Classroom and Behavior
Management
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
1
Effective Classroom
Management

Behavior management



Instructional management


Teaching routines
Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adultstudent interaction
Curriculum & instructional design
Environmental management
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
2
Nonclassroom Systems


Teaching expectations & routines
Active supervision



Scan, move, interact
Precorrections & reminders
Positive reinforcement
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
3
Individual Student System




Behavioral competence
Function-based behavior support
planning
Comprehensive person-centered
planning & wraparound processes
Targeted social skills instruction


Self-management
Individualized instructional & curricular
accommodations
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
4
Creating Positive School Climates: Some
Features

Create continuum of behavior supports from
a systems perspective

Focus on behavior of adults in school as unit

Establish behavioral competence
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
5
Antecedents
Classroom
Prevention
Physical
Environment
Teacher
Manager
Procedures,
Routines, and Rules
Instructional
Strategies,
Activities, and
Management
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
6
Areas To Be Observed in
the Classroom







Classroom Arrangement
Efficient Time Management
Smooth Transitions
Clear Expectations
Active Supervision
Consequences for Positive and Negative
Behaviors
Clear learning goals communication through
visual or auditory means.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
7
Classroom Arrangement




Seating arrangement for visibility of all
students at all times
Smooth student movement in the room
Accessible equipment/books
Instructional displays within eyesight of
the students
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
8
Proactive (Antecedent)
Strategies
Structure the Physical Space


Seating arrangements
Examples?
Use Proximity Control



Anticipate problems
The “wandering reinforcer”
Examples?
Motivation and Encouragement


Tell them what you want, what will happen,
and give them immediate positive feedback
when you get it
Examples?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
9
Physical Environment






Public/Private
Space
Arrangement of
furniture
Movement in the
classroom
Visual lines
Storage
Aesthetics
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
10
Time Management and
Smooth Transitions


Minimize time spent on organization and
transitions
Spend less time on taking roll, students
standing in line, time between one activity
and the next
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
11
Procedures, Routines, and Rules
Effective Teachers Teach Procedures









Using the washroom
Fire and Disaster
Drills
Leaving the building
Heading on the
paper
Collecting papers
Bell assignments
Sharpening pencils
Movement in the
class
Answering questions
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
12
What variables need to be considered in
Organizing the Classroom?









Technology (Powerpoint, computers as tools)
Discussion (Small group vs. Large)
Hands On Experience
Partnering
Seatwork
Peer Tutoring
Lecture
Video/Film
“Grouping”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
13
Proactive (Antecedent)
Strategies
Increase Academic Engaged (Learning)
Time
 Three basic components:



the percentage of the day scheduled for
academics (should be at least 70%)
on-task time of the student (should be at
least 85%)
success of the student when academically
engaged (should be at least 80%)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
14
Clear expectations established and
visible in the classroom


Components of the school-wide PBS plan
Use of Pre-correction
 Antecedent intervention that aims to
reduce predictable problem behaviors and
increase appropriate replacement
behaviors through the daily review of
setting specific rules prior to being released
into that setting or beginning a new
activity.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
15
Classroom
Management
How can this be accomplished?
(Prevention?)
 Using appropriate instructional strategies.
• Deciding whether to group students based on
ability or other special characteristic.
 Being invested in your own job (e.g., “You have
to like them.”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
16
Proactive (Antecedent)
Strategies
Characteristics of Good Classroom Rules:









Keep them to a minimum
Keep the wording simple
Represent basic expectations
Keep the wording positive
Make rules specific
Make them observable & measurable
Post the rules in a public place
Tie rules to consequences
Always include a compliance rule
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
17
Classroom Rules
Designed to catch children misbehaving
in order to issue punishments
or
Guidelines that assist children in
examining their behavior and how it
affects themselves and others
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
18
Developing Classroom
Behavior Standards
Key Factors:
1. Involve students in process
2. State rules clearly, avoid generalities
3. Limit number of standards
4. Gain acceptance from the children
5. Monitor student behavior
6. Communicate
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
19
Developing Standards for
Behavior




