The Controversy
of Intergenerational
Trauma
&
Loretta Gurule
NorthernTherapy
New Mexico College
Department of Integrated Humanities and Social Sciences
Concentration in Psychology
•Exploratory Research
•Population
Critical to the Traditions and
Culture of Indigenous or Native Communities-mainly literature review methods
•Investigation of Historical Trauma
•Integration of Therapies
Indigenous Groups
Other Ethnicities
Best Sampling:
Survey Questionnaire
Oral History
Literature Review
Yields Most Unbiased Results
Not Utilized in this Study:
Limited Time/Small Sample Size
•Survey – Questionnaire
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Various Ethnicities)
Northern New Mexico Pueblo Indian
Snowball Sampling
One Shot Oral Historical Narrative
•Total Sample Size
N = 45
26.67% Indian Descent
73.33% Other Ethnicities
Quantitative
Exploratory Study
Age
Intergenerational Trauma Suffered by Diverse
Indigenous Groups in Northern New Mexico
 Intergenerational Trauma
Historical Events
Emerging Behaviors in Subsequent Generations Due to
the Loss of Culture, People, Land, and Families
 Psychological Healing (Effective Therapy)
Retention of Culture and Tradition
Process Toward Healing
Adaptation to Diverse Cultures and Traditions
Theory
Hypothesis
• Older Generation (Most Affected)
Loss of Children, Traditions,
Culture, Land, and Families
Higher Negative Emotion
• Younger Generation (Less Affected)
Acclimated into Western Society
Adjusted Between Two Worlds
Exhibit Lower Negative Emotion
Succumb to Trauma Through Generational Narratives
• Null Hypothesis
Intergenerational Trauma Does Not Influence Current
Attitudes and Behaviors in our Communities
Current Therapies Encompass Convention and Tradition
Data Collection
•Limitations of Data
• Psychology 321 Survey Pretest
• Small Sample Size
• Insufficient Timeframe
• Observation/Replication (Not Possible)
Historical – Previous Generations Unavailable
Biased – Large Specific Population;
Not Population of Interest
• Collective Information Does Not Represent Individual
Ethics
• Strongly Implemented
National Institute of Health (NIH) Mandates
Ensured Confidentiality Measures
Use for Course Psychology 421 and Seminar
2
1
2
0
0
7
0
12
2
1
3
2
2
6
2
18
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
Total
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
4
4
3
9
4
2
18
2
42
•Disparity Between Participants
Participants (42)
Hispanics (18) versus Indians (9)
Mode (Most Popular) Ages 30 – 59
Participants
Santa Clara
%
•Prejudism
Bicultural Issues
Ceremonial Traditions
Oppression of Non-Natives
Imposition of Beliefs on Other Cultures
•Traditions/Culture
Shape Our Identities
•Religion/God
Guidance
•Tolerance/Respect
For All Involved
Brief Historical Trauma Timeline
Strongly Agree
1598 - Spanish Conquest
1680 - Pueblo Indian Revolt
1780 - Disease – Population Devastation
1821 - Mexican Occupation
1846 - New Mexico Annexation -United States
1879 - Railroad/Albuquerque Indian School
Total
4.55%
1
1
San Juan (Ohkay-Owingeh)
13.64%
3
3
Taos
27.27%
6
8
LANL - Various Ethnicities
Total
54.55%
12
22
33
45
•“Strongly Agree” Responses
“…strong attachment to my culture and traditions.”
Taos Pueblo with 6 of 8 individuals or 75%
LANL’s Various Ethnicities with 12 of 33 individuals or 36%
•Further Research to Confirm Hypothesis
Elderly Responses
More Diverse Population
Preferred Characteristics (%)
Characteristic
Respect
Family Connectedness
Forgiveness
Self-Identity
Religion/Spirituality
Harmony/Balance
Sharing/Teaching Life Skills
Accomplishment
Identify/Participate in Traditions
Social Support/Encouragement
Sense of Belonging
Protect/Respect Natural Environment
Understanding Different Cultures
Traditional Healing
Adapting to Environment
Scientific/Medical Healing
******************************
Additional Qualitative Comments
Literature Review
Table 2.
Univariate Results
(Attachment to Culture/Traditions)
(Strongly Agree)
• Therapeutical Integration
Recapture Culture/Traditions
Healing Through Acknowledging the Past
0
0
2
0
0
5
0
7
<65
•Sample Comparison of Age and Ethnicity
Update/Add to Current Theories
Address Source of Intergenerational Trauma
Address Current Therapies
• Interconnectedness
17-29 30-39 40-59 59-64
Anglo
Bicultural
Indian
Spanish
Mexican
Hispanic
Other
Total
• Goal of Study
Effectiveness through Acknowledgment
Unresolved Grief
Anger
Source of Violence
Self-Esteem
Self- Identification
•Recurring Theme (Spanish Conquest)
“Brutality and Disgusting” Emotions
“Past is Past”
“Heal by Helping Each Other to Overcome
Table 1.
Sample Comparison
(Age/Ethnicity)
Introduction
•
“Past was hard, but the future brings change”
Media (1)
(1)
“Put that aside and help one another”;
“surrounded by different cultures” (1)
“Saddening” (2)
Elder's (5)
Grandparents/Parents “brutality was disgusting” (3)
“Suffering and humiliation by the older
generation to help better our lives today” (1)
Family/Friends (6)
“Understand the importance of the past, but it
is the past and we need to learn from it and
move on. If we proceed down this path of
dwelling on the past it will only hinder us from
healing.” (1)
Schools (5)
Confused culture in NM; animosity toward
conquerors and ancestors. (1)
Books/Schools (11)
•Random Sampling
•Proposed Research Methods
Historical Loss Scale
Historical Loss Associated Symptoms Scale
(Generations Detached from Historical Trauma)
Table 3.
