Success in Two-way/Dual
Language Education:
Models & Outcomes
Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D.
Professor, San José State University
[email protected]
www.lindholm-leary.com
OABE Conference
June 2013
Two-Way/Dual Language
 What is Two-Way/Dual
Language Education – different
models and practices?
 What evidence shows it works?
What is Two-Way/
Dual Language Education?
 Two-Way or Dual Language Education: integrates
native English speaking and English language learning
students in the same classroom and provides academic
instruction through two languages, one of which is the
primary language of each group of students.
 Popular: 500-800 in US public schools in 28 states & DC,
200 in Calif, 318 registered in Texas (www.texastwoway.org)
 Goals:
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Bilingualism – Orally proficient in 2 languages
Biliteracy – Read & write 2 languages at grade level
Achieve at/above grade level
Cross-cultural competencies
What is Dual Language Education?
Four Major Criteria (www.cal.org/twi)
 Integration: Language-minority and language-majority students are
integrated for at least 60% of instructional time (and ideally more) at all
grade levels.
 Instruction: Content and literacy instruction in English and the partner
language is provided to all students, and all students receive instruction
in the partner language at least 50% of the instructional day at all grade
levels.
 Population: Within the program, there is a balance of languageminority and language-majority students, with each group making up
between one-third and two-thirds of the total student population.
 Duration of Program: Pre-K/Kinder/1st Grade through elementary
(preferably through high school)
Underlying Assumption of Model
Transfer Across Languages
 Knowledge learned
through one language
paves the way for
knowledge acquisition in
the second language
 Students who learn
content in L1 can
demonstrate knowledge in
L2 once they acquire
academic language skills
in L2
L2
L1
L2 Knowledge L1
Una ecuación cuadrática
es una ecuación
polinómica de segundo
grado, de la forma
ax2 + bx + c = 0.
Instructional Design 90:10 & 50:50
90:10
 Grades K-1
50:50
 All Grades
10%
Language Arts
50%
90%
50%
Language Arts/Reading
Language Arts/Reading
Mathematics
Science
Social Studies
English
Target
Mathematics
Science
Social Studies
English
Target
Dual Language Education Model
Curriculum & Assessment

Curriculum based on state standards

ALL students held to same expectations as mainstream

Curriculum more rigorous – students learn to read, write,
understand, speak in two languages

Curriculum more rigorous - based on national standards
for foreign language instruction: Communication,
Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities.

Assessment practices same as in mainstream English
(tests in second language)
Dual Language Education Model
Grounded in Research, Theory, Best Practices

Effective schools and classroom environments

Foreign language education/Bilingual education

Second language and literacy development

Research on the brain, learning, and memory

Desegregation and multicultural education

Parent involvement

Teacher practices, staff qualifications, and professional
development

Assessment practices and approaches
TWI/Dual Language
How to Promote Success
1. Developing high quality Dual Language program requires
lots of hard work and planning.
2. High quality programs use the research-based Guiding
Principles for Dual Language Programs to guide them in
moving toward higher quality implementation (it’s free)
http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm
3. DL programs have been developed across the grade
spans – pre-K, elementary, middle, and high school
levels.
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs
http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm

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Program Structure
Curriculum
Instruction
Family and Community
Staff Quality and Professional Development
Support & Resources
Assessment and Accountability
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs
http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm
 Program Structure
 Additive bilingualism:
 Subtractive:
L1 + L2 = Bilingualism
L2 – L1 = English dominant (lose Home Language)
 Equity & integration for all students
 Knowledgeable teachers & leaders
 Continuous program planning
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
Myth – more time in instruction in English  more
proficiency & higher achievement in English. NOT TRUE
Several major research reviews show that
more English does not lead to higher outcomes in English

Language majority and language minority students in 90:10
achieve at least as well in English as students in 50:50.

ELLs in English-only programs had lowest proficiency in
English, lowest achievement in English, & highest school
dropout rates
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
Reality – more time in Target Language  more proficiency
& higher achievement in Target, no negative effect on
English.
Research 

More Target Language NOT= lower outcomes in
English

Students in 90:10 are more proficient in Spanish and
more likely to be bilingual than students in 50:50.

More bilingual = higher achievement in English.
English Language Proficiency - ELL
Grades 2-6 by Program Model
English language proficiency outcomes NOT differ by program model: 90/10
vs. 50/50 vs. English only (despite differences in amount of English instruction).
California English Language Development Test Total Score
600
Scale Scores
575
550
525
500
475
450
90/10 LEAST Eng
425
50/50 HALF Eng
400
375
State Av ALL Eng
350
325
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
Guiding Principles for Dual Language Programs
http://www.cal.org/twi/guidingprinciples.htm
 Curriculum
 Cognitively challenging (not remedial/basic skills)
& standards-based
 Reflects vision of bilingualism & biliteracy
 Enhanced: infuses language objectives and cultural
knowledge with content instruction
 Reading and writing across the curriculum
 Articulated within and across grade levels
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
 Instruction
 Sheltered instruction for
L2 learners
 Cognitive organization
of material - Graphic
organizers, thinking
maps
 Grouping practices to
maximize language
development, social
skills, and
communicative skills
Promoting Success in TWI/Dual Language
Guiding Principles
 Assessment & Accountability
Use student achievement data to shape and/or monitor program
effectiveness; assessments in both languages

Staff Quality & Professional Development
Recruits/retains high quality/highly bilingual staff; has a quality professional
development plan appropriate for bilingual vision

Family and Community
Promote parent involvement/participation equally across all groups