Discussing the Value of Rules
Developing a List
Getting a Commitment
Monitoring and Reviewing Rules
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
20
Developing Standards for
Behavior
Monitor and Review Classroom Rules
 Regular review of rules
 Individual meetings with students
 New Student Meetings
 Activities to Review
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
21
Instructional Management Skills That
Facilitate On-task Behavior





Giving clear instruction
Beginning a lesson
Maintaining attention
Pacing
Using seatwork effectively
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
22
Instructional Management Skills That
Facilitate On-Task Behavior





Summarizing
Providing useful feedback and evaluation
Making smooth transitions
Dealing with common frustrations
Planning for early childhood settings
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
23
Proactive (Antecedent)
Strategies
Hype

Make a big deal out of desired behaviors
and anticipated reinforcers
Pre-correction Strategies

Anticipate problem situations and provide
instructions for behavior; link to anticipated
reinforcers and reward immediately
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
24
Active Supervision



Scanning – examining the area for rule
followers and rule violators
Moving – consistently traveling around
the room where problems are more
likely to occur
Interacting – initiating brief prosocial
interactions with students (e.g., brief
praise)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
25
Classroom Management

Factors for grouping:
 Consider the “Good” and “Bad” aspects
 Should be based on purpose of the lesson
 Members of “lowest” group need special
attention
 Teachers need to be “managers” of groups
 Consider time factors, explicitly stated
rules, & the size of group
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
26
Teachers often dilute the effectiveness
of their instructions by:
presenting instructions as questions or polite requests.
Commands have less impact when stated as questions or requests, because the
student may believe that he or she has the option to decline. The teacher who
attempts, for example, to quiet a talkative student by saying, "Tanya, could you
mind keeping your voice down so that other students can study?" should not be
surprised if the student replies, "No, thank you. I would prefer to talk!"
stating instructions in vague terms.
A student may ignore a command such as "Get your work done!" because it does
not state specifically what behaviors the teacher expects of the student.
following up instructions with excessive justifications or explanations.
Because teachers want to be viewed as fair, they may offer long, drawn-out
explanations for why they are requiring the class or an individual student to
undertake or to stop a behavior. Unfortunately, students can quickly lose the thread
the explanation and even forget the command that preceded it!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
27
However, effective
instructions
can often increase the
probability that student will
comply by 50% or greater.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
28
Effective Instructions



are brief. Students can process only so much information.
Students tend to comply best with brief commands because they
are easy to understand and hard to misinterpret.
are delivered one task or objective at a time. When a
command contains multi-step directions, students can mishear,
misinterpret, or forget key steps. A student who appears to be
noncompliant may simply be confused about which step in a
multi-step directive to do first!
are given in a matter-of-fact, businesslike tone. Students
may feel coerced when given a command in an authoritarian,
sarcastic, or angry tone of voice. For that reason alone, they may
resist the teacher's directive. Teachers will often see greater
student compliance simply by giving commands in a neutral or
positive manner.
29
Effective Instructions



are stated as directives rather than questions. Perhaps to be polite, teachers
may phrase commands as questions (e.g., "Could we all take out our math books
now?"). A danger in using 'question-commands' is that the student may believe that
he or she has the option to decline! Teachers should state commands as directives,
saving questions for those situations in which the student exercises true choice.
avoid long explanations or justifications. When teachers deliver commands and
then tack lengthy explanations onto them, they diminish the force of the directive. If
the teacher believes that students should know why they are being told to do
something, a brief explanation should be delivered prior to the command.
give the student a reasonable amount of time to comply. Once the teacher has
given a command, he or she should give the student a reasonable time span (e.g., 515 seconds) to comply. During that waiting period, the teacher should resist the
temptation to nag the student, elaborate on the request, or other wise distract the
student.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
30
Basic Premise
Resistance and poor motivation are not
student characteristics, they are student
cognitions and behaviors and are
subject to interpersonal influence.
Teachers can (and do) drive resistance
levels up and down dramatically by the
behavioral responses they choose in
the face of resistance and apathy.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
31
Essential Elements Matrix:
Tier 1
Essential Element 13
Follow-up procedures in
place for instructional staff
who have not met minimal
instructional and behavioral
criteria

