Interaction Devices
Chandra Kelley
Sandeep Parwaga
Human Interaction Devices
The study of interaction between people (users) and computers
Often regarded as the intersection of computer science, behavioral
sciences and design and other fields of study
Because human-computer interaction studies a human and a
machine in conjunction, it draws from supporting knowledge on both
the machine and the human side. On the machine side, techniques
in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages,
and development environments are relevant. On the human side,
communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines,
linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, and human
performance are relevant.
1943 John Mauchly and Presper Eckert -- ENIAC, the world’s first all electronic
numerical integrator and computer
1945 Vanevar Bush – Memex, a memory expander, conceiving Hypertext and the
World Wide Web, envisioned as microfilm but computer.
1960 J.R. Licklider – postulated “Man-Computer Symbiosis“, which
revolutionized human and machines interaction and information handling, the goals
and visions
1962 Douglas Engelbart – Word processor, which features automatic word wrap,
search, replace, macros, scrolling, move, copy and delete.
1963 Ivan Sutherland – Sketchpad, a graphic system which had a sophisticated
drawing package and introduced many ideas in today’s interfaces.
1965 Ted Nelson – coined term of “hypertext”
1966-1967 William Newman – Reaction handler, the first widget which provided
direct manipulation of graphics, and introduced light handles
1968 Douglas Engelbart – Augment/NLS, an on line system, a hypermedia
document system, featured tiled windows, mouse, chord keyboard and command line
interface. He provoded a conceptual framework for Augmenting Human Intellect
History (con’t)
1968 MIT Lincoln Labs—AMBGIT, an iconic representation, dynamic menus and
used pointing device
1969 Alan Kay – FLEX, an early object orientated language, “Dynabook“ a vision
and cardboard prototype of a notebook computer.
1969 – 1980 Nicholas Negroponte – MIT machine architecture had many innovative
1973 Xerox PARC – Alto, the first personal workstation, base on raster dispaly
1974 Ted Nelson -- “Computer Lib/Dream Machines“, described what comuters
can do for people instead of business
1974 Charls Simonyi and Butler Lampson – Bravo, document editing system for
the Alto, Larry Tessler – BravoX, WYSIWIG text-editor
1975 David Canfield – Pygmalion, A Computer Program to model and stimulate
creative thought, which coined the term “ icons”
1975 Ed Roberts/MITS -- ALTAIR 8800, an electronics article that showed people
how to build a computer for under $400
1977 Alan Key – Dynabook, a handheld computer helper which direct manipulates
interfaces. Ideas:
1981 Xerox – Star, the first commercial PC designed for “business professionals“ as
an office automation system which had overlapping windows, the revolutionary
1981 IBM – PC, assembed by stadard components, low cost, command interface and
1982 Ben Shneiderman -- describes graphically-based interaction, visibility of
objects, incremental action and rapid feedback, which coined the term “direct
1983 Apple – Lisa, text based system, redesign as graphical system similar to Xerox
Star but more personal than office tool. commercial was a failure because of
1984 Apple/Steve Jobs – Macintosh, the first commercial graphics destop
microcomputer based on Alto and Star, old ideas but well done. With aggressive
princing, it was successful commercially.
1987 Microsoft – Windows, a Mac imitation with some improvements: collaborative,
iterative and multi-disciplinary.
Types of Interaction Devices
 Video Games
 Cell Phones
 Keyboards
 Voice Recognition
 Microphones
 Others
Development of the Mouse
The Mouse: The mouse was developed at Stanford Research
Laboratory (now SRI) in 1965 as part of the NLS project (funding
from ARPA, NASA, and Rome ADC) to be a cheap replacement for
light-pens, which had been used at least since 1954
Many of the current uses of the mouse were demonstrated by Doug
Engelbart as part of NLS in a movie created in 1968.
The mouse was then made famous as a practical input device by
Xerox PARC in the 1970's.
It first appeared commercially as part of the Xerox Star (1981), the
Three Rivers Computer Company's PERQ (1981), the Apple Lisa
(1982), and Apple Macintosh (1984).
Mouse (con’t)
Unlike the modern mouse, which uses either a ball or light to move the
pointer in any direction, Douglas Engelbart’s mouse had two wheels
perpendicular to each-other, meaning that the mouse was limited to a
single movement along an axis.
Video Games
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user
interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.
The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games
(in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United
The NPD Group(formerly National Purchase Diary) tracks computer and
video game sales in the United States. It reported that:
 Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003
 Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down
35% from 2003
 PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 15% from 2006
Video Games (con’t)
Cell phones
Cell phones may be new devices, but they originated in the 1920’s. Radios
were used since 1921. Features were put into these radios in the 1940’s,
and they were used by police. The concept of the cellular phone was
developed in 1947 which originated from the mobile car phone. The concept
of the cellular phone was produced by Bell Laboratories.
The first actual cell phone was made in 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola
and other assisting inventors who used the idea of the car phone and
applied the technology necessary to make a portable cell phone possible.
Cell phones were first made available to the public in 1984. Back then, they
were very large, expensive instruments.
Cell phones (con’t)
A mobile phone or mobile (also called cell phone and hand
phone, as well as cell phone, cellular phone, cell, wireless
phone, cellular telephone, mobile telephone or cell telephone) is
a long-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data
communication over a network of specialized base stations known
as cell sites.
Services and accessories such as SMS for text messaging, email,
packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth,
infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and
receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS.
In 2008 there were 4,100 million mobile cellular subscriptions in the
Evolution of Cell phones
Future Interaction Devices
Future Interaction Devices