Chapter 12
Using Technology for Assessing and Evaluating
Student Learning and Instructional Practices
Chapter Outline
• Authentic Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes
• Developing a District- or School-Level Assessment
System
• Curriculum Mapping
• Developing an Assessment System
• Scoring Guides (Rubrics)
• Standards-Based Scoring Guides
• Tools for Implementing Authentic Assessments
• Electronic Portfolios
• Quiz or Survey Tools
• Spreadsheets
Chapter Questions
• What does a leader need to emphasize for curriculum
mapping to serve as the foundation for developing a
comprehensive assessment system?
• What are the professional development opportunities
a leader should use to enhance and support
knowledge and skills in relation to the curriculum
mapping process and a locally developed
assessment system?
• How can leaders help others understand that rubrics
are explicitly tied to academic standards and
objectives and can be used to provide individual as
well as aggregate feedback regarding knowledge and
skills?
Chapter Questions, con’t
• How can leaders help others seek out commercial as
well as freely available tools for use in managing and
implementing curriculum mapping and assessment
processes?
• What are the skills leaders need to leverage
technology for collecting, aggregating, and reporting
assessment data for locally developed assessment
systems?
Authentic Assessment of
Student Learning Outcomes
Neill and colleagues (2004) state that schools and
districts should be responsible for assessing the
extent to which students learn agreed-upon
knowledge (i.e., academic standards) at both a
conceptual and an application level. Standardized
tests offer one means of assessment. However, a
more complete picture of student learning can be
seen when a combination of qualitative and
quantitative methods that directly align to academic
standards is included in a school, district, and/or state
assessment system.
Developing a District- or
School-Level Assessment
System
As educators, we look to state or national
grade-level standards to guide our
efforts in curriculum mapping—the first
part of the assessment system
process—and assessment planning.
Developing a school- or district-level
assessment system starts with
curriculum mapping.
Curriculum Mapping
(1) Creating the curriculum map by asking teachers to
document month by month the overarching
elements of the actual curriculum being taught
(2) Reviewing the curriculum map to identify
instructional gaps and overemphasized academic
standards
(3) Determining immediate and long-term solutions to
addressing instructional gaps and overemphasized
academic standards
Developing an Assessment
System
An assessment system benefits students and teachers
by using multiple measures, including qualitative
measures, to view student achievement levels both
individually and at aggregate levels (i.e., class,
school, or district, depending on which levels are
included in the assessment system). These
comprehensive data, which can include standardized
test results, allow teachers to identify student and
class strengths and weaknesses and adapt
instruction accordingly. One qualitative measure that
can be used is authentic assessments.
Documenting Alignment
(1) Alignment between assessments and standards should be explicit.
(2) Number of assessments should be manageable.
(3) Assessments should be feasible to implement; when possible,
common assessments should be created that can be used by
multiple teachers of the same grade level within a school or
district.
(4) Data collection should be streamlined using scoring guides or
rubrics and electronic means for storing, aggregating, and
reporting data.
(5) Multiple methods including both qualitative and quantitative
assessments should be included.
Scoring Guides (Rubrics)
• Is your assessment system fair?
• Is your assessment instrument accurate?
• Does your assessment instrument produce
consistent results?
• How well do your data reflect the characteristics
of all your students (free of bias)?
Rubrics and English Language
Learners
The underlying premise for building a rubric is to improve
student learning. By clarifying objectives via a rubric,
teachers are providing students with a “road map” to
where they are going in relation to academic standards or
learning objectives. This is good practice for all students
but is especially helpful for English language learners or
other learners who are struggling with comprehending
class materials and instructions.
However, new instructional strategies often need to be
taught, so it is important to provide rubrics to students
consistently over the course of an academic year so they
become more aware of the type of information the rubric is
communicating and how to best use the assignment rubric
as a tool for meeting expectations and self-evaluating their
own work.
Tools for Implementing
Authentic Assessments
Locally developed assessments tied to academic standards
provide a means for collecting assessment data that can
provide individual feedback to a student as well as
aggregate (e.g., class or grade-level) data to teachers
and school administrators.
The key to developing an assessment system is that it must
be manageable and assessment instruments must be
feasible to implement.
Leveraging technology for collecting, aggregating, and
reporting assessment data creates a more manageable
and feasible approach to a locally developed assessment
system.
Electronic Portfolios
One of the most exciting developments in the
school reform movement is the use of
alternative forms of assessment to evaluate
student learning, and one of the most popular
forms of authentic assessment is the use of
portfolios. The point of the portfolio is to
provide a “richer picture” of a student’s
abilities, and to show growth over time.
(Barrett, 2002, p. 7)
Electronic Portfolios Issues
for School Leaders
(1) Mechanisms for financing,
managing, & implementing
the selected tool(s)
(2) Privacy issues related to
student identity & work
(3) Professional development
opportunities for teachers
(4) Potential interface of tools
with existing grading
systems, school Web sites,
and/or course management
systems
(5) Ability to develop scoring
rubrics that reference
academic standards
(6) Capacity to generate useful
reports aggregating data
from common assessments
at a class, grade, school,
and/or district level
(7) Ability for students to
maintain, expand, and
enhance an electronic
portfolio over time to
demonstrate growth as well
as use for purposes such as
seeking employment,
support for scholarship or
other leadership
opportunities, & admissions
to college
Quiz or Survey Tools
Web-based quiz or survey tools can be used in
multiple ways to collect assessment data. In a
traditional sense, they can be used to
administer locally developed classroom tests.
Quiz tools often have the option to
automatically grade multiple-choice, multipleanswer, true-or-false, and fill-in-the-blank
items. More sophisticated tools provide the
option for immediate feedback to learners.
Data are exported in a spreadsheet format for
easy review of individual as well as overall
class results.
Key Principles
for Leaders to Know
1. Curriculum mapping serves as the foundation for
developing a comprehensive assessment system.
2. Professional development opportunities should be
used to enhance and support knowledge and skills
in relation to the curriculum mapping process and a
locally developed assessment system.
3. Rubrics that are explicitly tied to academic standards
and objectives can be used to provide individual as
well as aggregate feedback regarding knowledge
and skills.
Key Principles
for Leaders to Know, con’t
4. Seek out commercial as well as freely available tools
for use in managing and implementing curriculum
mapping and assessment processes.
5. Leverage technology for collecting, aggregating, and
reporting assessment data for locally developed
assessment systems.
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