Follow-up procedures that
include feedback to
instructional staff members
that include the following:
 a scheduled conference,
 written information about
problematic key features
of the checklist,
 a plan for improvement,
and
 follow-up teacher
observations
demonstrating
implementation.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
32
Essential Elements
Matrix: Tier 1
Essential Element 9
System of Behavioral Support
(school and district level)
School-wide behavior support plan that
addresses the elements of positive behavior
support
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
33
3 TIERS



Tier 1: Quality
Classroom
Instruction
Tier 2: Focused
Supplemental
Instruction
Tier 3: Intensive
interventions
specifically designed
to meet the
individual needs of
students


You’ve seen this before
for Academics… It’s the
same for BEHAVIOR.
What are teachers
doing for ALL students
to provide quality
instruction for
behaviors?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
34
Example (part 1)



Student A: Beginning of Third grade
Teacher reviewing second grade skills
Student A can’t quite get it right and therefore
does not complete work
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
35
Example (part 1)



Student A: Beginning of Third grade
Teacher reviewing second grade skills
Student A can’t quite get it right and therefore
does not complete work


Teacher says, “Ok A,
let’s review this.”
Proceeds to review the
skill with the student
and then provides
practice activities to
observe mastery of skills
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
36
Example (part 1)
Student A: Beginning of Third grade
Teacher reviewing second grade skills
Student A can’t quite get it right and therefore
does not complete work



•
•
Teacher says, “Ok A, let’s reviewOR
this.”
Proceeds to review the skill with
the student and then provides
practice activities to observe
mastery of skills

Teacher says, “Why
aren’t you doing what
I told you to do?
We’ve reviewed this
already. You should
follow directions.”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
37
Example (part 2)



Student A: Beginning of Third grade
Teacher reviewing classroom rules and
expectations
Student A can’t quite get it right and continually
forgets to raise his hand before speaking and
blurts out loudly
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
38
Example (part 2)
• Student A: Beginning of Third grade
• Teacher reviewing classroom rules and
expectations
• Student A can’t quite get it right and continually
forgets to raise his hand before speaking and
blurts out loudly


Teacher says, “Ok A,
let’s review this.”
Proceeds to review the
skill with the student
and then provides
practice activities to
observe mastery of skills
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
39
Example (part 2)
• Student A: Beginning of Third grade
• Teacher reviewing classroom rules and
expectations
• Student A can’t quite get it right and continually
forgets to raise his hand before speaking and
blurts out loudly
•
•
Teacher says, “Ok A, let’s reviewOR
this.”
Proceeds to review the skill with
the student and then provides
practice activities to observe
mastery of skills

Teacher says, “Why
aren’t you doing what
I told you to do?
We’ve reviewed this
already. You should
follow directions.”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
40
Tier 1: Academic



Do we recognize that we have many students
who do not have enriched environments with
language and help from home with homework
and other academic tasks?
YES
For some of these students, we realize that
additional work must be done to teach these
skills.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
41
Tier 1: Behavior



Do we recognize that we have many students
who do not have enriched environments with
social skills and help from home with
behavioral difficulties?
YES
For some of these students, we realize that
additional work must be done to teach the
appropriate skill.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
42
What Are We Doing Now
For Behavior?
Where is TIER 1? What instruction for behaviors
are we providing to ALL students? Are we
teaching appropriate behaviors and HOW are we
teaching them?

