 Blogs / moblogs / vlogs
 Journalism / bloggers
 RSS feeds
 Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software
 New economic models -- Google
 Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA
 Other issues
 Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to Internet
sites, net neutrality (Comcast)
Web 2.0?
 Google Docs (YouTube ‘tutorial’) / Drive
 Apple OS X Leopard / Snow Leopard / Lion /
Mountain Lion
 What is ‘Digital Media’? / New Media -Canada DMS
 What is ‘Internet 2’?
 Increase speeds
 Spread technologies and applications
 Take advantage of digital libraries, virtual
laboratories, tele-immersion
 What is Web 2.0?
Web 2.0
What is…
 Digg?
 Stumble Upon?
 Photobucket?
 Jumpcut?
 The WayBack Machine?
 The Machine is using us?
 Otherwise going on…………. ?
Mobile Computing Devices
 PDAs (personal digital assistant – ‘Newton’)
 Functions / changes through the years
 Vehicle fixed / portable
 Satellite connection vs. most others
 Cell Phones
 iPhone example (smart phone)
 Portable Video Games
 GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies
 Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site)
 CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies
 Wearable Computers?
 Tablets
Broadcasting vs. streaming
 DTV – multicasting
 DVB-H (digital video broadcasting -
handheld) standard for broadcasting to
 DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting)
for multimedia broadcasting -- not
available in North America
 Streaming allows VOD -- AT&T Mobile
(MediaFlo), Verizon (ending 12/2012)
 Backseat TV
Developing Technologies
 3G / 4G cell phones -- packet and circuit switching
 Wi-Fi
 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of specifications
developed by the IEEE for wireless LAN technology.
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
pronounced I-triple-E
 WiMax
 Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless
"metropolitan area networks". Provides broadband
wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed
stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations.
 WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited
in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
Why 802?
 The 802 group is the section of the IEEE
involved in network operations and
technologies, including mid-sized networks
and local networks. Group 15 deals
specifically with wireless networking
technologies, and includes the now
ubiquitous 802.15.1 working group, which is
also known as Bluetooth.
Developing Technologies
 Bluetooth
 Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark in the
late 900s
 There are lots of different ways that electronic devices can
connect to one another--Component cables, Electrical
wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi, Infrared signals…
 Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard that works at
two levels:
 It provides agreement at the physical level -- Bluetooth
is a radio-frequency standard;
 AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level, where
products have to agree on when bits are sent, how
many will be sent at a time, and how the parties in a
conversation can be sure that the message received is
the same as the message sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA-Starfield example)
Developing Technologies
 ZigBee
 The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless
 Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging patterns
many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen.
The standard is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee
Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.
 Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large packet
user devices--laptops, phones, major peripherals….
 ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient connectivity
between small packet devices.
Developing Technologies
 Wireless personal area network
 Bluetooth and Zigbee
 Personal hotspots
 “IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees”
 “New chip promises to track kids from miles away”
 Tracks things and people
 DTV? / HD Radio
 Multicasting channels -- data transmission?
 Two way interactivity
 FCC approval
Technical changes
 Copper wires to fiber optic cable
 Circuit Switching to packet switching
 Landline to wireless
 Convergence of technologies and
Technical examples
Fiber Optic Technicians (jobs promotion)
Early telephones (women as operators)
Early telephones (dialing a rotary phone)
(push button phone)
Making ‘free’ phone calls (discussion VoIP)
Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat
Google Voice
Cell Phones
 Early -- 2-way radio type service
 Phone / ‘cells’ / towers
 Ugly towers?
 Connects to Mobile Telephone Switching
Office (MTSO)
 Going to another cell phone in same area on
same service, routed to another tower
 To another service or a landline, routed to the
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
 ‘two-way radio’ style
 ‘cellular’ process developed by (‘old’) AT&T
 IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- ‘advanced
mobile phone service
 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s
 CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA: Sprint,
 GSM type adopted first in Europe (AT&T / TMobile)
 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -switch to packet switching (Interim -- ‘2.5G’
 Verizon, AT&T, Sprint & T-Mobile all offer
high speed 3G wireless networks. All moving
to 4G...but, interim technologies
 3G -- about 3 mbps throughput; 4G about 10
mbps (about 10x faster)
 Based on phone AND network infrastructure
3G vs. 4G
 Explanation
 Direct link
Cell phone as hybrid medium
 Delivery of video to cellular phones is becoming
more widespread… voice / data … and
Verizon’s V-Cast service (3G EV-DO) MobiTV service.
Both use the cellular network to deliver the
New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed
by Qualcomm, uses part of the television
broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send multimedia content to mobile phones (as noted before).
Allows wireless carriers to offer video content
without taking up much needed bandwidth in their
cellular network.
What is broadband?
 ITU -- minimum speed of 256 kilobits/second
 FCC -- 1996 Telecommunications Act: 200
Kb/s bidirectionally
 Wired
 Wireless
 Satellite
 Alternate: DTV multicast channels (etc.)
