Promoting Language
Development from Birth to 5:
in One Language or Two
Barbara Zurer Pearson
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Rebecca Burns
University of South Florida Sarasota
“A Time
for Action”
National Head Start
Dual Language Institute
October 29, 2008
Washington, DC
“A Time
for Action”
National Head Start
Dual Language
Institute
October 29, 2008
Washington, DC
Contact Information
Barbara Zurer Pearson, Ph.D.
[email protected]
www.zurer.com/pearson
c/o UMass Amherst Linguistics &
Communication Disorders
Rebecca Burns. Ph.D.
[email protected]
www.sarasota.usf.edu/coe/Burns
College of Education/ ESOL
University of South Florida-Sarasota Manatee
Bilingualism Study Group /
University of Miami
• Infant Study 25 babies 3 months to 3 years,
• Language & Literacy (LLBC) 960 children 5-11
D. K. Oller
Vivian Umbel
Ana Navarro
Rebecca Eilers
Vanessa Lewedag
Sylvia Fernandez
Maria Fernandez
Alan Cobo-Lewis
Virginia Gathercole
Barbara Zurer Pearson
NICHD 5R01 HD30762 to D.K. Oller & R. E. Eilers
NIDCD Bilingualism Supplement to Longitudinal Infant Vocalizations
Project
RCMA (Immokalee FL)
judith inglese, ceramicist
Outline of today’s session
1. Highlight dual language
research w/ implications for
practice
2. Provide tools and strategies for
centers and programs to
support bilingual children and
their families
H.S. Dual Language Institute
Objectives Addressed
Head Start Dual Language Report
p. 24
I.
II.
Positive outcomes for children
Strengthened program planning &
professional development
III. Enhanced family involvement
IV. Greater community resources
(all)
I. Positive Outcomes
for Bilingual Children
Huh? That’s not what I heard!
Aren’t bilingual children slower to
learn?
It’s too hard. Don’t bilingual children
get confused?
They have enough problems with
English; the other language just
holds them back.
These are all myths!
First some terminology…
• Our “bilingual babies” didn’t
speak two languages, not even
one!
• So, what is “bilingual”?
• What do you think? What terms
are unfamiliar to you?
Yes! Research shows
positive outcomes for children
• Children growing up in two or
more languages is the norm
around the world.
• The human brain is designed to
support multiple languages
• The more you know, the easier it
is to learn.
Yes!
Positive Outcomes for Children
With home language support:
• Children’s learning is continuous
• Children’s self-esteem is
enhanced
• Parents have more recognition
as child’s first teacher
1st principle: Learning 2nd language
doesn’t require loss of 1st.
English and Spanish Proficiency by Time in U.S.
11
10
9
Eng
8
Span
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
"Depth"
Hakuta & D’Andrea, 1992
Demonstration of
subtractive LL
English and Spanish Proficiency by Time in U.S.
11
10
9
Eng
Span
8
7
1
2
3
4
"Depth"
From Hakuta & D’Andrea, 1992
5
6
Demonstration of additive
BL
English and Spanish Proficiency by Time in U.S.
11
10
9
Eng
Span
8
7
1
2
3
4
"Depth"
From Hakuta & D’Andrea, 1992
5
6
w/ Nested factorial
(Core Design-LLBC, Oller & Eilers, 2002)
Monolinguals
Bilinguals
Only Spanish
Home Lang: English & Spanish
School:1-way
SES: Hi
Lo
Hi
Lo
2-way
Hi Lo
1-way
Hi
Lo
2-way
Hi Lo
SES
(Replicated at Kindergarten, 2nd and 5th Grades)
At 5th grade, difference scores
for school lang groups
Effect of School Language(s) on
Standardized Scores
12
10
8
SS points
gained
Overall
6
4
Eng&Sp at Home
2
0
English
Spanish
Advantage
Advantage
from Eng
from Two-
Only
Way
School
School
Only Span at
Home
At 5th grade, difference scores for
the home language groups
Effect of Home Language(s) on
Standardized Scores
12
10
8
SS points
gained
Overall
6
4
English Only
School
2
2-Way School
0
English
Spanish
Advantage
Advantage
from
Eng&Sp at
Home
from Only
Spanish at
Home
Positive Outcomes:
The Big Picture
Bilingual children have better
– selective attention
– metalinguistic awareness
– mental flexibility
– continuity between home & school
– understanding & tolerance for
others
– access to a wider world
Individual Differences:
Factor Analysis of Bilinguals’
English & Spanish Data
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
–.01
Word Attack
.82
.71
Letter–Word
Rdg Comp
Proofing
.79
.64
.70
.82
.61
.66
.35
.25
.37
.28
.32
.34
Dictation
Picture Vocab
Analogies
.61
.70
.48
.40
Oral Vocab
PPVT
.80
.69
.74
.74
–.05
.38
–.00
.78
.61
.78
.72
One child, two languages
Commitment to Dual Language
Programs
II. Program Planning & Professional
Development
Can you convince your staff,
parents, and community of the
positive outcomes for children?
§ 1304.21 Education and early
childhood development. a) 4
• (ii) Ensuring opportunities for creative selfexpression through activities such as art,
music, movement, and dialogue;
• (iii) Promoting interaction and language
use among children and between children
and adults; and
• (iv) Supporting emerging literacy and
numeracy development through materials
and activities according to the
developmental level of each child.