Not reviewing rules a few times and then
providing consequences when they are not
followed
ALSO, does demonstration of mastery one
time means that the skill will be used 100% of
the time and no longer needs practice?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
43


TIER 1 for Behavior is Positive Behavior
Supports
(also called Positive Behavior
Intervention & Supports)
What does it look like and
how is it done?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
44
What is Tier 1 for
behavior (PBIS)?
PBIS is a broad range of systemic and
individualized strategies for achieving
important social and learning outcomes
while preventing problem behavior with all
students.
(Sugai, 2004)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
45
PBIS is…



Not specific practices or curriculum…it’s
a general approach to preventing
problem behavior
Not limited to any particular group of
students…it’s for all students
Not new…it’s based on a long history of
behavioral practices and effective
instructional design and strategies
(Sugai, 2004)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
46
PBIS addresses:





High rates of problem behavior
Ineffective and punitive discipline
procedures
Lack of staff support and cohesion
Negative school climate
High use of crisis/reactive management
procedures
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
47
Messages!
1.
2.
Successful Individual student behavior
support is linked to host environments
or schools that are effective, efficient,
relevant, & durable
Learning & teaching environments must
be redesigned to increase the likelihood
of behavioral & academic success
(Sugai, 2004)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
48
Main Message!
School environments that are positive,
preventive, predictable, & effective




Are safer, healthier, & more caring
Have enhanced learning & teaching outcomes
Can provide a continuum of behavior support for
all students
Are achievable & sustainable
(Sugai, 2004)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
49
Classroom
Setting Systems
School-wide
Systems
School-wide Positive
Behavior Support
Systems
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
50
What Is Our “Common” Response?





Clamp down on rule violators.
Review rules & sanctions.
Extend continuum of aversive
consequences.
Improve consistency of use of
punishments.
Establish “bottom line.”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
51
A Real Life Common Classroom
Example . . .


Child starts the day with
a green light
For every infraction,
light is moved from
green to yellow to red
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
52
What does PBIS look
like?




> 80% of students can tell you what is
expected of them and give behavioral
example because they have been taught,
actively supervised, practiced, and
acknowledged
Positive adult to student interactions exceed
negative
Data and team based action planning and
implementation are operating
Full continuum of behavior support is
available to all students
(Sugai, 2004)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
53
CONTINUUM OF
SCHOOL-WIDE
INSTRUCTIONAL &
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
Tertiary Prevention:
≈5%
≈15%
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk
Behavior
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students, Staff, &
Settings
Secondary
Prevention:
≈ 80% of Students
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
Specialized
Group
Systems for
Students with AtRisk Behavior
54
55
School-wide & Classroom
Systems
1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors
3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior
4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging
expected behavior
5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging
inappropriate behavior
6. Procedures for on-going monitoring &
evaluation
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
56
Define Behavioral
Expectations

Develop 3-5 inclusive, positively stated
expectations



Easy to remember
Apply to all students in all settings
Define what each expectation means
(behaviorally) in each relevant school
environment
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
57
Redesign Learning &
Teaching Environment
58
Teach Behavioral
Expectations

Directly teach concrete social skills
expected in each relevant school
environment
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
59
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
60
Acknowledge/reward
Appropriate Behavior




Appropriate behavior needs to be
beneficial to the student
Some use formal systems; Some rely on
social reinforcers (e.g., Praise,
recognition, privileges)
All students should be acknowledged
Goal: 4-5 positives for every aversive
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
61
Monitor and Correct
Behavioral Errors



Clear set of consequences for problem
behavior
Correct problem behavior quickly
Tie correction to the school expectations
(what to do instead next time)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
62
Use Information for
Decision-making
Collect data on office referrals that require
administrative involvement



Provides useful information for refining
school-wide discipline system
Provides objective evaluation of success
Provides positive feedback to students, staff,
administration, and families
63
Benefits of a good Tier 1


Fewer students in Tier 2 with individual
interventions.
Teachers spending less time correcting
minor offenses that may or may not lead
to an office referral!!!