Support and Resources
Program receives support from district, community, and all school staff
TWI/Dual Language
Evidence for success of TWI/Dual Language Education
 30 years of
consistent
research findings
in US!
 40 years of
research in
Canada & other
countries – results
in US similar to
other countries
TWI/Dual Language
Evidence for Academic Achievement
 Research - by late elementary
school, students in TWI/Dual
language (TWI/DL) programs
achieve similar to or higher
than peers in English
mainstream programs
 However, students in TWI/DL
are bilingual and biliterate,
peers in English only are
rarely bilingual or biliterate
TWI/DL works in all languages studied: Spanish, Chinese,
Korean, Japanese, Russian, German, Italian, French programs
English Reading Performance – EP
by Program Model
California Standards Test Scale Scores
State highest grade 2; by 5th grade 90:10 and 50:50 higher than
state; 90:10 higher than 50:50 grades 3-6
400
90/10 - LEAST Eng
50/50 - HALF Eng
375
State Av: 100% Eng
Proficient
350
325
300
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
.
English Reading Performance – ELL
by Program Model
State highest grades 2-4; by grade 6, 90:10 and 50:50 higher than
or equal to state; 90:10 higher than 50:50 grades 4-6
California Standards Test Scale Scores
375
Proficient
350
90/10 - LEAST Eng
50/50 - HALF Eng
State Av: 100% Eng
325
300
275
250
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
.
TWI/Dual Language
Evidence for Academic Achievement
Research findings (TWI/DL students
achieve at/above non-TWI/DL peers in
English-only classes) observed with
students of varied backgrounds:
 SES – upper, middle, lower; parents
with college education to parents
with elementary education
 Ethnicity – Hispanic,
Asian/Chinese/Korean, African
American, Euro American
 Special Education – students with
identified special needs (GATE,
IEP)
English Reading Performance
Ethnic Group – EP Students in Spanish
All TWI/DL students groups score higher than their peers in
English mainstream in the state (CA=Calif) (Grades 4-8, n=1149).
425
CST Scale Scores
400
375
350
325
300
275
250
Hisp
TWI
Hisp
CA
.
AfricAm
TWI
AfAm
CA
.
AsianAm AsAm
TWI
CA
.
White
TWI
White
CA
English Reading Performance
Students in Korean & Mandarin
All TWI/DL students groups score (slightly) higher than their peers
in English mainstream in the state (CA=Calif), who score very high.
Korean/English: All Korean
background (ELL & EP)
Mandarin/English EP: Chinese
Background & Caucasian Background
450
CST Scale Scores
425
400
375
350
325
300
275
250
Korean
TWI
Korean
CA
Grade 4
.
Chinese
TWI
Chinese
CA
.
Grade 6
White
TWI
White
CA
Academic Achievement in English - Reading
Russian Immersion Students
Russian immersion score higher than non-immersion students
Percent of Students at Proficient or Advanced Levels
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
3rd Imm
3rd
non- Imm
4th Imm
4th non- Imm
5th Imm
5th non- Imm
6th Imm
6th non- Imm
8th Imm
School Success
TWI/DL High School Students’ Attitudes
Most students – express positive
attitudes that “Learning Through Two
Languages..”
Percent Agree
 made me smarter
79%
 helped me to think better
99%
 helped me get better grades
95%
 gave me more confidence to do well
in school
94%
School Success
TWI/DL High School Students
 Less likely to drop out of school than non-TWI/DL peers
 More likely to take AP courses
 More likely enrolled in higher-level math
 More likely pass High School Exit Exam
TWI/Dual Language
Evidence - Oral Communication Skills
 English oral language skills:
 Native English and Spanish speakers
are orally proficient
 Students communicate with
teacher/peers & give presentations in
grade-level tasks
 Spanish oral language skills:
 Most native English & Spanish
speakers proficient (teacher ratings) or
at Intermediate level of proficiency
(foreign language test)
 Students communicate with
teacher/peers and give presentations
in grade-level tasks
 98% rate themselves as somewhat
or very bilingual
Communication Skills
Attitudes About Bilingualism
Most students – express positive
attitudes
Percent Agree
 Appreciate other languages
98%
 Important to learn other languages &
be bilingual
99%
 Enjoy studying through 2 languages
and in DL program
95%
Advantages & Disadvantages
Of Bilingualism/Immersion Program
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Can communicate with more/different people
Can talk to grandparents, other family
Have a better social life, more friends
Can help others
Improve the world
Can translate for others
Have more knowledge, intelligence
Better future
Better job
More clients (lawyers, doctors)
Make MORE MONEY!!!!!
Understand other cultures
Easier to learn other languages
Can help in emergencies/save a life
Watch movies in another language
Read books in more languages
“Secret” language
Impress others
DISadvantages
•
More (double) homework
• Have to translate for
parents or others
• Hard work, tough
• Time consuming
Socio-Cultural Competence
Attitudes Toward Others
Almost all students – express positive
attitudes toward others
 Better understanding of others
(Target Language speakers, those of
other cultures)
 More understanding of people
different from me – compared to peers
 Feel comfortable around people
different from themselves
Socio-Cultural Competence
Cultural Attitudes & Knowledge
Most students – express interest in and
positive attitudes toward culture because
of TWI/DL program/studies
 Better understanding of cultures
 Greater appreciation for other cultures
 Understand aspects of Target culture
Percent Agree
95%
90%
93%
 My last comment is this; wherever life
takes you, being bilingual will always be
useful.
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