Success in Two-way/Dual Language Education: Models & Outcomes Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D. Professor, San José State University KLindholmLeary@mac.com www.lindholm-leary.com OABE Conference June 2013 Two-Way/Dual Language What is Two-Way/Dual Language Education – different models and practices? What evidence shows it works? What is Two-Way/ Dual Language Education? Two-Way or Dual Language Education: integrates native English speaking and English language learning students in the same classroom and provides academic instruction through two languages, one of which is the primary language of each group of students. Popular: 500-800 in US public schools in 28 states & DC, 200 in Calif, 318 registered in Texas (www.texastwoway.org) Goals: Bilingualism – Orally proficient in 2 languages Biliteracy – Read & write 2 languages at grade level Achieve at/above grade level Cross-cultural competencies What is Dual Language Education? Four Major Criteria (www.cal.org/twi) Integration: Language-minority and language-majority students are integrated for at least 60% of instructional time (and ideally more) at all grade levels. Instruction: Content and literacy instruction in English and the partner language is provided to all students, and all students receive instruction in the partner language at least 50% of the instructional day at all grade levels. Population: Within the program, there is a balance of languageminority and language-majority students, with each group making up between one-third and two-thirds of the total student population. Duration of Program: Pre-K/Kinder/1st Grade through elementary (preferably through high school) Underlying Assumption of Model Transfer Across Languages Knowledge learned through one language paves the way for knowledge acquisition in the second language Students who learn content in L1 can demonstrate knowledge in L2 once they acquire academic language skills in L2 L2 L1 L2 Knowledge L1 Una ecuación cuadrática es una ecuación polinómica de segundo grado, de la forma ax2 + bx + c = 0. Instructional Design 90:10 & 50:50 90:10 Grades K-1 50:50 All Grades 10% Language Arts 50% 90% 50% Language Arts/Reading Language Arts/Reading Mathematics Science Social Studies English Target Mathematics Science Social Studies English Target Dual Language Education Model Curriculum & Assessment Curriculum based on state standards ALL students held to same expectations as mainstream Curriculum more rigorous – students learn to read, write, understand, speak in two languages Curriculum more rigorous - based on national standards for foreign language instruction: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. Assessment practices same as in mainstream English (tests in second language) Dual Language Education Model Grounded in Research, Theory, Best Practices Effective schools and classroom environments Foreign language education/Bilingual education Second language and literacy development Research on the brain, learning, and memory Desegregation and multicultural education Parent involvement Teacher practices, staff qualifications, and professional development Assessment practices and approaches TWI/Dual Language How to Promote Success 1. Developing high quality Dual Language program requires lots of hard work and planning. 2. High quality programs use the research-based Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs to guide them in moving toward higher quality implementation (it’s free) http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm 3. DL programs have been developed across the grade spans – pre-K, elementary, middle, and high school levels. Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm Program Structure Curriculum Instruction Family and Community Staff Quality and Professional Development Support & Resources Assessment and Accountability Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm Program Structure Additive bilingualism: Subtractive: L1 + L2 = Bilingualism L2 – L1 = English dominant (lose Home Language) Equity & integration for all students Knowledgeable teachers & leaders Continuous program planning Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Myth – more time in instruction in English more proficiency & higher achievement in English. NOT TRUE Several major research reviews show that more English does not lead to higher outcomes in English Language majority and language minority students in 90:10 achieve at least as well in English as students in 50:50. ELLs in English-only programs had lowest proficiency in English, lowest achievement in English, & highest school dropout rates Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Reality – more time in Target Language more proficiency & higher achievement in Target, no negative effect on English. Research More Target Language NOT= lower outcomes in English Students in 90:10 are more proficient in Spanish and more likely to be bilingual than students in 50:50. More bilingual = higher achievement in English. English Language Proficiency - ELL Grades 2-6 by Program Model English language proficiency outcomes NOT differ by program model: 90/10 vs. 50/50 vs. English only (despite differences in amount of English instruction). California English Language Development Test Total Score 600 Scale Scores 575 550 525 500 475 450 90/10 LEAST Eng 425 50/50 HALF Eng 400 375 State Av ALL Eng 350 325 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm Curriculum Cognitively challenging (not remedial/basic skills) & standards-based Reflects vision of bilingualism & biliteracy Enhanced: infuses language objectives and cultural knowledge with content instruction Reading and writing across the curriculum Articulated within and across grade levels Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Instruction Sheltered instruction for L2 learners Cognitive organization of material - Graphic organizers, thinking maps Grouping practices to maximize language development, social skills, and communicative skills Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language