WHAT IS MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION?
•
Strategy used to attempt to create social justice and equality in
education.
•
It’s purpose is to bring all races together in the classroom and develop
effective classroom instruction and school environments.
•
It is important in today’s classroom because classrooms are mixed with
students from many different cultures, races, ethnicities, and religions.
•
Using multicultural education helps to teach tolerance and acceptance
of different cultures in the classroom.
POPULATION PERCENTAGE IN CALIFORNIA
Population Percentage 2009
Hispanics 37%
Whites 76.4%
Blacks 6.6%
Asians 12.7%
According to the 2010
U.S. Census, the
largest minority group
in California are
Hispanics
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH HISPANICS
• Family ties are very strong and a Hispanic family is a close-knit group.
• Good manners, honor, and respect for authority and elders are instilled in
children at an early age.
• The father is usually the head of the household while the mother is
responsible for the home.
• Hispanics tend to speak loud and fast while incorporating the use of hand
gestures and body language in conversation.
• The physical distance when holding a conversation is much closer than in
other cultures.
• Hispanic families take pride in preserving the Spanish language within their
families.
LANGUAGE PERCENTAGE SPOKEN IN CALIFORNIA HOMES
Language Percentage
According to the 2010 U.S.
Census Bureau, 40% of
homes in California spoke
a language other than
English.
English 60%
Other then
English 40%
BILINGUAL PROGRAM MODEL
•
Incorporates the use of two languages in the classroom.
•
As the student progresses, the percentage of native language instruction
should decrease and he percentage of English instruction should
increase.
•
The goal of a Bilingual Program Model is to eventually have the student
fully immersed in an English only classroom.
TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS
Dual Language
Program
•Uses the student’s native language and
English in the classroom.
•Goal is to work towards transitioning the
student into English only classrooms.
Transitional
Bilingual
Education
•Provides the student with native language
support while developing oral proficiency
in English.
•Goal is to gently transition the student
into a full English immersion program.
Developmental
Bilingual
Education
•Focuses more on native language
support.
•Ideal for older students or students having
a hard time with English language
instruction
PROGRAM OPTIONS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN
CALIFORNIA (ACCORDING TO THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION)
Bilingual
Teacher
Training
CommunityBased English
Tutoring
Title III
Reclassification
Two-Way
Immersion
Have been cut due to state budget
Reclassification provides information on how a district
determines whether or not an English learner has
sufficient English proficiency to be reclassified as a fluent
English speaker
When speakers of other languages are immersed with
English-language learners and the subject matter is
taught in both languages. This program relies heavily on
social interaction in order to be successful
Provides language instruction for limited English
proficient and immigrant students. It is a federally
funded program to support state and local educational
agencies.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION VS. LANGUAGE LEARNING
Learning a language
unconsciously from a social
environment.
Provides a monitor which allows
The learner to correct language
output.
“Picking up a language.”
Focuses on teaching a language
Focuses on input rather
than output
Focuses on output rather
than input
LEARNING/TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR ELL
Teach new
words in
phrases
Build
vocabulary
lists, use
repetition
Learning/
Teaching
Strategies
Listen to
radio/TV to
hear
different
accents
Have
students read
something
they can
relate to
LEGISLATION PROTECTING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
• First piece of federal legislation regarding minority
language speakers.
• It’s purpose was to provide federal funds to schools with
students who have limited English speaking ability.
• Federal funds created educational programs, provided
teacher training, provided schools with resources and
development of materials targeted toward English
language learners, and encouraged parental involvement.
LEGISLATION PROTECTING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Lau vs. Nichols (1974)
• Chinese American students in San Francisco argued that they
were being discriminated against in violation of Title VI of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964.
• They were not receiving special help in school due to their
inability to speak English.
• Supreme Court ruled in their favor stating that students should
be treated with equality among schools.
• Lau vs. Nichols expanded the rights of all students nationwide
with limited English proficiency.
KEY POINTS REGARDING MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
•
Multicultural education is equally important to students
regardless of whether or not they belong to the majority or
minority culture.
•
In order for multicultural education to be effective, it needs to
be incorporated in every classroom.
•
The purpose of multicultural education is to promote equality in
education through exposure to different cultures.
•
English language learners should not be identified as students
in need of special education because they do not carry a
disability.
REFERENCES
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (2007). Cognitive benefits of learning
language. Retrieved
February 15, 2011 from http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm pageid=4724.
California Department of Education (2011). Retrieved February 26, 2011 from
http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/sw/rt/index.asp.
Echevarria & Graves (2007). Sheltered content instruction. San Francisco: Pearson Education.
Gollnick, D. M., & Chin, P. C. (2009). Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Krashen, S. (1997). Why bilingual education? ERIC Digest. Retrieved February 18, 2011 from
http://www.nabe.org/b_ed_why.html.
Lessow-Hurley, J. (2009). The foundations of dual language instruction. San Francisco, California:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Marlowe, B. & Canestrari, A. (2006). Educational psychology in context: Readings for future teachers.
Thousand Oaks: Sage
Publications.
U.S. Census Bureau (2011). State & County Quickfacts. Retrieved February 27, 2011 from
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06000.html
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Multiculturalism in California Schools