Storytellers and Comments on New Mexico’s
Conquest by the Spanish.
Storyteller(s)
Responses (Quotes)
Native American
Conventional
Traditional
Literature Review, Cont…
Qualitative
Statistics/Sampling
Abstract
% of
# of
Preference People
86.36%
38
75.00%
33
63.64%
28
59.09%
26
56.82%
25
52.27%
23
43.18%
19
34.09%
15
25.00%
11
20.45%
9
20.45%
9
20.45%
9
15.91%
7
13.64%
6
11.36%
5
4.55%
2
******************************
Carlisle Experiment of 1879
•Purpose
(Daily Reflections)
36% - Loss of Traditional Language
34% - Loss of Culture
24% - Anger Toward Historical Losses
49% - Disturbed by Losses
46% - Alcohol Dependency
22% - Uncomfortable Among Whites
35% - Distrusted White Population
******************************
Impact on Native American Population
• Alcohol Abuse and Illicit Drugs
14.1% Native American
10.4% Latinos
9.5% African American
• High Rates of Alcohol-Related Mortality
Chronic Liver Disease
Deaths from Cirrhosis
• Double Unemployment Rate
******************************
Current Traditional Therapies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Native Identity Scale (NIS) Studies
Walking On, Community-Based Research
White Bison Wellbriety Movement
Gathering of Native Americans (GONA)
Positive Indian Parenting (PIP)
Red Road to Wellbriety
Journeys of the Circle
Results/Conclusions
•Limited Sample Size, Population,Timeframe
Consequences of Intergenerational Trauma
Affect All Ethnicities
•Aspects Affecting Indigenous Communities
Intergenerational Trauma
Individual Experiences
Environment
Current Culture and Traditions
•Integrating Traditional/Conventional Therapy
Respect
Family Connectedness
Forgiveness
Self-Identification
Religion/Spirituality
Harmony/Balance
•Generalizability
Eliminate Traditions and Cultural Identity
Assimilate into Euro-American Society
•Boarding School Era
Lack of Affection for the Children
Disrespect of Language and Religion
Emotional Abuse, Shame, Humiliation in Being Indian
•Unresolved Grief/Trauma
Transmission - Subsequent Generations
Acknowledging Trauma
Integration of Traditional and Conventional Therapy
******************************
1898 Conquest of Puerto Rico
Educate – All People of Color
U.S. Policy and Economic Interests
Protection from Inferior Beings
Necessitated Civilization - Gain Potential Benefit
Scattering of Individuals
“to break up their Spanish language”.
Ensuring Control Over Indigenous Opposition
Cultural Identity Lost
Strangers in Own as Well as Eastern Culture
******************************
Oral History
Bicultural – Hispanic/Indian
Discrimination by Native Against Non-Native
Loss of Traditions/Ceremonial Activities
Family Unit – Segregated from Native Culture/Traditions
******************************
Theories - Trauma
•Popular Choices of Study
*Respect
*Forgiveness
*Family Connectedness
*Self Identity *Harmony/Balance *Religion/Spirituality
Current Issues
All Aspects of Life Through the Generations
Individual Experience
Rationale for Abuse/Violence in Current Family Unit
•Ascending Order
Characteristics Preferred
Therpeutical Integration
Transmission
Parent’s Suffering
Elders’ Description of Trauma
Parenting Styles
•Traditional Versus Conventional
Scientific/Medical Healing Less Popular at 4.55%
Confirmation of Hypothesis – Traditional Preferable
Trauma and Unresolved Grief
Vague and Null - Lack of Actual Observation
All Ethnicities Suffer Trauma
Varying Degrees/Domination
Collectively versus Individually
•Emerging Behaviors and Attitudes
Substance Use/Abuse
Alcoholism
Diseases/Death
Violence
Lack of Self-Esteem
Lack of Self-Identification
Unemployment
Discrimination (All Communities)
•Traditions - Subsequent Generations
Acclimation into Euro-American Society
Adjusted to Living Between Two Worlds
•Further Research
Additional Insight into Trauma
Consequences to Indigenous Communities
References
Babbi, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. California: Wadsworth, 2013. Print.
Brown-Rice, K. (1983). Examining the theory of historical trauma
among
native
americans. The Professional Counselor, 3(3), 117-130.
(Confidential, personal communication, October 21, 2013).
Gonzales, J. and Bennett, R. (2011) Conceptualizing Native Identity with a
Multidimensional Model. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental
Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 17(2). 22-42.
Navarro-Rivera, P. (2006). Acculturation under duress: The Puerto
Rican
experience at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School 1898-1918. Centro Journal,
18(1), 222-259.
Robbins, R. R. (2012). A Native American voice in multicultural psychology finding
healing in an interpersonal tapestry. (special issue on Native
American/American Indian Culture) (Essay). Journal Of Multicultural
Counseling And Development, (2), 93.
Rybak, C., & Decker-Fitts, A. (2009) Understanding Native American healing
practices. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. 22(3), 333-342.
doi:10.1080/09515070903270900.dex.php.
Sandos, J.S.. Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of Pueblo Indian History. New
Mexico: Clearlight Publishers, 1992, 1998.
Print.
Satterlee, A. (2002). The Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Acknowledgements
Special thanks to all who made this poster possible – Individual
providing oral history; Los Alamos National Laboratory
employees and their efforts in “snowball” sampling, the Student
Success Center, NNMC instructors who have contributed to my
education, and the exceptional perseverance and instruction
provided by Stephanie Amedeo-Marquez.
Current Emotional Stimuli - Conduit of Historical Trauma
For more Information contact:
[email protected]
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[Poster Title] - Northern New Mexico University