Chapter 3 Section 1 The Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans, Steppes, Migration, Hittites, Anatolia, Aryans, Vedas, Brahmin, Caste, Mahabharata Setting the Stage We just learned about the first civilization that arose along river valleys As these large cities began to decline people began to leave Warfare and changes to environment called for the migration to a new land Indo-Europeans Migrate The Indo-Europeans were a group of nomadic peoples who came from the steppes Steppes: dry grasslands north of the Caucasus Primarily pastoral people who herded cattle, sheep, and goats The Indo-European Language Family Language of Indo-Europeans similar to modern languages of Europe & parts of Asia English, Spanish, Persian, and Hindi all have roots to their language Slavic speakers went north Celtic, Germanic, & Italic speakers moved west Greek & Persian went south An Unexplained Migration There is no reason for the nomadic people to leave their homeland Between 1700 and 1200 B.C. they began to move outward Migration: movements of a people from one region to another The Hittite Empire 2000 B.C. the Hittites began to occupy Anatolia Anatolia is located in modern-day Turkey City-States came together in 1650 B.C. to form an empire Hattusas became the capital Dominated southwest Asia for 450 years Had issues with both Mesopotamia & Egypt Hittites Adopt and Adapt Adopted an international language “Akkadian” Borrowed ideas about literature, art, politics, & law from Mesopotamia Blended their own traditions with those of more advanced people What is this called? Chariots & Iron Technology Excelled at war Had war chariots 1500 B.C. Hittites were able to work with iron and integrate it into their weapons of war However their empire fell around 1190 B.C. - Multiple invasions - Tribes attacked and burned the capital city Aryans Transform India 2000 B.C. Aryans crossed over into the Indus Valley of India No archaeological record but the Vedas Vedas: picture of Aryan life, four collections of prayers, magical spells, instructions for rituals Rig Veda contains 1028 hymns to Aryan gods Elder orally passed down the information until it was written down How accurate can oral stories be? A Caste System Develops Aryans vs. Dasas Aryans were taller, lighter in skin color, and spoke a different language Aryans were pastoral people while the Dasas lived in communities protected by walls A Caste System Develops Continued Four groups arranged based on occupation - Brahmins ((priests) - Warriors - Traders & landowners - Peasants Arranged social classes Shudras were laborers who did work Aryans would not do Varna “skin color” set social class A Caste System Develops Continued Castes: system of social classes Could be born into your social class or move into that class Determined the work you did, who you could marry, and who you could eat with Obsessed with cleanliness considered those impure “untouchables” Aryan Kingdoms Arise Aryans began to expanded their settlements 1000 B.C. one major kingdom arose called “Magadha” Mahabharata: great epic of India and struggle for power Discusses how a young warrior should properly live, fight, and die Chapter 3 Section 2 Hinduism & Buddhism Develop Reincarnation, Karma, Jainism, Siddhartha Gautama, Enlightenment, & Nirvana Setting the Stage Aryans & Non-Aryans followed their own religions As the two intermingled so did their belief system What is this called again? Complexity of their religions, made people questions the world & their place in it Also began to question the power of the priests Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Hinduism is a religious belief that developed slowly over a long period of time Some aspects that people practice today are traced back to ancient times (Example: weddings) Recite daily verses from the Vedas What is the Vedas again? Hinduism can’t be traced to one founder Origins Between 750 & 550 B.C. Hindu teachers tried to interpret the Vedic hymns Wrote down their interpretations in the Upanishads; include dialogues & discussions Moksha: state of perfect understanding of all things Atman: individual soul of a living being Brahman: world soul that unties all Atman Beliefs See religion as a way of liberating the soul from illusions, disappointments, & mistakes Reincarnation (rebirth): an individuals soul is reborn until moksha is achieved Soul’s karma follows into reincarnation Karma influences your life circumstances Path to Moksha 3 paths to moksha: - path of right thinking - path of right action - path of religious devotion Hinduism Changes & Develops Hinduism has been through many changes over the past 2500 years Example: Brahman was seen as having the personality of three gods, these gods lost their importance Devi “great mother goddess” grew in importance Hindus choose the deity they want to worship Hinduism & Society Ideas about karma & reincarnation strengthened the caste system Good Karma brought good fortune while bad karma brought bad fortune Beliefs influenced every aspect of their life - What you could eat - Personal cleanliness - How you could dress Hindus still turn to their religion for guidance New Religions Arise As the Upanishads was created two other religions were created (Jainism & Buddhism) Jainism - Founder: Mahavira born 599 B.C. 527 B.C. - Believed everything in the universe had a soul - Nonviolence - 5 Millions follower live in India Chapter 3 Section 2 Continued The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Developed out the same religious questioning in Hinduism Founder: Siddhartha Gautama Born into a noble family in Nepal His prophecy: if stayed at home he would be a world leader but if he left the house he would become a universal spirit Family separated him from the world Siddhartha’s Quest At 29 years old, he left the palace four times - 1st time he saw an old man - 2nd time he saw a sick man - 3rd time he saw a corpse - 4th time he saw a holy man who seemed at peace with himself (Decided to spend his life searching for religious truth & an end to life suffering) Siddhartha’s Quest Continued Spent 6 years seeking enlightenment Tried many things to reach an enlightened state For 49 days he meditated under a large fig tree, and finally understood the cause of suffering in the world Buddha “the enlightened one” Origins Preached his first sermon to people who had accompanied him on the wanderings Four Noble Truths - 1st: Life is filled with suffering & sorrow - 2nd: The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world - 3rd: The way to end all suffering is to end all desires - 4th: The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold path, which is called the middle way between desires and self-denial Beliefs Eightfold path: “guide to behavior” [Like a staircase; have to master one stair at a time] Nirvana: release from selfishness & pain Believed in reincarnation but rejected the caste system They do not believe in many gods Want to reach a state of perfect understanding, like in Hinduism The Religious Community 5 disciples were admitted to the Sangha “religious community” Originally for monks & nuns, now is for the entire religious community “3 Jewels” of Buddhism - Sangha - Buddha - Dharma “teachings or doctrine” Buddhism & Society Admitted women into the religious order Promise to live a life of poverty, to be nonviolent, and to not marry Spread Buddha’s teachings Monastery’s created (Nalanda became a university) Teachings/Books Teachings written down after Buddha’s death Sacred literature - Commentaries - Rules about monastic life - Manuals on how to mediate - Legends about the Buddha’s previous reincarnations Buddhism in India Spread throughout Asia Unable to gain significant support in India Believe that Hinduism adapted some of the ideas of Buddhism (Felt no need to convert to Buddhism) Buddhism in India Continued India is still an importance place for Buddhists Visits places associated with Buddha’s life - Kapilavastu “birthplace” - Gaya “fig tree he meditated under” - Varanasi “first sermon” Trade & the Spread of Buddhism Trade played an important role in the spread of Buddhism As products spread and people migrated to new areas, the ideas of Buddhism went with it Cultural Diffusion! Chapter 3 Section 3 Seafaring Traders Minoan, Aegean Sea, Knossos, King Minos, Phoenicians Setting the Stage Buddhism spread to Southeast Asia & East Asia through Buddhist traders What was this process called? In the Mediterranean the same process will take but with ideas and products New ideas of writing, governing, and worshiping their gods. Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean Minoans: powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C. Crete, a large island in the Aegean Sea Traded pottery, swords, & figurines Also shared their unique architecture, burial customs, & religious rituals (huge influence on Greece) Map of Mediterranean Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization Knossos: Minoan capital city Archaeologist found remains of an advanced/thriving city Named civilization Minoa after King Minos Myth of the Minotaur & Labyrinth Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization Cont. Wall paintings showed their love of nature & beautiful things Enjoyed sports (boxing, wrestling, & bull leaping) Women played a role in religious ceremonies & were equal Mother Earth Goddess ruled over the other gods Sacrificed bulls & other animals (evidence of one human sacrifice) Minoan Culture’s Mysterious End Civilization ended around 1200 B.C. (unclear why it ended) 1700 B.C. a great disaster destroyed Minoan towns & cities but they rebuilt the city 1450 B.C. series of earthquakes followed by a volcanic