English as a global language:
 the place of English: as a lingua franca
 the number of English speakers: 600-700 million speak English;
in Asia alone, 100 million children are learning English.
 How English got there: a colonial history, economics
(globalization), travel, information exchange (academic
discourse; the Internet), popular culture (music, movies)
 Varieties of English: inner circle, outer circle, and expanding
circle; for specific or general purposes
Reasons of learning a second/foreign language
 Academic: to pursue degrees or certificates (* only a small portion in fact)
 Non-academic:
(a) to survive in Target Language community e.g. talking to neighbors,
helping children at school, or carrying out daily functions effectively
(b) English for specific purpose (ESP): as to apply in work
(c) Culture: to know about the target community
 Miscellaneous: to learn for pleasure, for integrating into a culture or to be
forced to
To understand students’ need and motivation of learning a language is
crucial for successful learning and teaching.
Advantages children benefit from learning a foreign
 Children’s greater potential for developing accurate
pronunciation, accent and fluency.
 Children’s favorable attitude towards a language and its
culture, either their mother tongue or a second language.
 Children’s less mental barriers of learning than adults
 Children’s learning two languages simultaneously without
suffering from inter-lingual interference
 But “learners of different ages have different characteristics” is
more preferable than the critical hypothesis. Besides, accurate
pronunciation is not the most important goal of language
learning but a necessary or desirable goal. There are also other
factors that determine the effectiveness of one’s language
learning such as teacher’s language competence, the learning
environment and so on.
What is a good English learner/teacher?
A Good learner of English is
 Willing to experiment
 Willing to listen
 Willing to ask questions
 Willing to think about how to learn
 Independent/responsible
What is a good English teacher?
According to Brown (2001), a good language teacher is
characterized by
i) technical knowledge—understanding linguistics;
grasping basic principles of language learning and
teaching; language proficiencies in speaking, reading,
writing and listening; knowledge about language
learning process through one’s own experience;
understanding the relationship between culture and
language and knowledge of latest development of
language teaching and learning.
ii) Pedagogical skills---well-informed
language teaching approaches; teaching
techniques; ability in lesson plan design and
other classroom behavior management
iii) Interpersonal skills.
iv) Personal qualities.
Important terms in TESOL
 TESOL—an acronym for teaching English to speakers of other
languages, used, particularly in the USA, to describe the
teaching of English in situations where it is either a second
language or a foreign language.
 TEFL—an acronym for teaching English as a foreign language,
used to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is
a foreign language.
 TESL—an acronym for teaching English as a second language,
used either to describe the teaching of English in situations
where it is a second language or to refer to any situation where
English is taught to speakers of other languages.
ESL—an abbreviation for English as a second language
such as in Singapore
EFL— an abbreviation for English as a foreign
language such as Japan
 Deductive learning of grammar— is an approach to
language learning in which learners are taught rules and
given specific information about a language. They then
apply these rules when they use the language.
 it is widely used in EFL contexts where exposure to the
target language is limited and the length of instruction
time is short. (e.g. GTM, adult learners, FI/analytic
learners, EFL contexts)
 Inductive learning— is an approach to language learning
in which learners are not taught grammatical or other types
of rules directly but are left to discover or induce rules from
their experience of using the language.
 It is time-consuming and applicable to young learners in
natural settings such as ESL contexts.
Performance and competence
Performance-- a person’s actual use of language;
how a person uses his knowledge of a language in
producing and understanding sentences.
Competence-- a person’s knowledge of a
the Acquisition-learning hypothesis by Stephen Krashen(1941-)
Acquisition vs. learning
Acquisition--the processes by which people
naturally develop proficiency in a language
Learning-- the processes by which people
formally develop language proficiency.
Bottom-up processing vs. Top-down processing
Top-down processing—a way in which humans analyze
and process language as part of the process of
comprehension and learning by making use of previous
knowledge (higher-level knowledge) in analyzing and
processing information which is received such as one’s
expectations, experience, schemata in reading the text.
Bottom-up processing— a way making use principally of
information which is already present in the data (words,
sentences, etc.) such as understanding a text mainly by
analyzing the words and sentences in the text itself.
Teacher-centered vs. learner-centered teaching
Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching— a teaching
style in which instruction is closely managed and
controlled by the teacher, where students often respond
in unison to teacher questions, and where whole-class
instruction is preferred to other methods.
Learner-centered teaching— methods of teaching
which emphasizes the active role of students in learning,
tries to give learners more control over what and how
they learn and encourages learners to take more
responsibility for their own learning. It is encouraged by
many current teaching approaches.
Target language vs. native language
Target language—the language which a person is
Native language— a first language or mother
tongue which is acquired first.
Pair work Activity

English Teaching Methodology