Broadband delivery -- wired
 DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access multiplexer)
 IPTV (AT&T: U-verse, Verizon: FiOS)
 Dedicated line (no slowdown)
 Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0)
 Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
 Shared down trunk line (slowdown)
 Information service / no open access
 Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P)
 FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial cable for cable &
twisted-pair copper for DSL
 Broadband over power line (BPL)
 Interference
 State approval
Broadband delivery -- wireless
Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS)
3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G)
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (‘WLAN’)
Wi-Max (802.16)
 HughesNet & WildBlue (several now)
 Latency problem (VoIP, games) “a time delay
between the moment something is initiated, and
the moment one of its effects begins or becomes
Broadband today
 “Survey Says Broadband To Lag TV in 2012. Forget About It”
by: Will Richmond
 This piece in recent Hollywood Reporter about a newlyreleased survey ("Broadband Won't Overtake TV, Execs Say")
caught my eye because it continues a highly speculative,
and largely irrelevant debate pervasive throughout the
industry about future video consumption patterns.
 Why's the debate highly speculative? Because truly, none of
us has any idea how people will consume video in 2012.
There are just too many variables and too many unknowns
to make an accurate prediction.
 BUT – ‘mobile media’ – ‘Internet TV’
Broadband today (cont)
 Here's a point of comparison:
 let's say 5 years ago, in 2002, you were asked what
percentage of Americans would consume broadband video
in a given month?
 How many (or few!) of us would have predicted a whopping
75%? (the correct answer according to comScore in July
 Better yet, how many of us would have guessed that over
25% of this consumption would be at just one site
(YouTube) - a site that didn't even exist in 2002?
 Given these examples, who's to predict what 2012 will
Broadband today (3)
 Sites like,, etc. driving a whole new category
of video that could eventually be a more
popular format than 30 or 60 min. programs.
 Consumers themselves are driving this
"broadband or TV" debate into irrelevance.
 They're busy accessing programming on
demand - whether "broadband" or "TV" through a host of devices and services whose
popularity is only going to skyrocket in the
future. These include TiVo, Xbox, Netflix,
Amazon Unbox and many others.
Broadband Today (4)
 With the proliferation of available
broadband video comes a massive user
navigation challenge. Modern Feed launched
(4/8/08) (now Clicker) to address this.
 Part search engine, part aggregator, with a
specific focus on indexing professionallyproduced programming, not user-generated
video. It's also focused on actual programs,
not promotional clips.
Broadband Today (5)
 J.D. Heilprin, Modern Feed's founder/CEO:
 the company is targeting mainstream users providing
the easiest way to find available, high-quality video.
 It employs a team of "Feeders" charged with curating
the best videos to include on the site. The result is
approximately 550 "networks" and 25,000 pieces of
content now indexed
 ”Networks" is a loose term ranging from traditional
broadcasters to indies new entrants like Boston
Symphony or Architectural Digest.
 Name changed to Clicker
 All My Children, One Life to Live examples
Home Networks
 Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router)
 ‘the key device in most home networks’
 Wired (server / hub / router) LAN
 Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11)
 Interconnects all computers and other IP
 Connects the home network to the
broadband connection
‘Specs’ Technical
specifications or standards
 Like all issues – establish technical standards
 HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance
-- technology, built on Ethernet, allows all
the components of a home network to
interact over the home's existing telephone
wiring without disturbing the existing voice
or fax services
 IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Proprietary or agreed-upon?
 VHS vs. Beta (home)
 DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVD+R / RW vs.
SD cards or compact flash cards
HD-DVD vs. BluRay
WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc.
Home ‘hot spot’ Applications?
 Multiple networked computers
 Computers share one printer
 Integration of phone / cable or
satellite systems / DVR, Slingbox,
etc. with IP
 Security system connections
Home ‘hot spot’ Applications?
 Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been
working with Whirlpool to allow users to
monitor their laundry with their home
network, computer, TV, and cell phone.
 Continuing growth in American homes
operating a wireless network, making the US
the leader in adoption of wireless home
Wireless security
 Wireless ‘cloud’ -- public places
 Encryption types
 WEP -- Wired Equivalency Privacy
 easily hacked -- do a ‘Cracking wi-fi’ or cracking WEP search on YouTube
Wireless Hacking / WEP hacking / Free wi-fi anywhere
 WPA -- Wi-Fi Protected Access
 128 bit encryption
 WPA Personal -- password protected
 WPA-Enterprise -- server verified
 Evil Twins
 Phony hotspots to steal information
What else?
 RFID (ubiquitous?)
 Smart Home (video) / robotics
 Speech recognition
 Types: Discrete, continuous & complete
 Speech recognition gone awry
 Better success demo (click screen when page loads)
 Ultra HD video (cinema--replace film projection)
 Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo)
 Wikis
 GIGO conundrum?
 LA Times experiment
 Google docs as collaborative authoring?
Virtual / Augmented Reality
 Second Life (promo/commercial)
 Google Earth and other competitors
 Education, Entertainment, etc. in a
‘virtual world’?
 Computer speed, power and storage
 How to simulate touch, smell, taste
 HMD, haptics, immersive environment

Technical Foundations of Digital Media DMST 5232