What is bilingual education? Cazden, C.B., & Snow, C.E. (eds.). (1990). English Plus: Issues in Bilingual Education. ‘Bilingual education . . . is a simple label for a complex phenomenon.’ What is the meaning of 'Welsh medium' and ‘bilingual education' ? • One aspect of the field of Welsh medium education which has caused considerable uncertainty and ambiguity over the years is the lack of clarity regarding what is meant by terms such as "Welsh-medium“ and "bilingual education" • What is 'Welsh medium or bilingual' about the system? • Could it be: - the pupils’ linguistic background? -the nature of the curricular provision and the way the two languages are allocated across the ages and across the curriculum? - the linguistic outcomes for the individual pupil? Colin Baker, ‘Bilingual Education in Wales’ in Hugo Baetens Beardsmore (ed.), European Models of Bilingual Education, 1993,15. ‘There exists a wide variety of bilingual education provision in Wales. In between basically monolingual Welsh and monolingual English schools in Wales, there is the widest variety of practice of bilingual education. The kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice in Wales makes the production of a simple typology inherently dangerous.’ Notes for: ‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice’ • Baker (1993:15) referred to the ‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice’ that does exist across Wales. • It is not possible to construct a simple typology of bilingual education in Wales. • Welsh-medium primary and secondary education in the early twentyfirst century includes pupils from a wide and diverse language spectrum (Lewis 2008:75). • Research findings highlight the diversity in terms of teaching methodology, design models and the linguistic profile of the pupils in the schools observed. Notes for: ‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice’ • Classrooms in Wales include pupils from diverse linguistic backgrounds, for example, Welsh Language 1 and Language 2 speakers, and non-Welsh and non-English speakers. • A wide range of teaching methods are deployed by teachers. • This research has focused on just 38 school - to extend the research, we would have possibly encountered further variations. Welsh Assembly Government. (2009). Welsh Medium Education Strategy, consultation document, 5.1 'Patterns of Welsh medium and bilingual provision across Wales is complex. There are significant differences between authorities in terms of policies put in place to promote and develop language skills in English and Welsh. ' Our research supports this statement. Welsh Assembly Government. (2010). Welsh Medium Education Strategy, para. 2.14 'The linguistic outcomes of these different types of provision varies considerably. . . . . Therefore, bilingual provision does not always ensure that an individual will become a bilingual speaker. ' Notes for ”Welsh Assembly Government. (2010). Welsh Medium Education Strategy, para. 2.14 ” • It is recognized in the Strategy that not all types of bilingual provision will lead to full bilingualism. • Is this not the most important criteria about what is meant by 'bilingual education' in Wales today that a child at the end of his time in the school are fully confident in its use of Welsh and English? ‘co-languaging’ (Ofelia Garcìa) Ofelia García uses 'co-languaging' which is similar to ‘teaching and learning in a bilingual setting’ (Cen Williams) Cen Williams ‘ 'teaching and learning in a bilingual setting' Bilingual Education in Wales Bilingual teaching and learning Using one language (e.g. separate W & E module) Language of the classroom: Teacher: use of one langauge Pupil : use of one langauge Outcome: bilingualism for all pupils Teaching and learning in a bilingual situation Using two languages (e.g. translanguaging) Language of the classroom: Teacher: bilingual Pupil : bilingual Outcome: bilingualism for all pupils W & E classrooms in the school Language of the classroom: Teacher: use of one language Pupil : use of one language Outcome: variation according to language background of pupil Separate W & E groups in the classroom Language of the classroom: Teacher: bilingual Pupil : use of one language Outcome: variation according to language background of pupil Notes for ’Bilingual Education in Wales’ Flowchart ‘ • This is an attempt to seek visual classification and categorization of different models of planning which fall under the umbrella of ‘bilingual education' • The definition of bilingual education is complex and covers a variety of situations. • It is possible to distinguish between ‘bilingual teaching and learning’ and ‘teaching and learning in a bilingual setting’. • Bilingual teaching and learning is an attempt to develop the bilingualism of each pupil in a bilingual classroom. The pupil uses one language in a bilingual setting (although some of the pupils are bilingual). Discussion: different types of bilingual education in Wales 1. Based on your own experiences, does this categorization represent the different types of bilingual education in Wales today? 2. Do you agree / disagree with these categories? 3. Can you identify additional categories?