eruption and a Tsunami, still went on to thrive for 300 years Why do you think the Minoans didn’t survive? Phoenicians Spread Trade & Civilization Phoenicians: seafaring people of Southwest Asia, 1100 B.C. established colonies in the Mediterranean City States included Byblos, Tyre, & Sidon Remarkable shipbuilders & seafarers Greek Historian Herodotus Phoenician Ship Commercial Outposts around the Mediterranean Built colonies along the shore of Africa, Sardinia, & Spain (30 miles apart-length that could be traveled in a day) Carthage: greatest Phoenician colony founded in 814 B.C. Traded goods they obtained as well as their own goods Phoenicia’s Great Legacy: The Alphabet Phonetic system of writing: one sign stands for one sound Word Alphabet comes from them Introduced their writing system to others, Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet Easier for people to learn to read & write Assyrians & Persian Empire took control of their civilization Ancient Trade Routes Trade connected civilization that were far apart Travel down Arabian Sea to Persian Gulf or Red Sea Exchanged products, information, goods, religious beliefs, art, and ways of living What is this called again? Chapter 3 Section 4 The Origins of Judaism Palestine, Canaan, Torah, Abraham, Monotheism, Covenant, Moses, Israel, Judah, Tribute Setting the Stage Phoenicians lived in a region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that was eventually called Palestine Canaan was the ancient home to the Hebrews Their history, legends, and moral laws were a major influence on Western culture as well as Christianity & Islam The Search for a Promised Land Palestine’s location made it a cultural crossroads (connected to Asia & Africa as two huge Empires) Connected to Mediterranean & Red Sea According to the Bible, Canaan was land promised to the Hebrews From Ur to Egypt Torah: early history written in the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible Abraham chosen as the “father” of the Hebrew people Lived in Ur in Mesopotamia around 1800 B.C. took his family/people and moved to Canaan. Descendants eventually moved to Egypt The God of Abraham Hebrews were Monotheists Monotheism: belief in a single god “Yahweh” was their god, not a physical being so no physical images were made of him Covenant: promise from god to protect the Hebrews for their promise to obey Moses and the Exodus Hebrews move to Egypt due to drought and famine Originally treated with honor but eventually forced into slavery for their beliefs “Let My People Go” Hebrews fled Egypt between 1300 & 1200 B.C. called it “the Exodus” Remember it during Passover Moses led them out of slavery A New Covenant Traveling along the Sinai Peninsula, Moses stop to pray on top of the mountain to pray God gave Moses the Ten Commandments Became the civil and religious laws of Judaism Formed a new covenant The Land and People of the Bible Wandered for 40 years before resettling in Canaan Organized into 12 tribes Judges would be chosen to provide Judicial and Military leadership during a crisis Hebrew Law Women duty was to raise her children and provide moral leadership Rules that regulated social & religious behaviors Code interpreted by prophets Duty to worship God and live justly with one another The Kingdom of Israel Canaan was a hard place to live (arid desert, rocky wilderness, grassy hills, dry, hot, & had little water) Expanded north and south Saul and David Establish a Kingdom Interacted with Philistines another group in the area that threatened their position in the land Judah was the only large tribe left (term Judaism) 1020 to 922 B.C. Hebrews united under 3 kings: Saul, David, & Solomon Kingdom called Israel Saul and David Establish a Kingdom Continued Saul first king chosen for driving out the Philistines Seen as a jealous man, portrayed a “tragic man” Son-in-law; David took over Very popular leader, establish Jerusalem, & founded a dynasty Solomon Builds the Kingdom 962 B.C. Solomon, David’s son, took the thrown Powerful Hebrew king, built a trade empire with the Phoenicians Beautified Jerusalem, built a great temple in honor of God Also built a royal palace The Kingdom Divides Solomon’s building required high taxes and strained the finances Forced labor caused discontent Northern Jews revolted & in 922 B.C. divided the kingdom in two Israel was in the north, Judah was in the south Confusing relationship The Babylonian Captivity 738 B.C. both kingdoms began paying tribute “peace money” to Assyria 725 B.C. Assyrians attacked 722 B.C. conquered kingdom of Israel The Babylonian Captivity Continued Judah held out but was eventually conquered by Babylonians King Nebuchadnezzar attacked and the Jerusalem fell in 586 B.C. Exile in Babylon, Ezekiel urged them to keep their religion alive Persian King Cyrus the Great allowed them to return in 539 B.C.