Balkanization, Devolution and Supranationalism Balkanization a geopolitical term, originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other The term refers to the division of the Balkan peninsula, formerly ruled almost entirely by the Ottoman Empire, into a number of smaller states between 1817 and 1912. The term however came into common use in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, with reference to the numerous new states that arose from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russian Empire. Language: Which states have the same languages? Which states have multiple languages? How is language Religion Cause or excuse? Ethnicity of USSR Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to government at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level. Devolution can be mainly financial, e.g. giving areas a budget which was formerly administered by central government. However, the power to make legislation relevant to the area may also be granted. The Soviet Union was a single-party state ruled by the Communist Party from its foundation until 1990.Even though the USSR was officially a union of 15 subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy was highly centralized. Yugoslavia Formed in 1918 immediately after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. Commonly called at the time a "Versailles state". Renamed to and first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929. Alexander attempted to create a centralized Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, and new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas. During WW2e Axis (Germany and Italy) attacked and occupied the kingdom. The Croatians, feeling they had been forced to be subservient the Serbs sided with the Nazis. The oppostition was lead by the pro communist Marshal Josip Broz Tito , who was was seen as a national hero by the citizens and was elected by referendum to lead the new independent communist state, starting as a prime minister. On 31 January 1946, the new constitution of Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, modeled after the Soviet Union, established six republics, an autonomous province, and an autonomous district that were part of SR Serbia. The federal capital was Belgrade. 1. Socialist republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with capital in Sarajevo, 2. Socialist republic of Croatia, with capital in Zagreb, 3. Socialist republic of Macedonia, with capital in Skopje, 4. Socialist republic of Montenegro, with capital in Titograd, 5. Socialist republic of Serbia, with capital in Belgrade, which also contained: 5a. Socialist autonomous province of Kosovo, with capital in Priština 5b. Socialist autonomous province of Vojvodina, with capital in Novi Sad 6. Socialist republic of Slovenia, with capital in Ljubljana. Notice how these regions (republics) are very similar to today’s map of this region. On 7 April 1963, the nation changed its official name to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Josip Broz Tito was named President for Life. The suppression of national identities escalated with the so-called Croatian Spring of 1970–1971, when students in Zagreb organized demonstrations for greater civil liberties and greater Croatian autonomy. The regime stifled the public protest and incarcerated the leaders, but many key Croatian representatives in the Party silently supported this cause, so a new Constitution was ratified in 1974 that gave more rights to the individual republics in Yugoslavia and provinces in Serbia. After Tito's death on 4 May 1980, ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia. Slobodan Milošević, a Serbian, tried to maintain the weak confederation with the old powers of Tito. Various dates are considered the end of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 25 June 1991, when Croatia and Slovenia declared independence 8 September 1991, following a referendum the Republic of Macedonia declared independence 8 October 1991, when the 9 July moratorium on Slovenian and Croatian secession was ended and Croatia restated its independence in Croatian Parliament (that day is celebrated as Independence Day in Croatia) 15 January 1992, when Slovenia and Croatia were internationally recognized by most European countries 6 April 1992, full recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence by the U.S. and most European countries 28 April 1992, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is formed November 1995, Dayton Agreement is signed by leaders of FR Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia If China extends freedoms, how may this impact their territoriality? Chechnya has had a long history of defying Russian control. After the break up of the USSR, they again tried to devolve. Chechens are of course no match for the Russian army and have used terrorism to get international attention. How might this small nation impact Russia’s refusal to recognize Kosovo? Why? Supranationalism • is a type of multi-national confederation, where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states (basically smaller entities give up some rights to become part of larger entity.) • The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a substitute for international, transnational, or global. • NOTE: implies that they gave up powers voluntarily EU (European Union) • is an economic and political union or confederation of 27 member states • Accomplishments: – passport controls have been abolished – standardized system of laws which apply in all member states – monetary union, the eurozone, was composed of 17 member states – represents an estimated 20% of global GDP (2010) Eurozone How is the euro helpful to member states? Why How is the euro detrimental to member states? Why? NAFTA • an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. – seeks to eliminate non-tariff trade barriers. – seeks to protect the intellectual property right of the products Arab League • facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world • serves as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes • has played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. African Union • Includes all African countries but Morocco • Mostly economic but has a military presence and work on efforts to control things like AIDS Association of Southeast Asian Nations • was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. • Its aims include accelerating economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, protection of regional peace and stability, and opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully. 2010 Review • Define balkanization and give characteristics and examples of these centrifugal forces – Link this to the concept of nation • Define devolution and give examples • Define supranationalism and give characteristics and examples of these centripetal forces • Assess: What regions of the world are examples of these processes? • Predict: How will these world economic/military processes impact cultural world of the future?