Balkanization, Devolution and
a geopolitical term, originally used to describe the process of
fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller
regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative
with each other
The term refers to the division of the
Balkan peninsula, formerly ruled almost
entirely by the Ottoman Empire, into a
number of smaller states between 1817
and 1912. The term however came into
common use in the immediate
aftermath of the First World War, with
reference to the numerous new states
that arose from the collapse of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and the
Russian Empire.
Which states have the
same languages?
Which states have
multiple languages?
How is language
Cause or excuse?
Ethnicity of USSR
is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to
government at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level. Devolution
can be mainly financial, e.g. giving areas a budget which was formerly administered by
central government. However, the power to make legislation relevant to the area may
also be granted.
The Soviet Union was a
single-party state ruled by
the Communist Party from
its foundation until
1990.Even though the
USSR was officially a union
of 15 subnational Soviet
republics, its government
and economy was highly
Formed in 1918 immediately after
World War I as the Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by
union of the State of Slovenes,
Croats and Serbs and the
Kingdom of Serbia. Commonly
called at the time a "Versailles
state". Renamed to and first
official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
Alexander attempted to create a
centralized Yugoslavia. He
decided to abolish Yugoslavia's
historic regions, and new internal
boundaries were drawn for
provinces or banovinas.
During WW2e Axis (Germany and Italy)
attacked and occupied the kingdom. The
Croatians, feeling they had been forced to be
subservient the Serbs sided with the Nazis.
The oppostition was lead by the pro
communist Marshal Josip Broz Tito , who was
was seen as a national hero by the citizens and
was elected by referendum to lead the new
independent communist state, starting as a
prime minister.
On 31 January 1946, the new constitution of
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia,
modeled after the Soviet Union, established six
republics, an autonomous province, and an
autonomous district that were part of SR
Serbia. The federal capital was Belgrade.
1. Socialist republic of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, with capital in Sarajevo,
2. Socialist republic of Croatia, with capital
in Zagreb,
3. Socialist republic of Macedonia, with
capital in Skopje,
4. Socialist republic of Montenegro, with
capital in Titograd,
5. Socialist republic of Serbia, with capital
in Belgrade, which also contained:
5a. Socialist autonomous province of
Kosovo, with capital in Priština
5b. Socialist autonomous province of
Vojvodina, with capital in Novi Sad
6. Socialist republic of Slovenia, with
capital in Ljubljana.
Notice how these regions (republics) are
very similar to today’s map of this region.
On 7 April 1963, the nation changed its official
name to Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia and Josip Broz Tito was named
President for Life.
The suppression of national identities
escalated with the so-called Croatian Spring of
1970–1971, when students in Zagreb
organized demonstrations for greater civil
liberties and greater Croatian autonomy. The
regime stifled the public protest and
incarcerated the leaders, but many key
Croatian representatives in the Party silently
supported this cause, so a new Constitution
was ratified in 1974 that gave more rights to
the individual republics in Yugoslavia and
provinces in Serbia.
After Tito's death on 4 May 1980, ethnic
tensions grew in Yugoslavia.
Slobodan Milošević, a Serbian, tried to
maintain the weak confederation with the old
powers of Tito.
Various dates are considered the end of the Socialist Federal Republic of
25 June 1991, when Croatia and Slovenia declared independence
8 September 1991, following a referendum the Republic of Macedonia declared
8 October 1991, when the 9 July moratorium on Slovenian and Croatian secession
was ended and Croatia restated its independence in Croatian Parliament (that day is
celebrated as Independence Day in Croatia)
15 January 1992, when Slovenia and Croatia were internationally recognized by
most European countries
6 April 1992, full recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence by the U.S.
and most European countries
28 April 1992, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is formed
November 1995, Dayton Agreement is signed by leaders of FR Yugoslavia, Bosnia
and Herzegovina and Croatia
If China extends freedoms,
how may this impact their
Chechnya has had a long history of defying Russian control. After the
break up of the USSR, they again tried to devolve. Chechens are of
course no match for the Russian army and have used terrorism to get
international attention.
How might this small nation impact Russia’s refusal to recognize Kosovo? Why?
• is a type of multi-national confederation, where
negotiated power is delegated to an authority by
governments of member states (basically smaller
entities give up some rights to become part of larger
• The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose,
undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a
substitute for international, transnational, or global.
• NOTE: implies that they gave up powers voluntarily
EU (European Union)
• is an economic and political union
or confederation of 27 member
• Accomplishments:
– passport controls have been
– standardized system of laws which
apply in all member states
– monetary union, the eurozone,
was composed of 17 member
– represents an estimated 20% of
global GDP (2010)
How is the euro helpful to member
states? Why
How is the euro detrimental to
member states? Why?
• an agreement signed by the
governments of Canada, Mexico,
and the United States, creating a
trilateral trade bloc in North
America. The agreement came
into force on January 1, 1994.
– seeks to eliminate non-tariff trade
– seeks to protect the intellectual
property right of the products
Arab League
• facilitates political, economic,
cultural, scientific and social
programs designed to promote the
interests of the Arab world
• serves as a forum for the member
states to coordinate their policy
positions, to deliberate on matters
of common concern, to settle some
Arab disputes
• has played a role in shaping school
curricula, advancing the role of
women in the Arab societies,
promoting child welfare,
encouraging youth and sports
programs, preserving Arab cultural
heritage, and fostering cultural
exchanges between the member
African Union
• Includes all African
countries but
• Mostly economic
but has a military
presence and work
on efforts to control
things like AIDS
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
• was formed on 8 August
1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia,
the Philippines, Singapore
and Thailand. Since then,
membership has expanded
to include Brunei, Burma
(Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos,
and Vietnam.
• Its aims include accelerating
economic growth, social
progress, cultural
development among its
members, protection of
regional peace and stability,
and opportunities for
member countries to discuss
differences peacefully.
• Define balkanization and give characteristics and
examples of these centrifugal forces
– Link this to the concept of nation
• Define devolution and give examples
• Define supranationalism and give characteristics and
examples of these centripetal forces
• Assess: What regions of the world are examples of
these processes?
• Predict: How will these world economic/military
processes impact cultural world of the future?

Balkanization, Devolution and Supranationalism