What is
bilingual
education?
Cazden, C.B., & Snow, C.E. (eds.). (1990).
English Plus: Issues in Bilingual Education.
‘Bilingual education . . .
is a simple label for a
complex phenomenon.’
What is the meaning of 'Welsh medium'
and ‘bilingual education' ?
• One aspect of the field of Welsh medium education which has caused
considerable uncertainty and ambiguity over the years is the lack of
clarity regarding what is meant by terms such as "Welsh-medium“ and
"bilingual education"
• What is 'Welsh medium or bilingual' about the system?
• Could it be:
- the pupils’ linguistic background?
-the nature of the curricular provision and the way the two languages ​are
allocated across the ages and across the curriculum?
- the linguistic outcomes for the individual pupil?
Colin Baker, ‘Bilingual Education in Wales’ in Hugo
Baetens Beardsmore (ed.), European Models of
Bilingual Education, 1993,15.
‘There exists a wide variety of bilingual education
provision in Wales.
In between basically monolingual Welsh and
monolingual English schools in Wales, there is the
widest variety of practice of bilingual education.
The kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational
practice in Wales makes the production of a
simple typology inherently dangerous.’
Notes for:
‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice’
• Baker (1993:15) referred to the ‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual
educational practice’ that does exist across Wales.
• It is not possible to construct a simple typology of bilingual education in
Wales.
• Welsh-medium primary and secondary education in the early twentyfirst century includes pupils from a wide and diverse language spectrum
(Lewis 2008:75).
• Research findings highlight the diversity in terms of teaching
methodology, design models and the linguistic profile of the pupils in
the schools observed.
Notes for:
‘kaleidoscopic variety of bilingual educational practice’
• Classrooms in Wales include pupils from diverse linguistic
backgrounds, for example, Welsh Language 1 and
Language 2 speakers, and non-Welsh and non-English
speakers.
• A wide range of teaching methods are deployed by
teachers.
• This research has focused on just 38 school - to extend the
research, we would have possibly encountered further
variations.
Welsh Assembly Government. (2009).
Welsh Medium Education Strategy,
consultation document, 5.1
'Patterns of Welsh medium and bilingual provision
across Wales is complex.
There
are
significant
differences
between
authorities in terms of policies put in place to
promote and develop language skills in English and
Welsh. '
Our research supports this statement.
Welsh Assembly Government. (2010).
Welsh Medium Education Strategy, para.
2.14
'The linguistic outcomes of these
different types of provision varies
considerably. . . . .
Therefore, bilingual provision does not
always ensure that an individual will
become a bilingual speaker. '
Notes for ”Welsh Assembly Government. (2010).
Welsh Medium Education Strategy, para. 2.14 ”
• It is recognized in the Strategy that not all types
of bilingual provision will lead to full bilingualism.
• Is this not the most important criteria about what
is meant by 'bilingual education' in Wales today that a child at the end of his time in the school
are fully confident in its use of Welsh and
English?
‘co-languaging’
(Ofelia Garcìa)
Ofelia García uses
'co-languaging'
which is similar to
‘teaching and
learning in a
bilingual setting’
(Cen Williams)
Cen Williams ‘
'teaching and learning
in a bilingual setting'
Bilingual Education
in Wales
Bilingual teaching
and learning
Using one language
(e.g. separate W & E
module)
Language of the
classroom:
Teacher:
use of one langauge
Pupil :
use of one langauge
Outcome:
bilingualism for all
pupils
Teaching and learning
in a bilingual situation
Using two languages
(e.g. translanguaging)
Language of the
classroom:
Teacher: bilingual
Pupil : bilingual
Outcome:
bilingualism for all
pupils
W & E classrooms in
the school
Language of the
classroom:
Teacher: use of
one language
Pupil : use of one
language
Outcome: variation
according to
language
background of
pupil
Separate W & E
groups in the
classroom
Language of the
classroom:
Teacher: bilingual
Pupil : use of one
language
Outcome: variation
according to
language
background of
pupil
Notes for
’Bilingual Education in Wales’ Flowchart ‘
•
This is an attempt to seek visual classification and categorization
of different models of planning which fall under the umbrella of
‘bilingual education'
• The definition of bilingual education is complex and covers a variety of
situations.
• It is possible to distinguish between ‘bilingual teaching and
learning’ and ‘teaching and learning in a bilingual setting’.
• Bilingual teaching and learning is an attempt to develop the
bilingualism of each pupil in a bilingual classroom.
The pupil uses one language in a bilingual setting
(although some of the pupils are bilingual).
Discussion:
different types of bilingual
education in Wales
1. Based on your own experiences, does this
categorization represent the different types of
bilingual education in Wales today?
2. Do you agree / disagree with these categories?
3. Can you identify additional categories?
Descargar

Slide 1