Resulting in more instruction time!
More positive school environment
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
64
“I like workin’ at school.”
After implementing PBS, a Principal
in Connecticut reports that teacher
absences dropped from 414 (20022003) to 263 (2003-2004).
65
“I like it here.”
Over the past 3 years, 0 teacher
requests for transfers
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
66
GROUP COST BENEFIT:
Administrators
Office Referral Reduction across several
schools using PBS = 2000
If one referral = 15 minutes of administrator
time, then
2000x15 = 30,000 minutes
500 hours or 71 seven-hour school days of
administrator time recovered and
reinvested.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
67
GROUP COST BENEFIT:
Instruction
Office Referral Reduction across a district
using PBS = 2000
If students miss approximately 30 minutes of
instruction for each office referral then
2000x30 = 60,000 minutes
1000 hours or 142 seven-hour school days of
instruction time recovered!!!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
68
What could a reduction of
ISS and OSS mean?

Let’s just say…
One school has 75 referrals resulting
in ISS and 25 resulting in OSS




ODR (for each referral) = 30 minutes
ISS = 2 days of no instruction (some
kids get 1 day, some may get 3)
OSS = 3 days of no instruction (some
getting anywhere from 1-9 days)
216 minutes of instruction per day
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
69
What could a reduction of
ISS and OSS mean?

Current loss of
instruction



51,600 minutes
860 hours
123 7-hour school
days

If we could just
reduce the number
of referrals that
result in either ISS
or OSS by 1/3 we
could save
approximately 41
days of instruction!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
70
What if the teacher doesn’t send the
student to the office?



Let’s just say…Teacher A corrects his/her
students approximately 20 times per day
Spends approximately 30 seconds per
correction.
20x30 = 600 seconds = 10 minutes per
day
10 minutes x 180 days = 1800 minutes of
lost instruction time!!!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
71
“We found some minutes?”
After reducing their office discipline
referrals from 400 to 100, middle
school students requiring
individualized, specialized behavior
intervention plans decreased from
35 to 6.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
72
“She can read!”
With minutes reclaimed from
improvements in proactive PBS
discipline, elementary school
invests in improving school-wide
literacy.
Result: >85% of students in 3rd
grade are reading at/above grade
level.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
73
Questions so far???
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
74
Example PBIS Proposal
Example School District
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
75
Step 1: Define 3-5 Positively Stated
Expectations

Example 1

Example 2

Respectful


Responsible

Safe


Be Respectful of Self,
Other, and Property
Be Responsible and
Prepared at all Times
Be Ready to follow
directions and
procedures
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
76
TEACHING
MATRIX
SETTING
Expectations
All Settings
Hallways
Playgrounds
Cafeteria
Library/
Computer
Lab
Assembly
Bus
Study, read,
compute.
Sit in one spot.
Watch for your
stop.
Respect
Ourselves
Be on task.
Give your
best effort.
Be prepared.
Walk.
Have a plan.
Eat all your
food.
Select
healthy
foods.
Respect
Others
Be kind.
Hands/feet to
self.
Help/share
with others.
Use normal
voice volume.
Walk to right.
Play safe.
Include others.
Share
equipment.
Practice
good table
manners
Whisper.
Return books.
Listen/watch.
Use appropriate
applause.
Use a quiet
voice.
Stay in your
seat.
Respect
Property
Recycle.
Clean up
after self.
Pick up litter.
Maintain
physical
space.
Use equipment
properly.
Put litter in
garbage can.
Replace
trays &
utensils.
Clean up
eating area.
Push in
chairs.
Treat books
carefully.
Pick up.
Treat chairs
appropriately.
Wipe your feet.
Sit
appropriately.
77
Respectful
Classroom
1. Follow
directions
first time
given.
Hallway
1. Follow
directions.
Cafeteria
1. Follow
directions.
Playground
1. Take turns.
2. Use inside 2. Use inside 2. Eat your
voice.
voice.
own food.
2. Invite
others to
play.
3. Talk only
with
permission.
3. Put-ups
not putdowns.
3. Use polite
language.
3. Wait to be
dismissed.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
78
Responsible
Classroom
Hallway
Cafeteria
1. Be
prepared.
1. Stay in line
with class.
2. Listen
during
lessons.
2. Watch
2. Clean up
where you are after yourself.
walking.
Playground
1. Wait in line. 1. Tell if
someone is
hurt.
2. Get in line
to go in when
teacher says.
3. Do your
work.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
79
Safe
Classroom
Hallway
Cafeteria
Playground
1. Keep hands 1. Keep hands 1. Keep hands 1. Keep hands
and feet to
and feet to
and feet to
and feet to
self.
self.
self.
self.
2. Sit in chair
correctly.
2. Watch
2. Keep food
where you are on your tray.
walking.
2. Use
equipment the
right way.
3. Follow
teacher
instructions.
3. Walk.
3. Stay in
area.
3. Walk.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
80
P
Perseverance
Holding to a course
of action despite
obstacles
• Stay positive
• Set goals
• Learn from
mistakes
R
Respect
To show
consideration,
appreciation, and
acceptance
• Respect yourself
• Respect others
• Demonstrate
appropriate language
and behavior
I
Integrity
Adherence to an
agreed upon code
of behavior
• Be responsible
• Do your own
work
• Be trustworthy
and trust others
D
E
Discipline
Managing ones self
to achieve goals
and meet
expectations
Excellence
Being of finest
or highest
quality
• Strive for
consistency
• Attend class
daily; be on time
• Meet deadlines;
do your homework
• Do your
personal best
• Exceed
minimum
expectations
• Inspire
excellence in
others
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
81
82
Create your own
rules/expectations matrix
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
83
Step 2: Procedures for
Teaching Expectations
Pre-teaching skills DAILY