Guiding Principles Assessment & Accountability Use student achievement data to shape and/or monitor program effectiveness; assessments in both languages Staff Quality & Professional Development Recruits/retains high quality/highly bilingual staff; has a quality professional development plan appropriate for bilingual vision Family and Community Promote parent involvement/participation equally across all groups Support and Resources Program receives support from district, community, and all school staff TWI/Dual Language Evidence for success of TWI/Dual Language Education 30 years of consistent research findings in US! 40 years of research in Canada & other countries – results in US similar to other countries TWI/Dual Language Evidence for Academic Achievement Research - by late elementary school, students in TWI/Dual language (TWI/DL) programs achieve similar to or higher than peers in English mainstream programs However, students in TWI/DL are bilingual and biliterate, peers in English only are rarely bilingual or biliterate TWI/DL works in all languages studied: Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Russian, German, Italian, French programs English Reading Performance – EP by Program Model California Standards Test Scale Scores State highest grade 2; by 5th grade 90:10 and 50:50 higher than state; 90:10 higher than 50:50 grades 3-6 400 90/10 - LEAST Eng 50/50 - HALF Eng 375 State Av: 100% Eng Proficient 350 325 300 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th . English Reading Performance – ELL by Program Model State highest grades 2-4; by grade 6, 90:10 and 50:50 higher than or equal to state; 90:10 higher than 50:50 grades 4-6 California Standards Test Scale Scores 375 Proficient 350 90/10 - LEAST Eng 50/50 - HALF Eng State Av: 100% Eng 325 300 275 250 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th . TWI/Dual Language Evidence for Academic Achievement Research findings (TWI/DL students achieve at/above non-TWI/DL peers in English-only classes) observed with students of varied backgrounds: SES – upper, middle, lower; parents with college education to parents with elementary education Ethnicity – Hispanic, Asian/Chinese/Korean, African American, Euro American Special Education – students with identified special needs (GATE, IEP) English Reading Performance Ethnic Group – EP Students in Spanish All TWI/DL students groups score higher than their peers in English mainstream in the state (CA=Calif) (Grades 4-8, n=1149). 425 CST Scale Scores 400 375 350 325 300 275 250 Hisp TWI Hisp CA . AfricAm TWI AfAm CA . AsianAm AsAm TWI CA . White TWI White CA English Reading Performance Students in Korean & Mandarin All TWI/DL students groups score (slightly) higher than their peers in English mainstream in the state (CA=Calif), who score very high. Korean/English: All Korean background (ELL & EP) Mandarin/English EP: Chinese Background & Caucasian Background 450 CST Scale Scores 425 400 375 350 325 300 275 250 Korean TWI Korean CA Grade 4 . Chinese TWI Chinese CA . Grade 6 White TWI White CA Academic Achievement in English - Reading Russian Immersion Students Russian immersion score higher than non-immersion students Percent of Students at Proficient or Advanced Levels 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3rd Imm 3rd non- Imm 4th Imm 4th non- Imm 5th Imm 5th non- Imm 6th Imm 6th non- Imm 8th Imm School Success TWI/DL High School Students’ Attitudes Most students – express positive attitudes that “Learning Through Two Languages..” Percent Agree made me smarter 79% helped me to think better 99% helped me get better grades 95% gave me more confidence to do well in school 94% School Success TWI/DL High School Students Less likely to drop out of school than non-TWI/DL peers More likely to take AP courses More likely enrolled in higher-level math More likely pass High School Exit Exam TWI/Dual Language Evidence - Oral Communication Skills English oral language skills: Native English and Spanish speakers are orally proficient Students communicate with teacher/peers & give presentations in grade-level tasks Spanish oral language skills: Most native English & Spanish speakers proficient (teacher ratings) or at Intermediate level of proficiency (foreign language test) Students communicate with teacher/peers and give presentations in grade-level tasks 98% rate themselves as somewhat or very bilingual Communication Skills Attitudes About Bilingualism Most students – express positive attitudes Percent Agree Appreciate other languages 98% Important to learn other languages & be bilingual 99% Enjoy studying through 2 languages and in DL program 95% Advantages & Disadvantages Of Bilingualism/Immersion Program Advantages • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Can communicate with more/different people Can talk to grandparents, other family Have a better social life, more friends Can help others Improve the world Can translate for others Have more knowledge, intelligence Better future Better job More clients (lawyers, doctors) Make MORE MONEY!!!!! Understand other cultures Easier to learn other languages Can help in emergencies/save a life Watch movies in another language Read books in more languages “Secret” language Impress others DISadvantages • More (double) homework • Have to translate for parents or others • Hard work, tough • Time consuming Socio-Cultural Competence Attitudes Toward Others Almost all students – express positive attitudes toward others Better understanding of others (Target Language speakers, those of other cultures) More understanding of people different from me – compared to peers Feel comfortable around people different from themselves Socio-Cultural Competence Cultural Attitudes & Knowledge Most students – express interest in and positive attitudes toward culture because of TWI/DL program/studies Better understanding of cultures Greater appreciation for other cultures Understand aspects of Target culture Percent Agree 95% 90% 93% My last comment is this; wherever life takes you, being bilingual will always be useful.