Session 2
What do we mean by ‘methodology’?
What do we mean by
 Aims:
In this session we will explore the meaning of
‘methodology’ , and consider different methodological
frameworks for TESOL. We will look also at the Postmethod condition and what effects does it have on
language teaching?
Methods, Approaches, Procedures
 Task 1:
What does ‘methodology’ mean to you? What
words, images, and ideas come to mind when you
think of methodology? If someone asked you to
describe your own preferred methodology, what
would you say?
 In groups of 3-4 discuss your ideas for few minutes,
then we will take some feedback as a whole group.
Methods, Approaches, Procedures
 These terms are miss-used in the literature.
(Pennycook, 1989)
 These terms are somewhat vague.
 Prabhu (1990) thought of a method as both classroom
activities and the theory that informs them.
Anthony (1963)concept of method
Approach: a set of
assumptions dealing with
the nature of language,
learning, and teaching.
Method: an overall plan for
systematic presentation of
language based on a
selected approach.
Techniques: specific
classroom activities
consistent with a method,
and therefore in harmony
with an approach as well.
Richards and Rogers (1986)
 They revised and extended
the original Anthony’s
method and technique.
 A method is theoretically
related to an approach, is
determined by a design,
and is practically realised
in procedure.
 Method is seen as an
umbrella term to capture
redefined approaches,
designs, and procedures .
Methods, Approaches, Procedures
 Approach: refers to theories about the nature of
language and language learning which are the source
of the way things are done in the classroom and which
provide reasons for doing them.
 Method: is the practical realisation of an approach.
 Procedure: is an ordered sequence of techniques
Popular and traditional methods
 Grammar-translation method.
 Audio-lingual method.
 Communicative language teaching.
 Task-based language learning.
 Lexical approach
Failing Methods
 Despite their diversity, all methods have one thing in
common. They all assume that there is a single set of
principles which will determine whether or not
learning takes place. Thus, they all propose a single set
of precepts for teacher and learner classroom
behaviour, and assert that if these principles are
faithfully followed, they will result in learning for all.
Why are methods no longer the
Brown (2002, p. 10)
1. Methods are too prescriptive, assuming too much about a
context before the context has been identified.
2. Methods are quite distinctive at the early stage and rather
indistinguishable from each other at later stages
3. One cannot determine which one is best through
empirical research
4. Methods are often the creation of the powerful center and
become vehicles of “linguistic imperialism”
The Post Method Era
 Kumaravadivelu (1994, 2006) suggests what is needed
is not alternative methods, but ‘an alternative to
 He suggests 10 macrostrategies as broad guidelines,
based on which teachers can generate their own
situation-specific, need-based microstrategies or
classroom techniques.
Post Method Era
Maximize learning opportunities
Facilitate negotiated interaction
Minimize perceptual mismatches
Activate intuitive heuristics
Foster language awareness
Contextualize linguistic input
Integrate language skills
Promote learner autonomy
Raise cultural consciousness
Ensure social relevance
Next week
 Frameworks for TESOL , 3 Ps
Reading from J. Willis (1996) challenge and change in
language teaching
 CLT,
Reading from Richards and Rogers (1985)
And Stephan Bax , the end of CLT (2003)
These will be available on the website

Advanced Methodology for TESOL-1