Skill Review: first 15 minutes of the school
day
Design brief lessons to teach the rules by:




Teaching the skill
Providing examples and non-examples
Conducting Activities: Role playing, modeling,
performance feedback
Teach in the moment!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
84
Pre-Teaching Example
Skill: Getting help (How to ask for assistance for difficult tasks)
Example: If you don’t understand the directions of your assignment, raise your hand
and wait for the teacher to call on you.
Non-example: If you don’t understand the directions of your assignment, yell out to
the teacher to come help you.
Activities:
1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a time when they needed help.
2. Ask students to indicate or show how they can get help
3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion (PRAISE AND FEEDBACK!!)
After the lesson: During the Day
1.
2.
3.
Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to
tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty (Pre-teaching!)
When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off-task, complaining)
ask them to indicate that they need help (Reminder!)
Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific PRAISE to the
student.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
85
School-wide Response to
Appropriate Behavior



CARDS, DOLLARS or BUCKS, TOKENS, TICKETS
For any instance of observed appropriate behavior
anywhere in the school building, teacher delivers “Token”.
Delivery:




Be in proximity to student, praise for appropriate behavior (BE
SPECIFIC)
Put name on card, deliver to student.
Praise again
Reward:


Could have a drawing per class or per grade
Could use as “money” to buy rewards
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
86
Class-wide Response to
Appropriate Behavior



Fill up the jar!
Each class will have 2 jars. For
appropriate behavior, the class as a
whole, and individuals will have the
opportunity to fill the jar.
When the jar is filled…everything
stops…Class reward…
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
87
Fill Up The Jar:
Logistics

What to place in the jar?



How can they earn the opportunity to fill the
jar?


Marbles
Beans
ANY instance of appropriate behavior (group or
individual)
What is the reward?

Class votes

Reinforcer Pool (Choose a few different ideas, write them
down and put in a box. When the class earns the
reinforcer, pick from the box)
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
88
Fill Up The Jar: Example



Class walks in from recess quietly, and sits
down at desks.
Teacher: I love the way this class came in so
quietly and sat in your chairs ready to learn!
Let’s fill up the jar! (Place a marble, jelly
bean, etc.) into the jar so the class can see.
Teacher: Great job class! We are getting
closer to filling up the jar and earning a
reward! Excellent work!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
89
Cougar Traits in the Community
Student Name __________________________________
Displayed the Cougar Trait of:
Respect
Responsibility
Caring
Citizenship
(Circle the trait you observed)
Signature _____________________________________________
If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for
supporting our youth.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
90
Acknowledge & Recognize
91
When?