• (Head Start Performance Standards)
Publications Available
• Barbara’s website:
www.zurer.com/pearson/bilingualchild
• Pearson, B. Z. Raising a BL Child
• Patton Tabors, One Child, Two
Languages
• WestEd article, in Concepts of Care, (also
en español--aquí)
• OHS Dual Language Report
• Sign up sheet for those without internet
access
Language Policy Goals:
Zero to 3 and newcomers
• Continuity of care
• Caregivers speaking their best
language
• Reinforcing (or introducing) the language of the
community
Policy Goals: 3 to 5 years
• Continuity of care = learning
experiences in home lang.
• Caregivers speaking their best
language
• Reinforcing (or introducing) the
language of the community
Planning for bilingual children
doesn’t change the basics:
Provide for
• Safety, health, and security
• Supportive caregivers
• Opportunities for experience and
interaction for children, staff, and parents
(It’s harder to prevent a child from learning
than it is to help them learn!)
Language Planning
• There is no single, “right” way
1. Child & Caregivers Speak the Same
Language
Child’s
Language =
Caregiver’s
= Language
Community
≠ Language
Use the child’s and caregivers’
common language
 Continuity between home and childcare setting
 Caregivers speaking their own language
2. Child and Caregivers have
different L1
Child’s
Language
≠
Caregiver’s
Community
Language = = Language
Use the caregivers’ & community
language
 Caregivers speaking their own language
Child has experience with community language
3. Caregivers speak community language as
a second language
Child’s
Language
Caregiver’s
≠ Language L1 ≠
Community
Language
Use the
community
language
Child has experience with community language
4. Mixed Languages
Child’s
Language
=
Some Caregiver’s
Language (L1)
≠
Use the child’s language sometimes
Some Caregiver’s
Language (L1)
=
Community
Language
Use the community language sometimes
Continuity between home and childcare setting
Caregivers speaking their own language
Child has experience with community language
Tubes--Bilingual comfort level
Ideal program plan for mixed
groups
Every child has support in home
language.
How much is enough?
Speech & language intervention model:
minimum 30 min, 3 x week
Ideal program plan for mixed
groups
How do we find the staff to provide
the home language
experiences?
We have too many languages!
Ideal program plan for mixed
groups will need
Language volunteers
parents
community
Bilingual staff
Media(books, audio, video, labels)
The role of media in
language development
• Motive and opportunity
• Interaction provides opportunity
• Media contribute to motivation
(at this age)
What does every child need for
language development?
• Responsiveness
• Warm, positive interactions
• One on one attention and conversation
• Listening
• Integration with the group
• Respect for background
• (Praise doesn’t hurt.)
Some are better in L1, Others can be done in L2.
Main Take-home message for
Language Strategies
• Listen
•
•
•
•
•
Build from the child
(Respond responsively)
Expand the child’s utterance
Recast, don’t correct
Repetition, repetition, repetition
Best Practices
Meaningful Language Interaction
 Language is the Key: Talking and Playing & Talking and Books
– Follow the CAR
Follow the child’s lead
Ask questions and wait
Contact Lora Heulitt at
the National Head Start
Family Literacy Center
for more information.
Respond by adding a little more and wait
[email protected]
Comment and wait
 El Idioma Es la Clave: Conversación y Juego Y Conversación y Libros
– Siguiendo el CARRO
1. Seguir la guía del niño
2. Comentar y esperar
3. Averigüar (hacer preguntas) y esperar
4. Responder, aumentando un poco más
5. Repitir Otra vez en español (the home language)
42
Talking with children:
the big picture
• Children need adult language
modeling
• Children need lots of opportunities to
practice talking
Requires a balance
Teacher-Child Proportion of Talk
(words/minute)
160
A ve r a g e W o r d s
140
120
100
TeacherWords
80
ChildWords
60
40
20
0
T1
T2
T3
T4
Burns, 1992
Child-Teacher Proportion of Talk
(adult words x 10)
A v. W o r d s p e r H o u r
900
TeacherWords
750
ChildWords
600
450
300
150
ChildWords
0
T1
T2
TeacherWords
T3
T4
Clearest message?
• Teachers 1 & 2:
• Teacher 4:
• Teacher 3:
TALK LESS
TALK MORE
Tell us your secret!
The Secret: Children’s
Personal Stories
• Children told more personal
stories with Teacher #3
• With all teachers children used
their most complex language
when telling personal stories
Go online for
great narrative clip
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=_s2-onN7d9s
Recognizing kinds of talk
• Personal stories
• Expository talk (like a book)
– (Quizzing)
• Task accompaniment (self-talk)
• Management
Another language secret:
stop quizzing
Children did the least amount of
talking with teachers who did the
most amount of quizzing.
Quizzing is not warm, nurturing
communication.
What do you hear?
• (clip from High Scope: block building)
How do you build these into
your program—every day?
• Greeting time
• Free play
• Circle time (with routines to put
the child up front)
• Small group—tubes/ pumpkins
• MEALS and SNACKS
Language awareness is the
key:
• Don’t let opportunities to respond
slip away
• And create other opportunities to
respond
Planning Support: Handout
• Taking a Language Inventory
– Example Center’s Language Inventory
• Staffing for Language Development
– Example Center’s Staffing Plan
• Staff Development for Language Development
– Kinds of talk
– Training Activities
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