Daily!
Students may only get to turn in the
tokens every 9 weeks, but they are
acknowledged daily for their appropriate
behavior.
Why reward students for things they
should do anyway?

Just because they “should” doesn’t mean
they do or they have the appropriate skills.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
92
Why?



Reinforcement – a stimulus that will
increase the future probability of the
behavior.
Football players work for stars on their
helmets
Adults work for rewards and praise…
They just don’t need it as frequently.
Play video PBS 2.0
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
93
What about the teachers?



Apply principles to adult behavior!
Regularly acknowledge staff behavior
“G.O.O.S.E.” (Get Out Of School Early)


Or “arrive late”
Procedures


Kids/staff nominate
Kids/staff reward, then pick
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
94
Developing Habits




The goal is for students to develop positive
behavior habits.
Some students will also have to get rid of bad
habits.
Simple habits can be developed in 14-21 days
(e.g., remembering to wash hands).
More difficult habits can take several months
to a year before you get a final result,
especially if a current habit must be replaced!
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
95
96
How do we Begin?



Develop a School Leadership or PBS
Team
Complete a Needs Assessment Survey
with Teachers
Schedule Regular meetings with the
Team to review progress and
troubleshoot
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
97
How do we Begin?
(cont.)


Develop/Finalize School Expectations
 Get input from all staff
 Staff “Buy-In”
Develop School Wide Response to
Positive Behavior (e.g., Cards, Dollars,
Tickets)
 Guidelines of Distribution
 Details of how student rewards are
provided
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
98
How do we Begin?
(cont.)

Develop teaching strategies for expectations
and provide to teachers

Teacher Rewards

Parent Involvement

Budget
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
99
How do we Begin?
(cont.)

Review of data and use of data to make
decisions!!!!


Review with team and present to staff
What data to review


number of referrals per day and month,
location, type, etc.
Teachers’ and students’ perceptions
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
100



You have your rules/expectation
matrix…
Develop the following
 Team Members
 How to get staff buy-in
 School-Wide response to Positive
Behavior and Guidelines for
Distribution
 Teacher Rewards
If you currently have a PBS plan in
your district, is there an area that
could be improved?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
101
CRITICAL COMPONENT

TREATMENT FIDELITY/INTEGRITY



INTERVENTION OR POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
PLAN MUST BE DONE!!!
ALSO, IT MUST BE DONE IN THE MANNER
IN WHICH IS WAS INTENDED
What can happen if it is not done
correctly?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
102
The following slides include two schools
that had high treatment integrity
followed by one school that did not.
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
103
SCHOOL ONE
SCHOOL TWO
# Referrals
209
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Baseline 2003-2004
103
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
456
309
Baseline
Year 12004-2005
2003-2004
Year 1
2004-2005
104
Comparison by Month/Year: From Baseline to Year One in SCHOOL ONE
40
39
38
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
24
22
20
18
18
18
17
16
16
14
12
13
12
12
13
10
9
10
6
12
10
8
8
6
5
4
4
2
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
May
Apr
Mar
Feb
Jan
Dec
Nov
Oct
Sept
0
Aug
#Referrals
26
105
260
240
248
235
220
200
# Referrals
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2003-2004
Baseline
2004-2005
Year 1
106
48
46
44
44
42
40
38
36
35
36
34
34
32
32
32
# Referrals
30
27
28
26
25
24
23
24
22
20 20
20
17
18
19 19
21
20
17
16
14
11
12
10
8
7
6
4
2
0
August
September
October
November
December January
February
March
April
107
May
Preparation for the First Day of
School or First Day of
Implementation



Posters of rules for every area in every
school
Materials (cards, tokens, bucks) for all
staff members in each school
Materials to Fill Up The Jar (if you choose
to use it)

Jars and Beans/Marbles for every class in
every school
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
108
QUESTIONS/COMMENTS?
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
109
Descargar

Document